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CCNA EXPLORATION: Networks Fundamentals course

Eng. Ashraf Sabha 2009


asabha@psut.edu.jo
00-962-777659254
http://www.psut.edu.jo/asabha

The Main Cisco Academy web site Http://Cisco.netacad.net

Chapter 10
Network Planning and cabling

Routers

Routers link networks together and route packets to the best path based on Layer 3 IP Destination Address. Each routers interface is connected to a different network and has an IP address/mask as a gateway for that network users. The linked Networks might differ in technology .i.e. Ethernet on the LAN port and frame relay on serial port.

Routers belong to networks


Serial 0 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.252

172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 MAC: 0cddeeffaabb

Ethernet 0

172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 MAC: 0abbccddeeff Ethernet 1

Directly Connected Networks


Router interfaces must be members of different networks. counted as hosts Router interfaces participate in the network like other hosts on that network. i.e. it might request ARP , send and receive broadcasts on each interface.

Hubs and Switches

Collision Domain: The area of a network where collisions can occur. Includes a hub and all connected devices. Each port on a switch is considered a separate collision domain.

Broadcast Domain: The area of a network where connected devices can receive a broadcast. Usually includes Layer 1 and 2 devices. A collection of collision domains. A router (Layer 3 device) is the usual boundary since routers block broadcasts.

Legacy Ethernet
Hub Switch

Repeaters

Signals can only travel so far through media before they weaken attenuation. As a signal propagates (travels) it becomes weaker. This is attenuation Attenuation increases when: Media distances are lengthened Nodes are added to the media Repeaters are layer 1 devices Do not work with MAC or IP addresses Clean the weakened signals. regenerate them toward their way along the network.
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Legacy Ethernet: Using Hubs

Hubs and switches are used to link hosts. A hub is a layer 1 multiport repeater . Use a (physical star Logical bus) topology. Only one device on the hub can send at a time, otherwise collisions occur. Hubs have the same disadvantage as a repeater, data that comes in one port is flooded sent out all other ports, except for the port it came in on. A hub is a Layer 1 device and does NOT look at Layer 2 addresses, so it is fast in transmitting data. 10 ,100 Mbps are available. Wherever possible, hubs should be replace by switches.

Legacy Ethernet: Using Hubs

Disadvantages:

Wasted Bandwidth

Reduced LAN performance due to Wasted Bandwidth All ports of the hub share the total available medium and bandwidth.
Hub increases collisions all hosts are in the same collision domain. Can be used for snooping and monitoring (catching all data running on the LAN collision domain). Limited Scalability. Increased Latency.

Legacy Ethernet: Using Hubs

Where is the collision domain?

Legacy Ethernet: Using Hubs


When a node wishes to communicate with ALL hosts on the network, it sends a BROADCAST frame with a destination MAC address of 0xFFFFFFFFFFFF. All nodes on the network recognize that they should look at the contents of the frame. Broadcasts are used in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and other areas. (More Later!)

Legacy Ethernet: Using Hubs


Broadcasts cannot be entirely avoided if you are to have a dynamic network.

However, too many broadcasts can create a lot of unnecessary traffic on a network and they should be minimized as much as possible.
Layer 1 and Layer 2 devices (repeaters, hubs, bridges and switches) must forward a broadcast. Layer 1 devices have no choice because they do not look at MAC addresses. Layer 2 devices have no other choice because they cannot learn the 0xFFFFFFFFFFFF address.

Legacy Ethernet: Using Hubs

All devices here will receive the broadcast frame from 1111 source to FFFF all devices . Hubs cannot stop broadcasts , it just pass them through.

Where is the Broadcast Domain?

Switch

Layer (1,2) learning (bridges or switches) device that examines and bases its decisions on the information in layer 2 frames

A switch has a source address table in cache (RAM) where it stores source MAC addresses for each port.
As a frame comes in , the switch regenerates it and forwards it to the right destination port only providing dedicated bandwidth on each port Switch segments network into separate collision domains.(Reduce collisions) More expensive but better performance than hub.

Switch ports typically operate in full-duplex. Multiple devices on the switch can communicate at a time without collisions .
10/100 /1000 Mbps usually connecting to another switch or router.

Ethernet: Using Switches

Switch receives an Ethernet frame. Switch searches the MAC address table for the source MAC address. If it finds a match, it resets a timer . If it doesnt , the MAC address is added as a valid address on that port.

How does a switch learn an address?

The switch then search the MAC table for the destination MAC. If it finds a match, it forwards the frame by only sending it out that port (selective forwarding). If the destination address is not in the table, it floods it out all ports.

How does a switch learn an address?

Most communications involve some sort of client-server relationship or exchange of information. Now 3333 sends data back to 1111.

