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Living processes and our body function To do work Good health and fight diseases Growth and repair

damaged cell

Carbohydrate

Fibres

minerals Protein

Classes of food water


Vitamins

fats

Made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbohydrates include starch, cellulose, sugars and glycogen Function: - Sources of energy for physical activities

Consist of long chains of amino acids which contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (some proteins contain sulphur and phosporus) Rich in fish, meat, milk, egg, beans, nuts and so on Function: Growth and repair of body tissues Gives energy during extreme starvation Formation of enzymes, hormones and antibodies Lack of protein can cause kwashiorkor

Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Fat consists of smaller units of fatty acids combined with glycerol Excess fats in our body can cause heart disease Functions: Sources energy (twice as much as the same amount of carbohydrates) Acts as an insulator and keep our body warm As a medium for transporting vitamins A,D,E and K

Made up of cellulose from plant cell walls and cannot be broken down by our digestive system Function: - provides bulk to the intestinal contens - Stimulates peristalsis that help the food move along the digestive system Lack of fibre can cause constipation

A person can live without food for several weeks but cannot survive without water for more than three days We lose a lot of water in our urine, sweat and exhaled water. This lost must be replaced A person needs an average of 6 to 8 glasses of water a day

Importance of water:
About 70% of our body made up of water Water transports digested food and waste materials Acts as an solvent for many chemicals and needed for chemical reaction in the body Needed in the production of mucus that helps keep cells, tissues and organs moist Regulate our body temperature

Discuss the functions of minerals and vitamins

A balanced diet

Consist of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water taken in the right amounts to meet the daily requirements of the body

Age Sex

Body size
Factors that determine the balanced diet

Physical activity and occupation

State of health

Climate

The calorific value of food is defined as the amount of energy released from one gram from of a particular type of food The calorific value of food is measured in calories (cal) or joules (J)

1 calorie = 4.2 joules 1000 calories (cal) = 1 kilocalorie (kcal) 1000 joules ( J) = 1 kilojoule (kJ)

Class of food Carbohydrates

Energy value 17

Proteins
fats

18
39

Food Tose Nasi lemak Orange juice

Calorific value per100g (kJ) 154 492 202

Meat dumpling
Milk Guava

235
276 290

Meal A 100 g tose 150 g nasi lemak 200 g orange juice

Meal B 180 g meat dumpling 100 g milk 120 g guava

To ensure that the diet is balanced, we have to choose a food type from each group shown in the food On a balanced diet, the body has sufficient energy to function physical, grow and maintain good health

The food pyramid

The food that we eat are mainly large and indiffusible molecules such as starch, protein, and fat These large and indiffusible molecules must be broken down by our body into smaller and diffusible food substances The process of breaking down food into soluble and diffusible molecules is called digestion

Physical digestion Chemical digestion


Physical digestion involves the mechanical process of breaking down large pieces of food into smaller particles using the teeth and churning movements of the alimentary canal Chemical digestion involves the action of various enzymes in breaking down complex food molecules

Mouth

Oesophagus

Stomach Large intestine

Duodenum Small intestine

Anus

Rectum

Digestive System

Enzymes speed up the digestion of food Each enzymes can only act on certain food substance known as subtrate Enzymes require mediums with a specific pH to function properly There are three main types of digestive enzyme Amylase Proteases Lipases

The food is chewed into smaller pieces by teeth The chemical digestion takes place when salivary amylase in saliva speeds up the breakdown of starch into maltose Saliva also have mucus to soften the food particles to form a lump called bolus The bolus is swallowed into the oesophagus

The muscular wall of the oesophagus contracts and relaxes to produce a wavelike movement called peristalsis Peristalsis pushes the bolus from the oesophagus into the stomach and causes them to break into smaller particles

The stomach wall secretes gastric juices which contains hydrochloric acid, proteases and water The function of hydrochloric acid: to kill bacteria that may be found in the food To provide acidic medium for the action of proteases To stop the action of salivary amylase The stomach also secretes mucus to protect the stomach wall from being corroded by acidic gastric juice Protease catalyse the breakdown of proteins into polypeptides or peptones

The small intestine is the longest part of the alimentrary canal Made up of three parts : duodenum, jejunum and ileum

Is the first part of the small intestine Chyme is mixed with bile and pancreatic juice The function of the bile: Provides an alkaline medium for the action of enzymes in the small intestine Emulsifies fats into smaller oil droplets so that the surface area of fats for the action of enzymes is bigger Funtions of enzymes in the pancreatic juice Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch into maltose Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol Protease breaks down proteins into polypeptides

Jejunum and ileum are lower parts of the small intestine An alkaline intestinal juice is secreted by the ileum Functions of enzymes in the intestinal juice: Protease breaks down polypeptides into amino acids Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol Maltase breaks down sucrose into fructose and glucose Lactase breaks down lactose into galactose and glucose Cellulose is not digested in our body because we do not produce enzyme cellulose

Complete the following table in your notebook

Part of alimentary canal

secretion

Characteristic of secretion

Enzyme

Digestive action

Mouth

Saliva

Starch Maltose

Stomach small intestine (Duodenum)

Gastric juice Pancreatic juice Alkaline

Protein Polypeptide Bile Alkaline

Small intestine (Jejunum and ileum)

Intestinal juice

Protease

After digestion, food consists of smaller molecules that are soluble and easily absorbed These digested foods- glucose, amino acids, glycerol

What is the meaning of absorption?????

intestinal absorption is the uptake from the intestinal lumen of fluids, solutes, proteins, fats, and other nutrients into the intestinal epithelial cells, blood, lymph, or interstitial fluids.

Absorbtion of end product of digestion takes place in the small intestine The walls of the small intestine are particularly adapted to the process of absorption The absorbed nutrient will be transported to the liver. Then from the liver to the heart to be pumped to all parts of the body

Has many blood capillaries for absorption

Has many folds that are covered with millions of finger-like projection called villi

Intestinal muscle can contract and relax to enhances the absorption

The intestinal wall has the following features

Contain moist lining

Small intestine is very long (6 metre) for greater absorption

The intestinal wall is very thin

The undigested food is sent to the large intestine and kept there temporarily As the residue passes through the large intestine , a lot of water, together with dissolved minerals and vitamins are absorbed into the blood The residue then will become faeces and stored in the rectum and will be removed from body through anus (defecation)