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HSE RISK MANAGEMENT IN

HYDROCARBON INDUSTRY

H P Singh
Ex. Executive Director
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.
Gujarat Refinery, INDIA
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THIS PRESENTATION COVERS……..

■ ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN
HYDROCARBON INDUSTRY
■ PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT- A
SYSTEM APPROACH TO MINIMISE
BREAKDOWN AND ACCIDENTS
■ OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ISSUES

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GLOBAL ISSUES

■ Industrial & Economic Growth

■ Role of Petroleum Industry

■ Global Competition

■ Health ,Safety & Environmental


( HSE ) issues

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CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY

■ Economic (profits, jobs, incomes and


livelihoods…)

■ Social (ethics, occupational health &

safety, community concern, investment


….)

■ Environmental (air/water/soil pollution,


waste management, habitat care, climate5
CLIMATE CHANGE

• Global Warming

• Rising Sea Levels

• Natural Calamities - draughts & floods

• Adaptability to new environment


conditions
• Threat to bio-diversity

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Green House
Effect

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IndianOil
Ozone Layer
Depletion

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IndianOil
IndianOil

Marine Pollution

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Environmental Risk-Business Imperatives

• Environmental threats perceived to be fall out


of industrialization
• Stringent Legal Frameworks – “Polluter Pays”
principle.
• Increased societal pressures due to increased
awareness
• Global conventions & action plans & expected
trade barriers
• Eco-friendly image enhances marketability of
product
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Environmental Risk-Business Imperatives

• Earth Summits / Kyoto Protocol


•United Nations Forum Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC)
•Joint Implementation (JI)

•Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

•Emission Trading (ET)

These have made the environmental issues


closely linked to Business Objectives

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Environmental Risk – Business Imperatives

 Industrial development is perceived as


the main contributor to environmental
pollution

 To meet the immediate business


objectives in the race of global
competition, adequate attention was
not given for environmental protection

 Environmental Pollution has surpassed


the recuperative capacity of eco-
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system and became a threat to
A Threat to Environment

 Industrial growth is directly linked to


energy consumption.

 Petroleum products continue to be


the major source of energy in the
developed and developing countries.

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Environment--Legal framework

 Public awareness of environmental


issues has put pressure on Government
and regulatory bodies world over and
has resulted in legal framework for
environment protection.

 India is a signatory of Basel Convention


on trans boundary movement and
control of Hazardous Waste.

 Compliance to strict environmental


regulations calls for additional
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Legal Framework - Indian Context

• The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution)


Act 1974
• The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution)
Act 1981
• The Environment Protection Act 1986

• Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling)


Rules 1989
• Public Liability Insurance Act 1991 etc.

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ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT

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Waste Water Control

Reduction in generation of waste water


• Diversion of Phenolic streams into
Desalter
• Diversion of pump cooling water to
process cooling water system
• Controlled draining of tanks

• Closed Blow down for recovery of oil

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Waste Water Control

Segregated Treatment
• Sour water stripping
• Spent Caustic stream
• Oily waste water
• Cooling Tower blowdown

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Waste Water Control

Others
• ETP with physical, chemical &
biological & tertiary treatments
• Advance technologies
TPI / DAF
H2 O2 / wet air oxidation for spent
caustic
Bio towers / Polishing ponds

• Recycle of treated effluent


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Gaseous Emission Control

• Use of low sulphur fuel (< 1.0% S')


• De-sulphurisation of fuel gas
• High efficiency Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU)
• Provision of taller Stacks for effective
dispersion.
• Provision of CO Boiler / Incinerator / SO2
Scrubber in FCC Units
• Provision of low NOx burners
• Stack monitoring
• Use of cyclone for FCC catalyst fines recovery
to control SPM. 20
Gaseous Emission control
Fugitive Emission Control
• Floating roof in storage tanks for crude and lighter
product services.
• Use of mechanical seals in pumps with
hydrocarbon services to arrest leakage of
hydrocarbons.
• Floating roof seals in crude tanks have been
replaced with double seal system. It is planned to
extend this to larger capacity tanks in phases.
• Adoption of improved treatment system like, TPI,
Closed ponds etc. 21
Gaseous Emission control
• Energy Conservation

• Pre flash columns / vessels in Distillation units.

