HSE RISK MANAGEMENT IN HYDROCARBON INDUSTRY

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Gujarat Refinery, INDIA
1

Ex. Executive Director

H P Singh

THIS PRESENTATION COVERS……..
s ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN

HYDROCARBON INDUSTRY

s PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT- A

SYSTEM APPROACH TO MINIMISE BREAKDOWN AND ACCIDENTS

s OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ISSUES

2

3

GLOBAL ISSUES

s Industrial & Economic Growth s Role of Petroleum Industry s Global Competition s Health ,Safety & Environmental

( HSE ) issues
4

CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY

s Economic (profits, jobs, incomes and

livelihoods…)

s Social (ethics, occupational health &

safety, community concern, investment ….)
s Environmental (air/water/soil pollution,

waste management, habitat care, climate 5

CLIMATE CHANGE
• Global Warming • Rising Sea Levels • Natural Calamities - draughts & floods • Adaptability to new environment

conditions

• Threat to bio-diversity

6

Green House Effect

7 IndianOil

Ozone Layer Depletion

8 IndianOil

IndianOil

Marine Pollution

9

Environmental Risk-Business Imperatives
• Environmental threats perceived to be fall out

of industrialization
• Stringent Legal Frameworks – “Polluter Pays”

principle.
• Increased societal pressures due to increased

awareness
• Global conventions & action plans & expected

trade barriers
• Eco-friendly image enhances marketability of

product

10

Environmental Risk-Business Imperatives
• Earth Summits / Kyoto Protocol
•United Nations Forum Convention on Climate

Change

(UNFCCC)

•Joint Implementation (JI) •Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) •Emission Trading (ET)

These have made the environmental issues closely linked to Business Objectives
11

Environmental Risk – Business Imperatives
 Industrial development is perceived as

the main contributor to environmental pollution
 To

meet the immediate business objectives in the race of global competition, adequate attention was not given for environmental protection

 Environmental Pollution has surpassed

the recuperative capacity of eco12 system and became a threat to

A Threat to Environment
 Industrial growth is directly linked to

energy consumption.
 Petroleum products continue to be

the major source of energy in the developed and developing countries.

13

Environment--Legal framework
 Public

awareness of environmental issues has put pressure on Government and regulatory bodies world over and has resulted in legal framework for environment protection.

 India is a signatory of Basel Convention

on trans boundary movement control of Hazardous Waste.
 Compliance

and

regulations

to strict environmental 14 calls for additional

Legal

Framework - Indian Context

• The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution)

Act 1974
• The Air

(Prevention & Control of Pollution)

Act 1981
• The Environment Protection Act 1986 • Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling)

Rules 1989
• Public Liability Insurance Act 1991 etc.
15

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT

16

Waste Water Control
Reduction in generation of waste water
• Diversion of Phenolic streams into

Desalter

• Diversion of pump cooling water to

process cooling water system

• Controlled draining of tanks • Closed Blow down for recovery of oil
17

Waste Water Control
Segregated Treatment
• • • •

Sour water stripping Spent Caustic stream Oily waste water Cooling Tower blowdown

18

Waste Water Control
Others
• ETP with physical, chemical & • Advance technologies TPI / DAF H2 O2 / wet air oxidation for spent

biological & tertiary treatments

caustic

Bio towers / Polishing ponds • Recycle of treated effluent
19

Gaseous Emission Control
• Use of low sulphur fuel (< 1.0% S') • De-sulphurisation of fuel gas • High efficiency Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) • Provision of taller Stacks for effective dispersion. • Provision of CO Boiler / Incinerator / SO2 Scrubber in FCC Units • Provision of low NOx burners • Stack monitoring

Use of cyclone for FCC catalyst fines recovery 20 to control SPM.

Gaseous Emission control
Fugitive Emission Control
• Floating roof in storage tanks for crude and lighter

product services.

• Use

of mechanical seals in pumps with hydrocarbon services to arrest leakage of hydrocarbons. replaced with double seal system. It is planned to extend this to larger capacity tanks in phases. Closed ponds etc.

