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What are nanomaterials/nanoparticles ? Use of terms e.g. nanomaterials vis-à-vis nanotechnology ? Why nanomaterials hence why nanotechnology ? Developments related to Nanotechnology, so far and future predictions.
“ NANO” is derived from the Greek word for “ dwarf “.
One nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, 10-9 m.
A human hair is approximately 80,000 nm wide A red blood cell approximately 7000 nm wide. Population of India is ~ 1 Billion (109). Each one of us 10-9 in 1 (Indian nation) or a “nano”
Generally Number of atoms ~ 102 – 106 Bounded with in a region < 100 nm
0- D: Nanoparticles, Quantum dots 1- D: Nanowires, Nanotubes 2- D: Nanofilms
Nanoparticles Particles having one of their dimension in the range of 1nm to 100nm. Cubes Spheres Rods .
magnetic or electrical properties) .2 nm) Because it is in this range (particularly at lower end) that materials can have different or enhanced properties compared with the same materials at a larger size. Two main reasons for this change in behavior are An increased relative surface area ( results in corresponding increase in chemical reactivity. useful as catalysts to improve the efficiency) Dominance of quantum effects ( significantly change a material‟s optical.Size Range of Nanoparticles The size range that holds so much interest is typically from 100 nm down to atomic level ( 0.
big 106 M =1000 km .
bigger 108M (1 lakh Km) View our planet and around .
Largest picture taken ~1026M .Still bigger 109 M (1 million Km) The moon's orbit aound the Earth. the furthest humans have ever travelled.
normal Size 1 meter (100 M) A few localized plants .
Smaller Size 10 centimeters (10-1M) A leaf of a plant .
01 meters) A fly on a leaf .Still Smaller Size 1 centimeter (10-2 meter = 0.
Need magnification Size 1000 micrometers (10-3M) An eye The fly's eye is made of hundreds of tiny facets.web.cern. source: CERN http://microcosm.ch/microcosm . resembling a honeycomb.
cern.web. source: CERN http://microcosm.ch/microcosm . Image necessitates an electron microscope. Each facet is a small lens with light sensitive cells underneath.Electron Microscope Size 100 micrometers (10-4M) fly's eye is made of hundreds of smaller eyes.
ch/microcosm .web.cern. source: CERN http://microcosm.Micro Size 10 micrometer (10-5M) In between the facets are bristles which give sensory input from the surface of the eye.
ch/microcosm .cern.100 nm Size 100 nanometers (10-7M) Further enlragement of the briste source: CERN http://microcosm.web.
ch/microcosm . source: CERN http://microcosm.cern. It contains the genetic material needed to duplicate the fly.web.10 nm Size 10 nanometers (10-8M) At the centre of the cell is a tightly coiled molecule called DNA.
ch/microcosm .web.cern.1 nm Size 1 nanometer source: CERN http://microcosm.
000 – 10.000 nm White Blood Cell 10.1 nm DNA (width) 2 nm Protein 5 – 50 nm Virus 75 – 100 nm Materials internalized by cells < 100 nm Bacteria 1.000 nm .Life Perspective Atom 0.
depending on their size. Conventional materials have grains varying in size anywhere from 100‟s of micron (m) to millimeters (mm). which in turn comprise many atoms. and hence in 1nm. . there may be 35 atoms. Nanomaterials (nanocrystalline materials) are materials possessing grain sizes on the order of 1-100 nm. depending on the atomic radii.What are Nanomaterials ? All materials are composed of grains. comprises 10Ao. 1 nm therefore. The average size of an atom is of the order of 1-2 Ao in radius. These grains are usually invisible to the naked eye.
e. erosion-resistant.g. . wear-resistant. such as a thin films or surface coatings. precipitates. ductile at high temperatures. colloids and quantum dots.• Nanocrystalline materials are exceptionally strong. corrosionresistant and chemically very active. Classification Materials that have one dimension in the nanoscale ( extended in the other two dimensions ) are layers. Materials that are nanoscale in two dimensions ( and extended in one dimension ) include nanowires and nanotubes. hard. Materials that are nanoscale in three dimensions are particles.
design. . one nanometer being equal to 10A or one billionth of a meter). at the atomic and molecular levels. and systems through control of matter at the nanometer scale (1-100 nanometers. and the exploitation of novel phenomena and properties of matter at that scale. manipulation. that is. creation. synthesis. devices. and application of functional materials.Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the study.
electron microscope. . Probably. AFM.g. (a) the experimental evidence of (i) existence of nano structures (ii) their useful properties as compared to the conventional materials (b) development of synthesis processes and extra fine tools (which can manipulate the structure at nano level) (c) development of analytical instruments e. and other related experimental facilities led to development of „nanotechnology‟ in recent years. STM etc.Nanotechnology vis-à-vis Nanomaterials „Nanotechnology‟ may be new but „Nanomaterials‟ are not.