• Furnace efficiency improvement through


installation of Air Pre-heaters and burner
modifications.
• Modernisation / Change in Column internals for
better fractionation
• Welded Plate heat exchanger in CRU.

• Heat exchanger train optimisation.


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• Excess air control in furnace
Gaseous Emission control

Energy Conservation
• Optimisation of stripping steam in columns

• Installation of additional tubes in convection


zone in furnaces etc.
• Technology up-gradation e.g. Soaker in Vis-
breaker.
• Catalyst changes, recovery of Hydrogen from
refinery gases etc.
• Gas turbine with heat recovery boiler in Power
Plant.
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• Advanced Process Control System.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

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CHALLENGES FOR OIL REFINERIES

 Oil refineries unavoidably generate Oily


sludge.

 Treatment of oily sludge in cost effective


manner is the challenge for refiners.

 Storage cost of sludge is around $35 - $40 per


tonne.

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Sources of waste generation in Petroleum
Industry

• Storage tanks for crude oil and


petroleum products

• Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP)

• Cleaning of process equipment

• Chemical sludge & catalyst

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Types of Waste

• Oily Sludge

• Chemical Sludge

• Bio-sludge

• Catalyst

• Canteen and other waste

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Waste Management Practices
1. Reduction at Source

2. Segregated handling of different


streams.

3. Modification of equipment &


technology.

4. Process/procedure modification

5. Substitution of raw materials.

6. Tightening the plant


operations/processes. 28
Waste Management Practices

1. Reduction at Source
• Chemical solubilisation

• In-situ cleaning

• Mechanical Handling

• Elimination of Chemical sludge

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Waste Management Practices

• Oil Recovery through melting pits


• Oil recovery through hydro-cyclone and centrifuges

2. Incineration

3. Storage in LDPE lined pits

4. Bio-remediation of residual oily sludge

5.Vermiculture technology for canteen and


other waste

6.Use of bio-sludge in cement industry as


fuel and as manure in agriculture field.30
Waste Minimisation
Issues and Strategies

 Reduction in sludge generation at


source
• Operation of side entry mixers

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Waste Minimisation (Reduction at source in Tanks
by operating SE Mixers at proper Swivel Angles ))

Sludge Profile in tanks

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Waste Minimisation ( Reduction at Source)
• Hot gas oil/solvent circulation in tanks

Hot Gas Oil

Crude Oil
Crude Oil

Crude Oil + Gas Oil

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Waste Minimisation( Mechanised handling and chemical
solubilisation)

• In-situ cleaning of storage tanks

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Process / Procedure Modification

• Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)


treatment of spent caustic
• Wet Air Oxidation process for
treatment of spent caustic
• Hydrofinishing technology for
treatment of wax in place of
acid/clay treatment

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Tightening plant operation/ Process

• Use of Fuel Oil additives to


minimize sediment deposits in
tanks with viscous fuel oil
fractions.
• Optimizing Plant operations to
restrict the formation of tarry
sediments to fractions where it is
desirable like asphalt and Bitumen.

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Bio-remediation of oily sludge

A Biotechnological approach

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Bio-remediation of Oily Sludge

Indian Oil R&D Centre jointly with The Energy


and Resources Institute (TERI) have developed
microbial consortium of bacterial strains named
‘Oilivorous-S’, capable of bio-degrading
hazardous constituents of oily sludge

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OILIVOROUS - S
• Oilivorous-S contains five natural occurring
bacterial species.
• Oilivorous-S bacteria is non pathogenic to any
living thing.
• In nature Oilivorous-S can survive on oily sludge
crude oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon. Once
oily sludge (Total petroleum hydrocarbon) is
biodegraded these microbes die and their
population decrease.
• The shelf life of these microbes (during storage) at
4ºC is six months, at 30ºC two months, at 42ºC 20
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days, at 45ºC seven days.
Bio-remediation Project

• Lab scale production of bacterial consortium

• Small scale trial in field

• Scale up and Commercial production

• Plant scale trial

• Monitoring of ground water quality

About 10,000 Tonnes of sludge have been treated


and the process is continuing. 40
Cost and period of Treatment

•$15 - $30 per tonne of Oily Sludge

•6 to 8 months per batch of 1000 MT of sludge

(depending on volume of sludge, oil content and


meteorological conditions)

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OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH

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Ten leading work-related health problems