• Floating roof seals in crude tanks have been

• Adoption of improved treatment system like, TPI,
21

Gaseous Emission control
• Energy Conservation • Pre flash columns / vessels in Distillation units. • Furnace efficiency improvement through

installation of Air Pre-heaters and burner modifications. better fractionation

• Modernisation / Change in Column internals for • Welded Plate heat exchanger in CRU. • Heat exchanger train optimisation. •
22

Excess air control in furnace

Gaseous Emission control
Energy Conservation
• Optimisation of stripping steam in columns • Installation of additional tubes in convection

zone in furnaces etc. breaker.

• Technology up-gradation e.g. Soaker in Vis• Catalyst changes, recovery of Hydrogen from

refinery gases etc. Plant.

• Gas turbine with heat recovery boiler in Power • Advanced Process Control System.
23

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

24

CHALLENGES FOR OIL REFINERIES

 Oil refineries unavoidably generate Oily

sludge.
 Treatment of oily sludge in cost effective

manner is the challenge for refiners.
 Storage cost of sludge is around $35 - $40 per

tonne.
25

Sources of waste generation in Petroleum Industry
• Storage

tanks for petroleum products

crude

oil

and

• Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP) • Cleaning of process equipment • Chemical sludge & catalyst

26

Types of Waste
• Oily Sludge • Chemical Sludge • Bio-sludge • Catalyst • Canteen and other waste
27

Waste Management Practices
1. Reduction at Source 2. Segregated

streams.

handling of

of

different &

3. Modification

technology.

equipment

4. Process/procedure modification 5. Substitution of raw materials. 6. Tightening

the operations/processes.

plant
28

Waste Management Practices 1. Reduction at Source
• Chemical solubilisation • In-situ cleaning • Mechanical Handling • Elimination of Chemical sludge

29

Waste Management Practices
• •

Oil Recovery through melting pits Oil recovery through hydro-cyclone and centrifuges

2.

Incineration

3. Storage in LDPE lined pits 4. Bio-remediation of residual oily sludge 5.Vermiculture technology for canteen and other waste 6.Use of bio-sludge in cement industry as fuel and as manure in agriculture field. 30

Waste Minimisation
Issues and Strategies
 Reduction

source

in sludge generation at

• Operation of side entry mixers

31

Waste Minimisation (Reduction at source in Tanks
by operating SE Mixers at proper Swivel Angles ))

Sludge Profile in tanks

32

Waste Minimisation ( Reduction at Source)
• Hot gas oil/solvent circulation in tanks

Hot Gas Oil Crude Oil Crude Oil

Crude Oil + Gas Oil
33

Waste Minimisation( Mechanised handling and chemical
solubilisation)

• In-situ cleaning of storage tanks

34

Process / Procedure Modification
• Hydrogen

Peroxide treatment of spent caustic

(H2O2) for

• Wet

Air Oxidation process treatment of spent caustic

• Hydrofinishing

technology for treatment of wax in place of acid/clay treatment
35

Tightening plant operation/ Process
• Use

of Fuel Oil additives to minimize sediment deposits in tanks with viscous fuel oil fractions. Plant operations to restrict the formation of tarry sediments to fractions where it is desirable like asphalt and Bitumen.
36

• Optimizing

Bio-remediation of oily sludge

A Biotechnological approach

37

Bio-remediation of Oily Sludge

Indian Oil R&D Centre jointly with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) have developed microbial consortium of bacterial strains named ‘Oilivorous-S’, capable of bio-degrading hazardous constituents of oily sludge

38

OILIVOROUS - S
• Oilivorous-S

contains bacterial species. living thing.

five

natural

occurring

• Oilivorous-S bacteria is non pathogenic to any • In nature Oilivorous-S can survive on oily sludge

crude oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon. Once oily sludge (Total petroleum hydrocarbon) is biodegraded these microbes die and their population decrease.
• The shelf life of these microbes (during storage) at

4ºC is six months, at 30ºC two months, at 42ºC 20 39 days, at 45ºC seven days.

