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M/V Han

The fire was understood to have started in below deck spaces, according to Hanjin sources. Fireworks should be carried on deck & are regarded as hazardous cargo. The similarity of the explosion & fires onboard Hanjin Pennsylvania present an uncanny resemblance to those onboard other containerships, where a commodity known as calcium Hypochorite (more commonly known as a purifying or bleaching agent used in swimming pools for example), has been identified as the main cause.

The fire gutted accommodation & engine room as well

Hanjin Pennsylvania Fireworks

The repercussions of mis-declaring hazardous freight (class 1) as general cargo

Those Twisted Shapes Down There Were 40 Foot Containers An Entire Container Cell Destroyed - One of Many

M/V OOCL AMERICA (66.047 grt, built 199

MV Maersk Carolina

Approx. 130 Containers Lost Overboard At S

Title

Gravity
Force exerted on a body drawing towards the centre of the earth. Acts through centre of gravity (G) The centre of gravity (G) is the point at which all the weights of the unit or system are considered to be concentrated and have the same effect as that of all the component parts.

Buoyancy
An object floating in liquid displaces a volume of liquid equal to the submerged volume of the object. This exerts a pressure on all surfaces of the object resulting in a force opposing gravity through the center of buoyancy (B)

Gravity vs Buoyancy

Draft and Freeboard


WATERLINE

RESERVE BUOYANCY

FREEBOARD DRAFT DEPTH OF HULL

Archemedes Principle

A ship is

Moments

Where c is the Centre of Gravity

Direction of Moment

Listing and Trimming

How CoG Moves When a Weight is added, the CoG moves towards the new weight

G GG

Port

Moving weights on board starboard


w

W G G

The Metacentre

G FB B

G
FB
B

The Righting Lever


B G Z

G
FB

Z
B

The Righting Lever


B
Z M
B

Z G

Weights AS low as Possible


WL

w
g

Gf

Go B L

C L

TPC at a particular Hydrostatic draft is defined as the amount of weight required to be loaded (or discharged) on a ship so as to achieve a change in mean draft of 1 cm in a Dock water of density 1.025kg/m3

By International regulations, every ship loads only to her LOADLINE

Are of Two Kinds:

1. Hogging Moments 2.Sagging Moments

Too much weight at the ends will create a Hogging Moment


W W

Excess weight in the Middle will create a Sagging Moment


W

Weight W acts Downwards UNEVENLY according to the weights loaded Buoyancy B acts Upwards EVENLY

The Resultant of the Forces tend to SHEAR the ship

In Conclusion

Test
Loading Light Containers on deck and Heavier containers in the Hold will make the Ship UNSTABLE 1) True 2) False

Test
Loading Light Containers on deck and Heavier containers in the Hold will make the Ship UNSTABLE 1) True 1) False

Test
A ship, on completion of loading, was found to have more draft than the Calculations showed. This was because
1) The Containers were loaded haphazardly 2) The Actual Weights of the Containers were more than that was on the Shipping Bill 3) It could be due to the high tide 4) The Crew on board were hardly competent and couldnt be trusted.

Test
A ship, on completion of loading, was found to have more draft than the Calculations showed. This was because
1) The Containers were loaded haphazardly 1) The Actual Weights of the Containers were more than that was on the Shipping Bill 1) It could be due to the high tide 2) The Crew on board were hardly competent and couldnt be trusted.

Test
If the Metacentre ( M ) is below G while alongside
1) The Ship will CAPSIZE at the wharf. 2) The Chief Officer will Offload some containers from the Hold 3) The Ship is UNSTABLE and is in danger when at sea. 4) No more cargo can be loaded.

Test
If the Metacentre ( M ) is below G while alongside
1) The Ship will CAPSIZE at the wharf. 2) The Chief Officer will Offload some containers from the Hold 1) The Ship is UNSTABLE and is in danger when at sea. 1) No more cargo can be loaded.