1. Occupational lung disease


2. Musculo skeletal injuries
3. Occupational cancers
4. Accidents.
5. Cardiovascular diseases
6. Reproductive disorders
7. Neurotoxic disorders
8. Noise-induced hearing loss
9. Occupational dermatitis
10.Psychological disorders
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ANNUAL WORLD INCIDENCE

• 2.7 billion work force

• 268 million non-fatal work accidents


3 missed work days for each
• 0.43 million fatal accidents causing death

• 1.7 million work related accidental deaths

• 60,000 fatal accidents in construction injury :


1 death every 10 minutes
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WORLD INCIDENCE

• 268 million work related injuries


• 160 million occupational disease
• 10% permanent disability
• ACCESS TO OHS : 50% in developed countries
5% in developing countries
• 10 million Chemicals : 2 lacs used by Industries
3000 : CHEMICALS undergone HAZOP study
no HAZOP on HUMAN SYSTEM

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OH SYSTEM
INTERACTION between PEOPLE and ENVIRONMENT

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SCOPE of ACTION for OCCUPATIONAL PHYSICIAN and
ENVIRONMENT OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENIST

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Legal/Administrative
Controls

Legal
-The Factories Act
-The Mines Act .
-The Employees State Insurance Act.

Administrative
-Job rotation.
-Training and education.
-Inculcate safe work practice.

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HEALTH HAZARDS in oil sector

Physical : Noise, Vibration, Light, Heat


Chemical : SO2, H2S, Cl2, CO, Benzene,
HC
Ergonomic Hazards
Behavioural Hazards
Biomedical Hazards

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ERGONOMICAL HAZARD
2nd leading cause of illness due to occupation

Body support system 50


Any undue stress, strain on any of these
support system will cause injury in long term –
Musculo Skeletal Disorder

An MSD is a
disorder of the
muscles, nerves,
tendons, joints,
ligaments, blood
vessels, cartilage or
spinal discs.
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HAND-ARM PROLONGED USE
VIBRATION of CHAIR

Must use correct


contact points 52
BASIC Rules of ERGONOMICS
• STRAIGHT BACK
• STRAIGHT EYE
• STRAIGHT WRIST
• BELLY BUTTON
• SWING ARM
• PELVIC TILT
• NO SKIN TOUCH
• THINK FIRST- NO BRAIN MACHINE

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Behavioural Hazards
10th leading cause of illness due to
occupation

Lack of job satisfaction, insecurity,


poor interpersonal relations, work
pressure, ambiguity etc.

Psychological & Behavioural changes- hostility,


aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, alcoholism,
drug addiction, sickness absenteeism

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WORKPLACE STRESS
Factors unique to the job :
• Workload (overload and underload)
• Meaningfulness of work autonomy (unability to make
your own decisions about our own job or about
specific tasks)
• Isolation at the workplace (emotional or working
alone)
• Shift work / hours of work

Role in the organization :


• Role conflict (conflicting job demands, multiple
supervisors)
• Role ambiguity (lack of clarity about responsibilities,
expectations)
• Level of responsibility 55
WORKPLACE STRESS
Relationships at work (Interpersonal) :
• Threat of violence, harassment, etc
(threats to personal safety)
• Supervisors, co-workers, subordinates

Career development :
• Job security (fear of redundancy either
from economy, or a lack of tasks or work to
do)
• Under/over-promotion
• Career development opportunities
• Overall job satisfaction
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BIOMEDICAL Hazards

• Waste class –Description


• Types of container
• Colour code
• Treatment method
• Disposal

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PRE-TREATMENT

• Autoclaving of infected material


• Shred and dip in 1% Hypochlorite soln.
AUTOCLAVE

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INCINERATION

Emission Standards
SPM 150 mg/M3
NOX 450 mg/M3
HCl 50 mg/M3 59
VOC in ash < 0.01%
DISPOSAL AREA LANDFILL

• Away from hospital


• Secured place
• Restricted area
• Deep burial 60
OCCUPATIONAL SURVEILLANCE
WORK ENVIRONMENT : INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
WORKER’s HEALTH : OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

WORK PLACE : Industrial Hygiene


Identify process and conduct HYGIENE SURVEY
Include all possible occupational hazards-
Physical –noise, vibration, light, heat
Chemical – SO2, H2S, Cl2, CO, Benzene, HC
Ergonomical
Behavioural
Monitoring at breathing zone
Static sampling- TWA, STEL
Grab sampling – instant random value
Evaluate and analyse reports 61
ENVIRONMENTAL GAS MONITORING