Bio-remediation Project
• Lab scale production of bacterial consortium • Small scale trial in field • Scale up and Commercial production • Plant scale trial • Monitoring of ground water quality

About 10,000 Tonnes of sludge have been treated and the process is continuing. 40

Cost and period of Treatment
•$15 - $30 per tonne of Oily Sludge •6 to 8 months per batch of 1000 MT of sludge

(depending on volume of sludge, oil content and meteorological conditions)

41

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

42

Ten leading work-related health problems
1. 2. 3. 4. Occupational lung disease Musculo skeletal injuries Occupational cancers Accidents. 5. Cardiovascular diseases 6. Reproductive disorders 7. Neurotoxic disorders 8. Noise-induced hearing loss 9. Occupational dermatitis 10.Psychological disorders
43

ANNUAL WORLD INCIDENCE
• 2.7 billion work force • 268 million non-fatal work accidents

3 missed work days for each
• 0.43 million fatal accidents causing death • 1.7 million work related accidental deaths • 60,000 fatal accidents in construction injury :

1 death every 10 minutes
44

WORLD INCIDENCE
• 268 million work related injuries • 160 million occupational disease • 10% permanent disability
• ACCESS TO

OHS :

50% in developed countries 5% in developing countries

• 10 million Chemicals : 2 lacs used by Industries

3000 : CHEMICALS undergone HAZOP study no HAZOP on HUMAN SYSTEM
45

OH SYSTEM
INTERACTION between PEOPLE and ENVIRONMENT

46

SCOPE of ACTION for OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENIST

PHYSICIAN

and

47

Legal/Administrative Controls
Legal
-The Factories Act

-The Mines Act . -The Employees State Insurance Act.

Administrative
-Job rotation. -Training and education. -Inculcate safe work practice.
48

HEALTH HAZARDS in oil sector

Physical : Noise, Vibration, Light, Heat Chemical : SO2, H2S, Cl2, CO, Benzene,
HC

Ergonomic Hazards Behavioural Hazards Biomedical Hazards
49

ERGONOMICAL HAZARD
2nd leading cause of illness due to occupation

Body support system

50

Any undue stress, strain on any of these support system will cause injury in long term – Musculo Skeletal Disorder

An MSD is a disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, ligaments, blood vessels, cartilage or spinal discs.
51

HAND-ARM VIBRATION

PROLONGED USE of CHAIR

Must use correct contact points 52

BASIC Rules of ERGONOMICS
• STRAIGHT BACK • STRAIGHT EYE • STRAIGHT WRIST • BELLY BUTTON • SWING ARM • PELVIC TILT • NO SKIN TOUCH • THINK FIRST- NO BRAIN MACHINE
53

Behavioural Hazards
10th leading cause of illness due to occupation

Lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor interpersonal relations, work pressure, ambiguity etc. Psychological & Behavioural changes- hostility, aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, alcoholism, drug addiction, sickness absenteeism

54

WORKPLACE STRESS
Factors unique to the job :
• Workload (overload and underload) • Meaningfulness of work autonomy (unability to make

your own decisions about our own job or about specific tasks) • Isolation at the workplace (emotional or working alone) • Shift work / hours of work

Role in the organization :
• Role conflict (conflicting job demands, multiple

supervisors) • Role ambiguity (lack of clarity about responsibilities, expectations) 55 • Level of responsibility

WORKPLACE STRESS
Relationships at work (Interpersonal) : • Threat of violence, harassment, etc (threats to personal safety) • Supervisors, co-workers, subordinates Career development : • Job security (fear of redundancy either from economy, or a lack of tasks or work to do) • Under/over-promotion • Career development opportunities • Overall job satisfaction
56

BIOMEDICAL Hazards
• • • • •

Waste class –Description Types of container Colour code Treatment method Disposal

57

PRE-TREATMENT
• Autoclaving of infected material • Shred and dip in 1% Hypochlorite soln.

