Maintenance and Safety

Chapter 10


Machine break down. Management must provide for this eventually in a way that maintains the reliability and minimize the risk in the production system. Whenever a machine breakdown. These kinds of cost occur:
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Machine downtime and possible lost sales Idle direct and indirect labor Delays in other processes that may depend for material supply on the machine that is down Increase scrap Customer dissatisfaction from possible delays and deliveries The actual cost of repairing the machine.


In general the reliability of the machines can be maintained and improved by:
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Increasing the size of repair facilities and crews. Utilizing preventive maintenance where practical so that critical parts are replaced before they fail. Providing for slack in the system at critical stages so as to have parallel paths available. This means the excess capacity so some machines down will not affect the system substantially.


Plant maintenance. Planning and Scheduling produces are aimed at improving maintenance function and control cost of maintaining plant and equipment.


Planning scheduling elements


6. 7. 8. 9. 11. 13.

Good work order system Date of origin of the work Required completion date Description of work needed. Approval of work order. Scheduling the work order.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

Clear communication As far in advance as possible Realistic, fair, and honest Accurate, reliable, coordinated, and knowledgeable Responsible, delegated, and Authoritative Cooperation, coordination, accurate, complete, and supported.


Maintenance Planning Operating Policies

Maintenance planning is applicable to the Plant Maintenance Department which is responsible for achieving desired effectiveness in maintenance planning and scheduling. The primary purpose of which is to keep all machineries and devices in proper working condition.


Maintenance Scheduling. It means the arrangement in proper sequence, the many phases of maintenance and fabrication work, and the accomplishment of preliminary activities to insure that each job will be performed smoothly and effectively.


Purpose of Scheduling
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It provides a full day’s work for each craft man each day To achieve coordination among different shops and crew on multi-craft job To smoothen flow of work to each craft’s man To meet required and realistic completion dates For assuring the availability and delivery of needed materials.


Maintenance Planner

He reviews and discusses with foreman concerned the work order to be planned; list down and sequences the events in the job plan summary and prepares bill of materials.


Factors influencing Maintenance Scheduling. Maintenance scheduling can only be properly implemented if certain factors are taken into consideration. These factors involve the availability of materials, tools, equipment, and manpower.


There are several kinds of priorities. They are:

Top priority (Emergency)- these are un-programmed jobs that have to be attended to immediately due to their high economic implications, like jobs involving safety hazards. Priority “A”- Jobs of an urgent nature requiring completion seven days. Priority “B”- Jobs whose completion is required within seven days to three weeks. Priority “C”- Jobs whose completion is more than three weeks.


Daily Work Schedule. Good and effective communication must always be maintained between Plant Maintenance and Operation personnel. A short Daily Scheduling Meeting with participation of the maintenances foreman, operating personnel, planners and warehouse materials expenditer must be held at 8:00 A.M. or earlier.

Material Control. The Plant Maintenance Department must be amply authorized to hedge on stock-outs of regularly used parts through their equipment inventory parts list that guides warehouse in reordering.


Maintenance Planner

Accomplishes bill of materials for problem materials or parts needed on the work order as reviewed and discussed by him with maintenance foreman concerned.


Maintenance Cost control. Another important objective of maintenance planning is to provide the maintenance foreman a tool for monitoring maintenance costs and control them to the extent that correctable causes are discovered and remedied.


Maintenance Equipment

Stairs and Ladders.
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1. Riser must be 7 inches Tread must be 11 inches Nosing must be 1 inches Width, not less than 36” or more than 88” Hand rail, 30” to 34” from top rail. Landing 3’6” wide. If made of concrete, tread must be rough finish.

Well designed ladders must have the following characteristics
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Rungs must be spaced 12 inches from centers. It must be provided with ‘Gooseneck’ to hold on to ledge. A cage of 24” x 20” must be provided ladders with a height of over 20 feet. Rubber footing must be provided. Rungs must be rectangular in cross-section. Wooden parts specially the side pieces must be of longitudinal grains.


Common Defects of Ladders. There are a number of things to watch out to make ladders safe to use. They present varying degrees of hazard to workmen which may trigger a bad fall. They are:
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Uneven rung spacing Loose or missing rung Slippery rungs Poor material or cross grain Lack of toe clearance at the back of the ladder Poor construction


Types of Ladder. A great variety of ladders have been developed to suit any kind of job. However, one common characteristic of ladder is that they are light and portable. One unique characteristic of some of them is that they are collapsible for ease of transport and storage and some are telescoping for jobs at various elevations


Today there are 12 known types of ladders, viz:

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Fixed ladder — one fastened to a structure in permanent position Portable ladder — light ladder usable at various locations. Single ladder — sometime called a straight ladder Extension ladder — one consisting of 2 or more sections traveling in guides or brackets adjustable to different lengths. Step ladder — it has treads so constructed to be selfsupporting.


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Side rolling ladder — a ladder that rides on a guide rail Trolley ladder — a unit running on track Sectional ladder — one consisting of 2 or more sections so that when combined, functions as single ladder. “A” or trestle ladder — a unit consisting of 2 single ladders hinged at the top to form equal angels at the base. Extension trestle — similar to above but it has an additional single extension ladder adjustable vertically and locked in place. Telescoping ladder — a unit mounted on rubber tired platform with adjustable height. Chain or Rope ladder — one designed for emergency or rescue work.


Ladder Safety Program. In a comprehensive safety program, safety in the use of the ladder must be included. This is to protect the safety and well-being of fields workers and servicemen. If a ladder safety program is implemented, the cooperation of the workers is very essential.

This program must consider the following:
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Inspect every ladder as soon as it is received from suppliers. Set up a routine for regular or thorough inspections. Keep record for each ladder which indicates the following:
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Date purchased or built Date of inspections Condition and needed repairs Date of next inspection

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Record system supplemented by stenciling on ladder the date of next inspection. Instruct men to observe precaution. Report to maintenance department any defect of the ladder.


Scaffolds. In the construction industry, a great number of work must be done at varying heights above the ground. This is specially so in the construction of buildings, their maintenance and repair. To facilitate in the work insure safety of workmen, temporary elevated structures are often built. In vary tall buildings, these working platforms are suspended from above the building by rope or steel cables. Some states in the U.S.A. particularly New York have laws requiring scaffolds more than 24 feet from the ground to be secured or suspended from overhead supports.

Requirements in the use of scaffolds:

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Scaffolds must be of good design and wellmaintained. It must be suspended from overhead supports. When supported by rope, it must be of good quality. Life lines must be attached to workmen’s belt and to the building.


Types of Scaffolds:
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Tubular steel – for large construction and for great heights. Swinging – a type generally used for painting, window glazing, washing, and others. Suspended – one supported by an outrigger Ibeam to the frame of buildings of 5 storey or higher, lowered and raised by steel cables. Built up – a wooden temporary type of scaffold.


Scaffold Design Requirements:

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They must be provided with railing 36 to 42 inches high. They must be have toe board. It must be provided with overhead protection. Materials used must be of good quality. Suspending rope or cable must be good quality.



This is a sloping or passageway connecting 2 floors of different levels. When a building is constructed in installments or modules, it often happens that floors are of uneven elevation.


Requirement of Ramps.
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Slope must be small, possibly about 1 foot to every 10 feet distance. Railing of 42 inches high must be provided. If made of cement or granolithic, it must be rough finish. If smooth finished, abrasive materials must be mixed in the cement. When the ramp is used for construction, it must be provided with cross-cleats with 11 inches intervals. If constructed in buildings, they should be at least 48 inches wide between railings.


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