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SOUND
LEVEL
MONITORING
Continuous Recommonded
exposure dbA
in hrs/day
8 85
6 87
4 90
3 92
2 95
1 100
0.5 105
0.25 110

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WORKER : Occupational Health

Medical chk up- Periodic , Pre-employment,


Executive chk up

Biological monitoring
ROUTINE & TOXICOLOGICAL
Hearing conservation prgm.
SOUND LEVEL MONITORING
AUDIOMETRY of employees of HIGH NOISE
OH awareness - Cable TV, Trg. Prgms.,
Bulletin, Magazines
Maintain upto-date health RECORDS and
ANALYSE them 64
SPIROMETRY to assess AUDIOMETRY of
Lung function HIGH noise area
workers

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VISION TESTING

VISION
TESTING 66
HEALTH AWARENESS

IN HOUSE OWN EMPLOYEES

COMMUNITY HEALTH

Health camps and cataract operations conducted regularly


for surrounding villages.

Immunizations and school health check ups done on


regular basis
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Health Awareness

• Know the chemical – Target organ


• Analyse individual record- Rx on life style
• Analyse on group basis- BP, Diabetes,
Obesity, Hearing loss, Occupational diseases
• Result–reference to specialist
• Follow up in Hospital

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Process Safety Management

A system approach to minimise


breakdown and accidents

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Safety Management

New Trends In Safety Management


System

• System Approach
• Behaviour Based Safety Management
• Risk Based Safety Management

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Safety Management
• In the early stage of industrialization safety
was managed through training and following
safe procedures, compliance with rules and
regulations, etc.

• Next stage witnessed enhanced safety feature


through technological Upgradation - safe
processes, safety features in built in design
and prescriptive statutory rules.

• Finally safety is managed through systems


approach. The ‘Cullen Report’, 1990 on Piper
Alpha Disaster stressed the need for formal
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safety management system.
System Approach

■ Management Commitment & Leadership


■ Employee Participation
■ Process Safety Information
■ Process Hazard Analysis
■ Operating Procedures
■ Training
■ Contractors
■ Pre-commissioning Safety Checks & Audit
■ Mechanical Integrity

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System Approach

■ Management of Change
■ Incident Investigation
■ Work Permit System
■ Emergency Response
■ Safety Audit
■ Reviews
■ Statutory Compliance

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CURRENT APPROACHES

MOVE FROM ‘PRESCRIPTIVE’ TO


‘OBJECTIVE’ GUIDELINES

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‘PRESCRIPTIVE’ VS ‘OBJECTIVE’

PRESCRIPTIVE OBJECTIVE
INHIBITS INNOVATION PROMOTES OWNING
AND SENSE OF OF RESPONSIBILITY
OWNING
FACES DIFFICULTY IN ALLOWS OPTIMUM
IMPLEMENTATION SOLUTION AMONG
VARIOUS OPTIONS
NO DIFFERENCE EFFICIENCY AND
BETWEEN SIZE OF SINCERITY CAN BE
PLANTS JUDGED
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CURRENT APPROACH

■ USE OF NEW TECHNIQUES TO


DELINEATE PROBLEM AREAS

• IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS

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Human Factors

Behaviour Based Safety


&
Safety Culture

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What Are Human Factors

Human factors:
How the relationship between:

● the individual's strengths and weaknesses


● their organisation
and
● their work

impacts on health and safety


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Types of Human Error

■ Slips/lapses

■ Mistakes

■ Violations

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HUMAN ERROR DIAGRAM
Basic Error Types Attentional/Skill Failures
Intrusion
Omission
Slip Reversal
Misordering
Mistiming
Unintended
Action
Memory Failures
Omitting planned items
Lapse Place-losing
Forgetting intentions
Unsafe
Acts Rule-based Mistakes
Misapplication of good rule
Mistake Application of bad rule
Knowledge-based Mistake
Intended Inadequate analysis, or
decision making
Action
Routine Violation
Violation Exceptional Violations
Acts of Sabotage
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WHY BEHAVIOUR-BASED SAFETY?