Test

The Force of Buoyancy increases with increase in draft


1) True 2) False

Test

The Force of Buoyancy increases with increase in draft


1) True 1) False

Test
Buoyancy can be increased or decreased by adjusting the location of the weights existing on the ship
1) True 2) False

Test
Which of the Following are True: 1) Heavy Containers cannot be loaded on Deck. 2) Container ships are less stable compared to other types of ships, esp. Tankers. 3) When Loading Containers, segregation is as per the Shippers orders. 4) More Important Containers are given specific location on the Ship. 5) The Chief Officer can reject a container (s) for stability reasons

A Typical Ship
Bays

Hatch

Tiers

Hold Aft

Forward

Section of a Typical Stowage Plan

Thus
1. Specific Ports are designated specific slots on the ship 2. There is usually no flexibility beyond what is decided by Asicor for the simple reason- Our Port is only one among many that Asicor plans for the line that the Vessel is plying. 3. MOST importantly, Container slots cannot be randomly loaded.

A Typical Port Rotation

Criteria- Head
1.Considers the Ports that the Vessel is calling. 2.Container compatibility. 3.IMO containers. 4.Ensures every POD has sufficient slots. 5.Ship-board stability, including torsional moments. 6.Reefers.

Criteria- Port Rotation


1. Containers are, as far as is practicable, loaded separately for each ports 2. Where this is not Practicable, the Last Load port is loaded Lowest 3. Cargo Loaded On Deck should not be for a later port from the ones in the hold. 4. The Bays designated for each port should be spread out for handling by maximum number of cranes 5. The Split in the Hatch Covers should also be taken into consideration during planning for different Ports

Criteria- Container Compatibility


1. Containers come in Various types as you all know 2. 40 Feet Containers may be loaded on top of two 20 feet containers longitudinally, but not vice versa. 3. 45 feet containers are loaded only on Tier 84 and above ;Only on Deck and the first 45 container is on a 40 * 4. 40 containers are NEVER loaded above a 45 container 5. Tank Containers are always loaded on Deck 6. OOG Cargo

Criteria- IMO Containers Criteria- Container Compatibility


1. IMO containers are containers carrying Dangerous cargoes 2. IMDG classifies Dangerous goods into different categories from 1 to 9 3. Due to International regulation regarding Dangerous Cargoes, these cannot be loaded randomly 4. There are restrictions when placing different types of Dangerous goods together. 5. Normally IMO goods are not placed in the holds, except for Class 9(with exceptions). 6. These containers need to have specific separations between containers carrying cargo belonging to different Dangerous Classes

Criteria- Slots
1. Every Port has containers for export to, perhaps, each of the ports in the rotation. 2. Thus one port cannot monopolize the slots on a ship 3. Again, there is a restriction on the type of containers that each port can load- for eg. Heavy containers should be loaded into the lower hold so that the vessel does not exceed the PLD or max stack weight 4. A fair number of empty containers are a part of every loaded ship

Criteria- Stability

1. The Vessel loads such that it is always stable 2. Factors here are: 1. Trim 2. Max Draft 3. Shearing Forces SF 4. Bending Moments BM 5. Torsional Moments 6. Lashing 7. GM

Criteria- Reefers

1. Reefers are always loaded in designated reefer slots 2. Types of Reefers- Air cooled, water cooled 3. Motor always facing aft 4. Check condition before loading 5. Some ship-specific restrictions like not loading in between hatch covers 6. On some ships they are not loaded more than 2 high on deck 7. On some ships cannot be loaded on the wing slots

What Could go Wrong

This could happen

Situation:

Loading 900 boxes. Loading to a deadline and the time is just sufficient. Two Cranes breakdown with 150 containers still to be loaded. One Crane starts 60 mins before departure. There are 20 Boxes from the Global Account to be loaded. What will you do?
1. 2. 3. 4. Order that everything be dropped and the Global Boxes be loaded Stick to the Original Plan and dont change the stowage because it may be harmful to the ship Think Pro-active and plan the containers such that the maximum containers are loaded Check the Yard Plan. Decide which of the containers can go into the slots, assuming its for the same POD. Include as many Global List as possible, pursuant to the Box and slot allocations

