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# VRV

## Objectives: End of the lecture students are able to understand

Definition of Population and types Meaning of Sample and sampling Concept of Population and sampling The Sampling process Methods of sampling Errors of sampling

POPULATION
Population is defined as the entire collection of a set of objects, people, or events, in a particular context. Population is the entire group of persons or objects that is of interest to the investigator.

TYPES:
- Theoretical Population. The group of people to whom we wish to generalize our results. - Accessible Population The individuals or clusters of individuals who might be actually be selected for inclusion in the study.

SAMPLE:- A Sample is a selection of units from the entire group called the population or universe of interest. The value of sample is termed as statistic.

SAMPLING:-It refers to the method of selecting a sample from a given universe or population with a view to draw conclusion about the universe.

## Sampling Population Sample

Target Population

## Target Population Sampling Population Sample

CONCEPT

Sampling Process

Probability sampling Every member of the population has a known, non-zero probability of being selected
E.g: (college students, children, nurses etc)

Non-probability sampling The probability of any particular member being chosen for the sample is unknown
E.g: Passengers, customers, public

Types of Samples
PROBABILITY NON PROBABILITY

Simple Random Sample Systematic Sample Stratified Random Sample Cluster Sample Multi stage sample

## Convenient sample Quota Sample Purposive Sample Snow ball Sample

Each element in the population has an equal probability of selection and each combination of elements has an equal probability of selection or by chance

## SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING

Samples according to a rule and using this procedure each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. E.g., every 3rd person
is chosen

## STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING

break the sample into various subgroups or strata and sample from the selected group.
(e.g. samples can be drawn randomly from each of the stratum.

CLUSTER SAMPLING
The subjects are selected in rather than randomly groups or clusters

## E.g., interviewing McDonalds (in different areas) employees

Multi-stage sampling is a kind of complex sample design in which two or more levels of units are imbedded one in the other.
E.g: Geographic areas (primary unit) States (secondary units) Districts (tertiary units)

## Sample is a where the patients are selected, in part or in

whole, at the convenience of the researcher. Samples used primarily because they are easy to collect.
Example:-If you want to choose 5 people from a class of 50. You could choose First 5 students who raise their hand / First 5 students in the first row / 5 tallest students .

Samples in which population subgroups are classified on the basis of researcher judgment.

The process whereby a researcher gathers data from individuals possessing identified characteristics and quotas Example:-A researcher in the high street wants 100 opinions about a new style of cheese. She sets up a stall and canvasses passers-by until she has got 100 people to taste the cheese and complete the questionnaire.

Samples in which the selection criteria are based on personal judgment that the element is representative of the population under study.
E.g

## Samples in which selection of additional respondents

is based on referrals from the initial respondents. other individuals who could be asked to give information or opinion on the topic. Example:-Collecting opinion about newly released movie from the viewers who are coming out of theatre. Collecting pool of information from volunteers.

REVIEW
A study is done to determine the average salary for all Incheon hospital staff nurses. If we are to pick the four Hospital in incheon and average together the salaries of all nurses, would this be a what type of sampling technique?

ADVANTAGES Time Cost DISADVANTAGES There is associated uncertainty (error) Sampling Error Based on data gathered from a sample of the population rather than the full population Non sampling Error: Any error affecting a survey or census estimate apart from sampling error occurs in-complete censuses as well as in sample surveys