■ ANALYSIS OF INJURY STATISTICS SHOWS:

 87% AT-RISK BEHAVIOUR


 11% WORKPLACE CONDITIONS
 2% ?? (Natural causes, etc.)

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Focusing on At-Risk Behaviours can reduce Injuries:

Fatal

Serious Injury

Minor Injury

Near Miss

At-Risk Behaviours

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The ABC Model Explains…….
Why Do We Do What We Do?

Activators

Trigger
Behaviour
Motivate

Consequences
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Group Dynamics
Used to Change Behaviour

At the lowest organisational level, each team:


 Identifies the critical behaviours associated
with their work
 Agrees to perform their tasks in accordance
with these critical behaviours
 Agrees on the frequency of behaviour
modelling
 Agrees on the frequency of observation and
feedback
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CREATING NEW SAFETY VALUES

Identify
I Critical
Behaviours

M Making a
Pact
B
Behaviour
Modelling
O
Observation
Feedback
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Implementation Strategy

Step 1: Set up a steering Commitee


Step 2: Prepare Management alignment
Step 3: Management training
Step 4: Training of process champion and firstline leaders
Step 5: Training of employees
Step 6: Process Implementation
Step 7: Long-Term Support and Evaluation

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Implementation Strategy

ACTI
Perceptions VATO
R

CONSEQUENCE
Attitude
SAFE AT RISK

Thoughts/
Intents Behaviour
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CHANGING THE CULTURE

From... To...

■ Injury focus ■ Incident focus

■ Consequence measurements ■ Performance/Control


measurements

■ A single incident harms


■ Accidents hurt individuals everyone in the organisation

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MINDSHIFTS

FROM: TO:
Viewing an accident as an Viewing an accident as an
unexpected or unplanned event inadequately controlled event
that injuries maims, disables that results in unintended harm
or kills people or damage (to anyone or anything)

FROM: TO:
Seeing safety as a condition – Seeing safety as a process – control
freedom from danger or injury of accidental loss

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MINDSHIFTS

FROM: TO:
The view that safety is The view that there are degrees
Absolute, I.e., “it’s either of safety, i.e., “it’s safe if it’s
Safe or unsafe” at an acceptable level of risk”

FROM: TO:
Believing that 88% of accidents Believing that 80 – 98% of an
are caused by the substandard organisation’s problems (such as
acts of workers accidents) can be traced back to
deficiencies in the management
system.
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MINDSHIFTS

FROM: TO:
Property damage is an 20 – 60% of property damage is
inevitable, normal part of accidental, is not wear and tear
the production process. and is preventable

FROM: TO:
Safety is an expense Safety is an investment, with a
significant return on investment
(ROI) by reducing accidental loss
and improving profitability

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CURRENT APPROACH

ENHANCED RELIABILITY ON
INSTRUMENTED PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS

• INTEGRITY LEVEL ASSESSMENT (SIL) AND


MEANS TO ACHIEVE
• NEED FOR INDIGENOUS FAILURE DATA
BASE
• BEING WIDELY ADOPTED
INTERNATIONALLY
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CURRENT APPROACH

RISK-BASED MAINTENANCE (RkBM)

 FOCUS ON SAFETY AND OPERABILITY

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CURRENT APPROACH

RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS


• SAFETY IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO
RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY OF A
SYSTEM

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RELIABILITY - AVAILABILITY

■ THE RELIABILITY OF A COMPONENT OR OF A


SYSTEM IS THE PROBABILITY THAT IT WILL
PERFORM A REQUIRED FUNCTION WITHOUT
FAILURE UNDER STATED CONDITIONS IN
STATED PERIOD OF TIME
■ THE AVAILABILITY OF A REPAIRABLE
COMPONENT OR SYSTEM IS THE FRACTION OF
TIME THAT IT IS ABLE TO PERFORM A
REQUIRED FUNCTION UNDER STATED
CONDITIONS

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RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY

A(∞) IS USUALLY >> 90%


R(∞) TENDS TO ZERO

SOURCE: ‘PROCESS RELIABILITY AND RISK MANAGEMENT’ BY I. 96


S. SUTTON
HSE ISSUES – A Business imperative

 Safety,Health and Environmental


risk management is now accepted as
the business objective for Corporate
sustainability.

 It is the ‘Eco-friendly’ image that


enhances the marketability of the
products and services in present
global competitive scenario.

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THANK YOU

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