POD CHANGES How it affects Operations

Prior Submission Of Export List For Vessel


6 6 6 6 6 6 A R R R R R R B R R R R R R C D R R R R R R R R R R R R 6 FULL 6 E R R R R R R F R R R R R R 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A R R R R R R B R R R R R R C D R R R R R R R R R R R R 6 FULL 6 E R R R R R R F R R R R R R 6 6 6 6 6 6

Yard is planned basis VESSEL (AE3/MECL/FEME) POD SIZE


(ROT/SLV) (20/40)

6 6 6 6 6 6

A S S S S S S

B S S S S S S

C D S S S S S S S S S S S S 6 FULL 6

E S S S S S S

F S S S S S S

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A S S S S S S

B S S S S S S

C D S S S S S S S S S S S S 6 FULL 6

E S S S S S S

F S S S S S S

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A A A A A A A

B A A A A A A

C D A A A A A A A A A A A A 6 FULL 6

E A A A A A A

F A A A A A A

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A A A A A A A

B A A A A A A

C D A A A A A A A A A A A A 6 FULL 6

E A A A A A A

F A A A A A A

6 6 6 6 6 6

PRIOR AND AFTER POD CHANGE


6 6 6 6 6 6 A R R R R R R B R R R R R R C D R R R R R R R R R R R R 66F U L L E R R R R R R F R R R R R R 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A R R R R R R B R R R R R R C D R R R R R R R R R R R R 66F U L L E R R R R R R F R R R R R R 6 6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6 6 6 A S R R R S R B R R R S R R C D R S R R S S R S S R R R 6 FULL 6 E R R R R S R F R R S R R R 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A R R S R S R B R R R R R S C D R R S R R S S R R S S R 6 FULL 6 E S R S R S R F R R R S R R 6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A S S S S S S

B S S S S S S

C D S S S S S S S S S S S S 66F U L L

E S S S S S S

F S S S S S S

6 6 6 6 6 6

P R I O R

6 6 6 6 6 6

A S S S S S S

B S S S S S S

C D S S S S S S S S S S S S 66F U L L

E S S S S S S

F S S S S S S

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A S S S S S S

B S S S S S S

C D S S S S S S S S S S S S 6 FULL 6

E S S S S S S

F S S S S S S

6 6 6 6 6 6

A F T E R

6 6 6 6 6 6

A S S S S S S

B S S S S S S

C D S S S S S S S S S S S S 6 FULL 6

E S S S S S S

F S S S S S S

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A A A A A A A

B A A A A A A

C D A A A A A A A A A A A A 66F U L L

E A A A A A A

F A A A A A A

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A A A A A A A

B A A A A A A

C D A A A A A A A A A A A A 66F U L L

E A A A A A A

F A A A A A A

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A A S A A S A

B A A A S A A

C D A A S A S A A S A S A S 6 FULL 6

E A A S A A A

F A S A A A S

6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

A A A S A A S

B A A A S A A

C D A A S A A S S S A A S S 6 FULL 6

E A S A A S A

F A A A S A A

6 6 6 6 6 6

ONE POD CHANGE INVOLVES AN AVERAGE OF 3 SHIFTINGS

RESULT OF SHIFTINGS IN THE YARD


Delayed operations in yard resulting in delayed vessel sailing. Delay in vessel planning. Decrease in productivity from 28 moves to 20 moves. Increase in berth hire charges by 25% Vessel will have to increase speed and consume more fuel.