AUTOCLAVE

58

INCINERATION

Emission Standards
SPM NOX HCl VOC in ash 150 mg/M3 450 mg/M3 50 mg/M3 < 0.01%

59

DISPOSAL AREA

LANDFILL

• • • •

Away from hospital Secured place Restricted area 60 Deep burial

OCCUPATIONAL SURVEILLANCE
WORK ENVIRONMENT : INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE WORKER’s HEALTH : OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

WORK PLACE : Industrial Hygiene

Identify process and conduct HYGIENE SURVEY Include all possible occupational hazardsPhysical –noise, vibration, light, heat Chemical – SO2, H2S, Cl2, CO, Benzene, HC Ergonomical Behavioural Monitoring at breathing zone Static sampling- TWA, STEL Grab sampling – instant random value Evaluate and analyse reports

61

ENVIRONMENTAL GAS MONITORING

62

SOUND LEVEL MONITORING
Continuous exposure in hrs/day 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.5 0.25 Recommonded dbA 85 87 90 92 95 100 105 110
63

WORKER : Occupational Health Medical chk upExecutive chk up Periodic , Pre-employment,

Biological monitoring

ROUTINE & TOXICOLOGICAL SOUND LEVEL MONITORING AUDIOMETRY of employees of HIGH NOISE

Hearing conservation prgm.

OH awareness Bulletin, Magazines

Cable TV, Trg. Prgms.,

Maintain upto-date health RECORDS and 64 ANALYSE them

SPIROMETRY to assess Lung function

AUDIOMETRY of HIGH noise area workers

65

VISION TESTING

VISION TESTING

66

HEALTH AWARENESS

IN HOUSE OWN EMPLOYEES

COMMUNITY HEALTH

Health camps and cataract operations conducted regularly for surrounding villages. Immunizations and school health check ups done on regular basis
67

Health Awareness
• Know the chemical – Target organ • Analyse individual record- Rx on life style • Analyse on group basis- BP, Diabetes,

Obesity, Hearing loss, Occupational diseases • Result–reference to specialist • Follow up in Hospital

68

Process Safety Management

A system approach to minimise breakdown and accidents

69

Safety Management

New Trends In Safety Management System

• System Approach
• Behaviour Based Safety Management • Risk Based Safety Management
70

Safety Management
• In the early stage of industrialization safety

was managed through training and following safe procedures, compliance with rules and regulations, etc.
• Next stage witnessed enhanced safety feature

through technological Upgradation - safe processes, safety features in built in design and prescriptive statutory rules.
• Finally safety is managed through systems

approach. The ‘Cullen Report’, 1990 on Piper Alpha Disaster stressed the need for formal 71 safety management system.

System Approach
s Management Commitment & Leadership s Employee Participation s Process Safety Information s Process Hazard Analysis s Operating Procedures s Training s Contractors s Pre-commissioning Safety Checks & Audit s Mechanical Integrity
72

System Approach
s Management of Change s Incident Investigation s Work Permit System s Emergency Response s Safety Audit s Reviews s Statutory Compliance

73

CURRENT APPROACHES

MOVE FROM ‘PRESCRIPTIVE’ TO ‘OBJECTIVE’ GUIDELINES

74

‘PRESCRIPTIVE’ VS ‘OBJECTIVE’
PRESCRIPTIVE INHIBITS INNOVATION AND SENSE OF OWNING FACES DIFFICULTY IN IMPLEMENTATION NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIZE OF PLANTS OBJECTIVE PROMOTES OWNING OF RESPONSIBILITY ALLOWS OPTIMUM SOLUTION AMONG VARIOUS OPTIONS EFFICIENCY AND SINCERITY CAN BE JUDGED
75

CURRENT APPROACH
s USE OF NEW TECHNIQUES TO

DELINEATE PROBLEM AREAS
• IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS

76

Human Factors

Behaviour Based Safety & Safety Culture
77

What Are Human Factors
Human factors: How the relationship between:
q the individual's strengths and weaknesses q their organisation and q their work

impacts on health and safety
78

Types of Human Error

s s s

Slips/lapses Mistakes Violations

79

HUMAN ERROR DIAGRAM
Basic Error Types Slip Unintended Action Lapse Unsafe Acts Mistake Intended Action Violation
Attentional/Skill Failures
Intrusion Omission Reversal Misordering Mistiming

Memory Failures
Omitting planned items Place-losing Forgetting intentions

Rule-based Mistakes
Misapplication of good rule Application of bad rule

Knowledge-based Mistake
Inadequate analysis, or decision making

Routine Violation Exceptional Violations Acts of Sabotage
80

WHY BEHAVIOUR-BASED SAFETY?

s ANALYSIS OF INJURY STATISTICS SHOWS:

 87%  11%  2%

AT-RISK BEHAVIOUR WORKPLACE CONDITIONS ?? (Natural causes, etc.)