The switch sees if it has the SA stored. It does NOT so it adds it.
Next, it checks the DA and sends it out port 1.

How does a switch learn an address?

Now, with both MAC addresses in the table, any information between 1111 and 3333 can be sent (selectively forwarded) out the appropriate port.

Multiple Transmissions - No Collisions

What happens when two devices send to same destination? What if this was a hub? Unlike a hub, a collision does NOT occur, which would cause the two PCs to have to retransmit the frames. The switch buffers the frames and sends them out port #6 one at a time. Store and forward With a full-duplex PC and switch port, there will be no collision, since the devices and the medium can send and receive at the same time. It is counted as a collision domain.

What happens here?

Notice the Source Address Table has multiple entries for port 1. The switch selectively forwards the frame out port #1. But the hub is only a layer 1 device, so a hub floods it out all ports.

How many collision domains exist?

What happens here?

Broadcast Domain

The switch is a Layer 2 device so the broadcast frame is sent out all of the ports. The hubs are Layer 1 devices and also forward the frame.

Host ARP table

How do computers know the Destination MAC address? ARP Caches and ARP Requests (later)
How many addresses can be kept in the table? Depends on the size of the cache, but 1,024 addresses is common.

Switches: Five Basic Operations


Learning: Adds source MAC address/port to the table. Aging: Addresses will be cleared after a specific length of inactivity. Flooding: Sends a frame out all ports if the SA is not in the table. Forwarding: Sends a frame out the proper port on a match. Filtering: Will not forward a frame out the received port. Drops corrupt frames.

Choose your network device

Arranging switches

Extended Star

Mesh gives redundancy

Star

Choice of switch ports


UTP or fibre optic ports? Number of ports allow for growth scalability? Modular switch? Switch ports that best utilize PC-NIC speeds. 10 Mbps , 100 Mbps , 1Gbps ports?

Between networks (WAN)

Routers are connected to Ethernet LAN devices hosts or switches using LAN interfaces that might be UTP or fiber modules . It might be also used to connect routers to each other. Routers connect to WANs via serial interfaces . AUI (Attached Unit interface transceiver): Used in old routers to connect to the needed media to be connected. I.e. ( AUI to Ethernet).. WAN Interfaces (Serial) : Connect WAN devices to the CSU/DSU (a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider's circuits).

Choice of router

Expandability Fixed or modular interfaces ? Media serial , UTP or fibre optic ports ? how many ports of each? Operating System Features what do you want the router to do? Will you have enough memory to upgrade the operating system? Do you need security supported IOS , VOIP,QOS.

Wide area connections between networks take a number of forms, including: Telephone line RJ11 connectors for dialup or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections. 60 pin Serial connections.

For the lab purposes, serial interface is used to connect a back-to-back connection between two routers using serial cables, a clock rate should be set on one of the interfaces.

WAN links

In the course labs, two types of physical serial cables will be used. Large Winchester 15 Pin V.35 connected to a CSU/DSU or modem from one side. The other side is either a male DB-60 or smart Serial connected to the Cisco device end.

Data communications equipment and Data terminal equipment


Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. The clocking service is needed in WAN to synchronize the transmitted signal. Typically, this device is at the WAN provider end of the link. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) is device that receives clocking services from another device . This device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. In the lab environment, one router is required to provide the clock rate and will therefore use a data communications equipment (DCE) cable. A router is by default a DTE device . Nevertheless, it can be configured to be a DCE by assigning a clock rate to the router.

Configuring a serial interface

DTE Cable

DCE Cable

How can you tell which end is the DTE and which end is the DCE?

Look at the label on the cable. Look at the connecter between the two cables - The DTE cable will always be male and the DCE cable will always be female.
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Configuring the Router Rollover cable Console interface

Used to initially configure a physically connected Cisco router or switch. It is also an important means of troubleshooting. Our rollover cables a DB9 connector at one end and do not need an adaptor. Rollover cables with RJ45 connectors both ends need an adaptor.

Connecting console interfaces

Run a terminal emulator program such as Hyper terminal on the PC in order to configure the router. Windows has a built in Hyper terminal program. In Windows Vista , there is no terminal program , you can download any of many from the internet. Teraterm: Free download (recommended).

Match serial port on PC

Hyper terminal

Set up the PCs serial port as follows: Bits per second: 9600 bps Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None

Configuring the Router remotely - AUX


Auxiliary (AUX) Interface: Used for remote management of a Cisco router. Typically, a modem is connected to the AUX interface for dial-in access.

Configuring the Router remotely Telnet

To configure a remote router , it should have an active interface with an (IP address).

Cabling the Network

Total UTP Cable Length: The distance to the active device is 100m (Work area & Horizantal).
Maximum backbone distances, ranging from 90m for UTP to 3000m for single mode fiber cable, based on application and media type.