COSTS INVOLVED (for 17 weeks)


AE 3 SIZE POD CHANGE CHARGE 20 780 40 285 20 410 MECL 40 329 INR 86,81,738 TOTAL

AE 3 SIZE HOLD + GROUND RENT 20 325 40 231 20

MECL 40 321 152

TOTAL INR 36,98,180 INR 61,04,738

SLV HANDLING COST FOR POD CHANGED CONTAINERS

TOTAL COST FOR 17 WEEKS

$ 0.4 MILLION

PONCS 2004

PONCS 2004

TERMINAL OPERATIONS

ICD

Export Containers Arrive

FS

CFS

Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Arrival At Port Gate

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Gate In

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Container Survey

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Off the Trailor

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Stowage Plan

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Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Container CRXU2072559 MSKU8098244 TEXU4818524 MSKU2147927 GLDU2123005 PRSU2214551 MSKU8244626 TGHU2390374 TGHU7885972 TRIU9860330 MSKU3055492 MSKU3060246 MSKU8376556 MSKU2202475 MSKU2836459 APMU4034270 GATU0677161 INBU5211725 MAEU6008475 MAEU6027198 MAEU6161463 MAEU6242800 MAEU6301821

Wt Iso Pod Fpd CargoImoLocatioLine 22.512210LAX LSA GEN AHE MSK 12.414510LAX USLSA GEN CY/CY MSK 11.954310TPP TPP GEN CY/CY MSK 20.902210LAX LSA GEN NAG MSK 23.252210HKG VNR HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 23.742210HKG GDL GEN NORTH MSK 19.404510LAX LSA GEN NORTH MSK 23.282210LAX LSA HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 20.684510LAX LSA GEN NORTH MSK 12.544510LAX LSA HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 22.332210OAK OAK HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 22.342210OAK OAK HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 07.884510OAK STK HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 22.732210TPP TAC HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 22.832210TPP TAC HAZ 9 NORTH MSK 29.834310HKG HKG GEN T/P MSK 21.122210HKG VNR GEN T/P MSK 29.674310HKG JGN GEN T/P MSK 29.684310HKG HKG GEN T/P MSK 29.684310HKG JGN GEN T/P MSK 29.684310HKG HKG GEN T/P MSK 29.784310HKG JGN GEN T/P MSK 29.784310HKG HKG GEN T/P MSK

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of C va l Ar ri

In

on ta i Ga te

Co nt ai

ne r

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Vessel Arrives

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Yard to Quay

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Lined up at Quay Side

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Unberthing formalities

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Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In ne rS Of ur ft ve he y Tr ai Ya lo rd r St ow ag Sc e op e As ic or St ow Ad ag va e nc e Li Pl st an ni ng Ho us ek ee pi Ve ng ss ,S el eq Ar ue Ya r iv nc rd es in to g Qu At ay Qu ay ;T Lo o Sh ad in ip g Co m pl et io n Un of be Lo rth ad in in Ve g g ss el De pa rt Co nt ai ne r

Ar r iv al of Ga Co te nt ai In Co nt ai ne r

Vessel Departs

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GM reduces, BM and TM increases

Very Special Requests


Section 40 of Customs Act states:
Export goods not to be loaded unless duly passed by proper officer:The person in charge of a conveyance SHALL NOT permit the loading at a customs station (a) of export goods, other than baggage and mail bags, unless a SHIPPING BILL OR A BILL OF TRANSHIPMENT, as the case may be, duly passed by the proper officer, HAS BEEN HANDED OVER TO HIM by the exporter. (b) of baggage and mail bags, unless their export has been duly permitted by the proper officer.

Consequences of Violation of this act.

Very Special Requests


M.D/V.P of company along with defaulting parties will need to spend countless hours with custom officers pleading, while being treated like common criminals. Container will be brought back without offloading in POD and reexamined. If unwanted items or undeclared items found then, defaulter is liable for prosecution, fines, penalties and even search of Premises. Obviously the MSL brand image in jeopardy. If case is discovered prior to V/Ls departure then V/L will not be allowed to sail as per law : Sec 37.. Power to board conveyancesmay remain on such conveyance for such period as he considers necessary. Sec 38: Power to require production of documents and ask questions may require the person in charge of ANY conveyance to produce ANY document and answer ANY question.