81

Focusing on At-Risk Behaviours can reduce Injuries:

Fatal Serious Injury Minor Injury Near Miss

At-Risk Behaviours

82

The ABC Model Explains……. Why Do We Do What We Do?

Activators
Trigger

Behaviour

Motivate

Consequences
83

Group Dynamics Used to Change Behaviour

At the lowest organisational level, each team: Identifies the critical behaviours with their work

associated accordance

Agrees to perform their tasks in with these critical behaviours
 

Agrees on the frequency of behaviour modelling Agrees on the frequency of observation feedback

and
84

CREATING NEW SAFETY VALUES

I M B O

Identify Critical Behaviours Making a Pact Behaviour Modelling Observation Feedback
85

Implementation Strategy
Step 1: Set up a steering Commitee Step 2: Prepare Management alignment Step 3: Management training Step 4: Training of process champion and firstline leaders Step 5: Training of employees Step 6: Process Implementation Step 7: Long-Term Support and Evaluation

86

Implementation Strategy
Perceptions
ACTI VATO R
CONSEQUENCE

Attitude
SAFE AT RISK

Thoughts/ Intents

Behaviour
87

CHANGING THE CULTURE

From...
s s

To...
s s

Injury focus Consequence measurements

Incident focus Performance/Control measurements A single incident harms everyone in the organisation

s s

Accidents hurt individuals

88

MINDSHIFTS
FROM: Viewing an accident as an unexpected or unplanned event that injuries maims, disables or kills people TO: Viewing an accident as an inadequately controlled event that results in unintended harm or damage (to anyone or anything)

FROM: Seeing safety as a condition – freedom from danger or injury

TO: Seeing safety as a process – control of accidental loss

89

MINDSHIFTS
FROM: The view that safety is Absolute, I.e., “it’s either Safe or unsafe” TO: The view that there are degrees of safety, i.e., “it’s safe if it’s at an acceptable level of risk”

FROM: Believing that 88% of accidents are caused by the substandard acts of workers

TO: Believing that 80 – 98% of an organisation’s problems (such as accidents) can be traced back to deficiencies in the management system.
90

MINDSHIFTS
FROM: Property damage is an inevitable, normal part of the production process. TO: 20 – 60% of property damage is accidental, is not wear and tear and is preventable

FROM: Safety is an expense

TO: Safety is an investment, with a significant return on investment (ROI) by reducing accidental loss and improving profitability
91

CURRENT APPROACH
ENHANCED RELIABILITY ON INSTRUMENTED PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS
• INTEGRITY LEVEL ASSESSMENT (SIL) AND

MEANS TO ACHIEVE • NEED FOR INDIGENOUS FAILURE DATA BASE • BEING WIDELY ADOPTED INTERNATIONALLY
92

CURRENT APPROACH

RISK-BASED MAINTENANCE (RkBM)

FOCUS ON SAFETY AND OPERABILITY

93

CURRENT APPROACH

RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY OF A SYSTEM
• SAFETY IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO

94

RELIABILITY - AVAILABILITY
s THE RELIABILITY OF A COMPONENT OR OF A

SYSTEM IS THE PROBABILITY THAT IT WILL PERFORM A REQUIRED FUNCTION WITHOUT FAILURE UNDER STATED CONDITIONS IN STATED PERIOD OF TIME

s THE AVAILABILITY OF A REPAIRABLE

COMPONENT OR SYSTEM IS THE FRACTION OF TIME THAT IT IS ABLE TO PERFORM A REQUIRED FUNCTION UNDER STATED CONDITIONS
95

RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY

A(∞) IS USUALLY >> 90% R(∞) TENDS TO ZERO

SOURCE: ‘PROCESS RELIABILITY AND RISK MANAGEMENT’ BY I. S. SUTTON

96

HSE ISSUES – A Business imperative
 Safety,

Health and Environmental risk management is now accepted as the business objective for Corporate sustainability.

 It is the ‘Eco-friendly’ image that

enhances the marketability of the products and services in present global competitive scenario.
97

THANK YOU
98

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