This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MACHINERY SAFETY The responsibility for machinery safety falls broadly into three categories 4. The Machine designer, who has responsibility of creating a machine that is safe to use. 5. The employer who has the responsibility for the safe operation of the machine in all working decisions 6. The operator who have been instructed by the employer on the correct use on the machine, has the responsibility of operating it in a safe manner.
MECHANICAL HAZARDS Injuries from machines generally result from a failure to understand the involved of hazards. It is moreover due from poor safety design which fails to reduce their potential for harm to safe working conditions. Although machines are designed to do a variety of tasks there is one factor that is common to all of them; they use motion in their operation.
There are three general kinds of motion that cause different types of hazards; 3. Rotary motion 2. Reciprocating motion 3. Relative motion- person to machine
Reciprocating Movement The primary danger from this kind of motion occurs when the forward stroke completes its travel, forming a trap between the moving part and the stationary part of the machine.
There are two general types of hazard from reciprocating motion. There are; 1.Cutting action- the moving part has a sharp edge, e.g., guillotines and some presses. 2. Pressing action- The process is not designed to cut, but press and hammer into shape, e.g., drop forges, power presses and injection moulding machine. The secondary hazard from this operation is the possible projectile formation if parts break away from the system as a result of the hammer action.
ROTARY MOTION 2. IN RUNNING NIP This hazard may occur with gears, rollers, and contra-rotating mixers. The hazard also occurs in linear motion component that runs over rotating parts conveyor belts or chain drives.
There are a number of cases where this particular hazard is encountered in shops and plants. Common among them are gearings, rollers, and rotating mixers. Moreover, it may occur also when a linearly moving machine part runs over a driving or driven sprocket, sheave, or pulley.
Single rotating parts that can cause a “nip” are worn drives where they move into a stationary opening.
2. ENTANGLEMENT This occurs when circular motion causes something external to become wrapped around the moving part. 3. A relatively smooth surface on which wraparound occurs. The danger here is related to the velocity and the diameter of the revolving part. High velocity/ small diameters produce the most risky situations.
This hazards includes connecting rods, revolving shafts or smooth lathe work pieces, bolt ends, castellated edges, etc.
4. PROJECTILES This occurs when the body in rotary motion breaks up or a part becomes detached, e.g., abrasive wheels-break up or discharging of particles, swarf from drilling, boring or turning, and tools or parts falling onto revolving systems.
5. FRICTION Any smooth revolving high speed surface can, on contact with the skin cause friction burn, like abrasive wheels and shafts. Cutting action- This is a risks found in bladed and shearing equipment common not only in shops and factories but also in the homes. f) By machine designed to cut, e.g., circular saws, circular slicers, rotary planes, beaters, and spike drums. h) By machines not to designed to cut, e.g., fan blades, spoked flywheels, etc., (linear motion in conjunction with rotary motion) and projecting fasteners on belts.
RELATIVE MOTION This hazard occurs when a person is in motion and the machine is stationary. Injury can occur: d) By a person being cut with sharp edges on machine tools, machine structures or work pieces; b) By a person tripping over or walking into projection of a machine.
MECHANICAL SAFEGUARDING A great variety of machines can be guarded with commercial devices; other require specially designed guards. Standard guards for such machines as power presses, circular sows, paper knives, and other hazardous machines are designed to fit a wide variety of sizes and types of equipment.
POINT OF OPERATION - point of operation guards are installed at those parts of machines where cutting, shaping, or forming is performed, and at other points where they may be hazard to operators inserting or manipulating stock.
Protection should be given to operators both from moving machine parts and from moving materials. This may be done by safeguarding of the following types: 1 2 5 4 5 6 7 mechanical feeding and ejecting devices two hand control device interlocking devices devices that interrupt movement of tools or machines devices that pull or push the operator’s hands away from the danger zone redesign of machine so that it is impossible for the operator to get into the danger zone barricades, covers, hood guards, and other enclosures
Automatic feeding and ejecting devices, enclosure guards, sweep guards, hand or arm “pull back” and stroke limitation, among the means used to control the hazards of power operation. GUARD DESIGN POINTERS- This protection must be positive and must as nearly as possible, complete control or eliminate the hazard. The design of the machinery guard, therefore, must attain the following:
Designed guards as to readily permit oiling without exposure to hazard, to permit repairs and designed for easy movement and replacement when necessary. Guard must contribute to efficient operation of the machine and not to contribute to the discomfort of the worker. Care must be taken at times to provide ventilation where a guard might lead to overheating or contribute to it. Should not weaken the structure of the machine resistance to fire, corrosion, resistance to normal wear and shock with minimum maintenance with possible damage of equipment.
Interlock the machine if possible so the machine can not be operated unless the guards are in position. Protect people exposed too the hazard whether passing or working in the vicinity. Must prevent new hazard such as shear point, pinch point, sharp corners, etc. These are the basic faults of poor design and construction of guards.
STANDARDS FOR GUARDSAppropriate standards must be followed when machine guards are designed and installed. Appropriate code and standards must be consulted for details and final determination of materials to be used in the manufacture of machine guards. This is basic to securing uniformity of recommendations among safety engineers or inspectors. Certain general principles should be observed about guards. Their advantages and limitations are essential as starting point for practical machinery safeguarding.
CODE FOR MACHINE GUARDS This is guide manufacturers and users of machinery guards. 1 It is legal responsibility to have machinery guarded but our present safety codes do not adequately define what suitable guard is. Safety inspectors in interpreting the suitable guard use vague terms as adequate, sufficient, etc., which lead to more confusion and little action.
MACHINE GUARDING Safety Engineers find difficulty devising and implementing worthwhile factory safety programs. Nevertheless, resourcefulness on the part of the safety executives, may overcome the problem. Examples of guards that may be made from cheap materials common in the plant or machinery yard.
DOMESTICALLY MANUFACTURED GUARDS Homemade guards are often necessary to make certain equipment safer to operate when such equipment was not properly guarded by its manufacturer. This is usually the best alternative for old and obsolete equipment. Advantages: 4 Custom made guards are satisfactory and the cheapest for transmission machinery. 6 If the plant has its own machine shop, they can be designed to fit a nonstandard situation.
Sometimes they are cheaper for point of operations if the plant has a machinery and the skill to make them. They can be installed on individual dies and feeding mechanisms. Safeguarding work by the plant personnel can help to promote safety consciousness among the employees.
Disadvantages: 2 They cannot be fitted into the design of the machines. 4 They are often weak and not durable; they are not properly constructed. They are often made by inexperience personnel; their value is dependent on the designer. They are difficult to design and construct so as to interlock with the controls.
FOREIGN MANUFACTURED GUARDS Advantages: 1 Imported guards are usually cheaper than homemade guards of similar effectiveness. 2 They are designed for standard machine models. 3 There’s no danger of weakening the machine structure. 4 They are strong, durable, and less likely to be removed. 5 They can be often be made to interlock with the controlling mechanism.
MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF SAFETY GUARDS Guards of all points of operation and transmission should be included in the regular schedule of plant inspection because of the inclination to operate the machine without guards. If the guards is not functioning perfectly or is removed for repair a consistent checkup is important not only to keep the guard functioning but to catch with minor repairs those conditions which might require major and expensive correction.
Supervisor should frequently check the conditions and operations of guards and enforce the proper usage. Any attempt on the part of the machine operators to make the guard inoperative such as blocking, or tying down interlocks, electrical contacts and two hand controlling must be prevented. Every employee should be instructed on the functions and value of the guards on his machine. The employee who understands the purpose of the guard will not assume the attitude that guards are unnecessary nuisances.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.