Examples : Example from „nature‟ Very strong shells. 500 million years old . a mollusk (shell fish) Structure fabricated from nanoparticles Strong nano structured bricks of CaCO3 glued together by a carbohydrate-protein mix. by The abalone.
in ~ 1883. Colours of windows of the medieval cathedrals attributes of metal nanoparticles in glass Photography (by films) developed. An artifact from this period. Lycurguse Cup (British Museum. . representing pixels of the image.D. The photographic film consists of an emulsion of silver halide which on irradiation changes into nanoparticles of silver. London) Soda lime glass with silver and gold nanoparticles Colour of cup changes from green to deep red when a light source is placed inside it. – Roman Glassmakers fabricated glasses having nanometals. - - 4th Century A. by George Eastman (who formed Kodak Films) depends upon Silver nanoparticles.
1908) – explanation of colour of glasses on metal size and its type.3 nm 4.5 nm . Gustav Mie (Annalen der Physik. 2. In 1857.8 nm 5. Michael Faraday. In 1908. published a paper on color of church windows as affected by metal particles.2 nm 4.
Next Important Milestone was the prophetic and visionary lecture of Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize winner in Physics in 1965) in 1959 in a meeting of American Physical Society “There is plenty of room at bottom” .
atom by atom.The principles of physics. with huge amounts of room to spare. It is not an attempt to violate any laws. You would be able to write the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin." . in principle that can be done. as far as I can see. it is something. And you would be able to build things. it has not been done because we are too big. You would be able to build miniature machines so small that they could manipulate at a nearly molecular scale. do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. but in practice.
.Richard Feynman Envisioned Etching lines a few atoms wide with beam of electronsprediction of electron –beam lithography (used today to make silicon chips) Manipulating individual atoms to make new small structures with very different properties (accompalished today by scanning tunneling microscope) Building circuits on the scale of nanometers that can be used as elements on more powerful computers. Existence of nanostructures in biological systems.
thesis on Mossbauer Spectroscopic studies of natural iron products) was termed work on superparamagnetic particles.D.Eightees people started calling them nanoparticles.Feynman lecture – 1959 Activities until Seventees (~1980) on small particles were still not termed as “nanotechnology” Example : (my personal experience) . .Somewhere in mid. work on small magnetic particles (~200A or 20 nm) (Ph. (postdoctoral work on Iron rusts in Sweden during 198283 still referred them superparamagnetic) .During 1972-77.
when Norio Taniguchi. a researcher at the University of Tokyo. Thus it was during mid seventees to mid eightees when “nanotechnology” started taking shape. at IBM in the USA. a technique called Electron Beam Litography was used to create nanostructures and devices as small as 40-70 nm in the early 1970s. which aimed to develop tools to create smaller ( and therefore faster and more complex) electronic devices on silicon chips. Japan used it to refer to the ability to engineer materials precisely at the nanometer level. Indeed. The primary driving force for miniaturization at that time came from the electronics industry.Nanotechnology The term “ nanotechnology” was not used until 1974. .
1980‟s saw : Emergence of appropriate methods of fabrication of nanostructures Inventions of Scanning tunneling Microscope (STM) (Nobel Prize in 1986) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) Important tools for viewing. characterizing and atomic manipulations of nanostructures .
research and development in nanoscience and nanotechnology” Formed the basis of funding . In 1996 : National Science foundation (USA) with other Government Agencies Study on “worldwide status of trends.
Capacity building in this upcoming area of research . materials. . especially in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water.Development of products and processes. Department of Science & Technology. etc. Aims . N. Delhi “Nano Science and Technology Initiative (NSTI)” An allocation of Rs. drug delivery. 1000 crore (200 millon US$) for 5 years has been made. sensors.Indian Scenario Government of India launched a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) in May 2007.
2 nm 4. .3 nm Larger Band Gap 4. CdSe 2.5 nm Smaller Band Gap Courtesy of Bawendi and Coworkers.SIZE DEPENDANCE… ZnS CdSe/ZnS Core-Shell nanoparticles have size-dependent optical properties.8 nm 5.
POTENTIAL MARKET SIZE Nanotechnology related goods and services – by 2010-2015 USD trillions Other Conservati ve case NSF 0.0 47 Source : National Science Foundation.1 Manufacturing Pharmaceuticals Aggressiv 17% 28% Electronics e case 2. AtomWorks .5 Aerospace 9% Materials 6% Chemical 31% 9% Estimate 1. In Realis.
Change is Coming The combined impacts of nanotechnology will equal the Industrial Revolutions of the last two centuries — but with all that change compressed into just a few years. .
The Next Big Step Nanotechnology Computers Automobiles Railways Steam Engines (Middle Ages) Time .