Effects of Shut outs (contd) 6 Adjustments of loading plans to accommodate Global units 6 Readjustment of loading plan in the subsequent ports in order to counter the stability issues. 6 Numerous restows in the future ports

6 Effects of Shut outs 6 Vessels Stability is affected 6Since the Stability has only been approved for the initial plan 6 Some Global/ Priority Units may not be loaded 6 In case of Reefers High Costs 6 Shut out Charges 6 Ground Rent 6 Heavy Roll over for next Vessel- possible shut-outs in next Vessel 6 Adds to Congestion in Port.

Asicors permission has to be obtained. 6 Plan has to be changed accordingly. 6 New sequence list has to generated copied, approved and distributed. 6 Approval to be obtained from the Chief Officer 6 A new dangerous goods manifest has to issued. 6 Container has to shifted in the yard to a non IMO location or to an appropriate IMO location. 6 If the container has already been loaded the boxes in the vicinity need to be discharged and reloaded.

IMO Changes

Case 1: The POD is changed before Vessel Arrives. 6Click here to see the sample Cost effect 6In the Yard- the Unit has to be relocated to a new position 6Sequence and loading plan changed accordingly 6 Case 2: POD is Changed after Vessel arrives, but before loading 6Cost as in Case 1 6In addition to above New Baplie to be made and given to Chief Officer 6 Case 3: POD is Changed after loading/ Departure 6Unit will have to be restowed at a future port and will incur charges for each unit restowed to effect this change. Cost involved is Very High

6 Case 1: Demanifested after vessel arrives but before loading 6Plan has to be changed accordingly. 6New sequence list has to generated copied, approved and distributed. 6Approval to be obtained from the Chief Officer 6A new dangerous goods manifest has to issued if the unit is IMO. 6 Container has to shifted in the yard (Housekeeping) 6 Case 2 : Demanifested after loading 6All as in Case 1 above 6Additionally, the boxes in the vicinity need to be discharged and reloaded (Cost and Time Loss very high). Asicor has to be informed.

6 Case 1: Unit (in advance List) arrives after cutoff of the port. 6 Cost towards changing the VIA 6 Unit has to be planned (Vessel Plan has to be modified) 6 New sequence list has to generated approved by the Vessel and redistributed in Port. 6 A new dangerous goods manifest has to issued if the unit is IMO. 6 Case 2 : Unit has arrived, but Documentation not ready 6 If IMO Unit, Slot approval to be taken from Asicor 6 Planning done once again 6 New Sequence list generated 6 IMO stowage approved by Chief Officer 6 New Manifest made

6 When and Why Does Shut Out Happen?? 6 Force Majeure 6 Strikes 6 Power Failure 6 Bad Weather 6 Equipment Breakdown 6 Late Arrival 6 Tide 6 Over Booking 6 Congestion in Port (Poor Productivity)

6 Effect of Special requests for Loading of Priority / Global Boxes 6 Rethink of loading plan will have to be done in the crucial closing hours of the Ships stay. 6 Heavy Shiftings in the Yard (almost 6-7 shiftings per box prioritized) 6 Leads to More shut-outs (due to poor productivity) 6 Readjustment of loading plan in the subsequent ports 6 Numerous restows in the future ports and thus lowers their productivity.

Very Special Requests


Section 40 of the Customs Act
Export goods not to be loaded unless duly passed by the Proper Officer
The Person in charge of a conveyance shall not permit the loading at a customs stationsA) of export Goods other than baggage and mail bags, unless a shipping bill or bill of export or a bill of transshipment, as the case may be, duly passed by the proper officer, has been handed over to him by the export. B) Of baggage and mail bags, unless their export has been duly permitted by the proper officer

What could the Consequences be???

Very Special Requests


MD/VP and the defaulting parties will attend customs summons and spend days giving statement and pleading like common criminal and being treated as such The Boxes will be shipped back without being discharged at the POD, de-vanned here and checked for undeclared items, with possibilities of fines, seizure, penalties, confiscation, search of premises, etc. MSL Image is in Jeopardy, Of course In the event of the Unit being found to be on board before possession of document then the officer has the power to stop the Vessel from Sailing as per Law and as per section 37 and 38, which states the power of boarding conveyances and Power to require production of documents and ask Questions