5 meters 90 meters

5 meters

Telecommunications Room : Contain intermediary devices (hubs, switches, routers, servers , and data service units (DSUs)) . Backbone (Vertical )Cabling : Used to connect the telecommunication rooms to the equipment rooms, where the servers are often located AND where cables are sometimes routed outside the building to the WAN connection or ISP. Backbones might require high bandwidth media such as fiber-optic cabling.

Which media?

Different Physical layer implementations that support multiple media types: UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6, and 7) , Fiber-optics or wireless.

Length: UTP up to 100m, fibre optic longer UTP inside building. Fibre optic might be used inside or outside. Cost: UTP is cheaper than fibre optic Bandwidth: Is it enough to meet requirements? a server generally has a need for more bandwidth than a PC. A fiber cable may be used for a server connection. Ease of installation: UTP is easier. EMI/RFI noise: may need fibre optic , affects wireless strongly. High capacity link: may need fibre optic.

UTP cable reminder


Straight through cable same both ends Crossover cable 1 swaps with 3, 2 swaps with 6

Why cross over?

The Transmit pin needs to be connected to the receive pin. The crossing over can happen in the cable or inside a device.

Cross over

One end must be terminated as EIA/TIA T568A pin-out, and the other end is terminated with T568B pin-out. The cross over cable is used to connect: Switch to switch Switch to hub Hub to hub Router to router Ethernet port connection Computer to computer Computer to a router Ethernet port

Switch ports

Two types of UTP interfaces - MDI (media-dependent interface) or MDIX (media-dependent interface crossover) . Devices such as computers, servers, or routers will have MDI connections. Most switch ports are normally the MDIX type. They manage the crossing over internally. Some switch ports can be changed between MDI and MDIX either with a switch electrical button or in the configuration. require an interface configuration command for enabling MDIX auto-detection.

Some switches can detect which sort of port is needed and change it automatically.

Splitting network to subnets advantages

Splits it into separate broadcast domains and cut down the number of broadcast traffic. Each broadcast domain should be on a different network or subnet. Provide different facilities for specific groups of users. For security. Traffic between subnets can be controlled.

5 Broadcast domains (subnets) , 11 collision domains

Keys for network planning


Consider the number of hosts , both current and future. consider the range of addresses available . Determine if all hosts will be part of the same network, or will be divided into separate subnets.

Keys for solving IP addressing problems review

Addressing the network(s) 1


Start with a topology diagram. All on one network, or will it be split into subnets? How many subnets? How many network bits do we need? n bits can provide 2n addresses How many bits are left for hosts?

Addressing the network(s) 2


On each subnet, count the number of: Router interfaces Switches Servers Admin workstations General workstations Printers IP phones

Addressing the network(s)


How many host bits do we need? n bits can provide 2n addresses One for network, one for broadcast So 2n 2 host addresses. 2n 2 could be 2, 6, 14, 30, 62, 126, 254, 510, 1022, 2046 and so on. Go for a number big enough to give us enough addresses.

Bits to borrow

n bits borrowed for subnetting gives you 2n subnets. So 1 bit gives 2 subnets, 2 bits give 4 subnets, 3 bits give 8 subnets and so on. If you need 5 subnets, how many bits do you borrow? If you need 10 subnets, how many bits do you borrow?

Addressing example

For the following example , solve for without VLSM subnetting .

Start with the given IP 172.16.0.0/21. (172.16.0.0 172.16.7.255) They produce 4 subnets each with 510 addresses. Each router interface has an address , switches have management interface each.

Example mistake in the curriculum \22 Requested to be corrected..

Note that the WAN link is a point-to-point connection between two routers. This network only requires two IPv4 addresses for the routers on this serial link. assigning this address block to the WAN link wastes 508 addresses.

Now try solving with VLSM considered What we have and what do we need

Given IP address 172.16.0.0/21 Thats 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.7.255 4 subnets needed: Student LAN has 481 hosts Instructor LAN has 69 hosts Administrator LAN has 23 hosts WAN has 2 hosts

172.16.0.0

172.16.1.0

172.16.2.0

172.16.3.0

Instructor

Student
Admin

WAN

Case 2. Given 192.168.1.0/24

Subnet plan with VLSM

Network

Subnet address

Host range

Broadcast address

192.168.1.0/26

192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.62

192.168.1.63

192.168.1.64/26

192.168.1.65 - 192.168.1.126

192.168.1.127

192.168.1.128/27

192.168.1.129 - 192.168.1.158

192.168.1.159

192.168.1.160/28

192.168.1.161 - 192.168.1.174

192.168.1.175

192.168.1.176/30

192.168.1.177 - 192.168.1.178

192.168.1.179

Visual
One octet available

E
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