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Contents: What is Vernacular Architecture Introduction to Rajasthan Climatic Conditions Culture Bikaner Jaisalmer Conclusion .
Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental cultural and historical context in which it exists. One of the most significant influences on vernacular architecture is the macro climate of the area in which the building is constructed. is of great influence on building forms. is all considered vernacular architecture. Vernacular architecture is influenced by a great range of different aspects of human behavior and environment leading to differing building forms for almost every different context. that share which spaces. but also has proponents who highlight its importance in current design. how people interact and many other cultural considerations will affect the layout and size of dwellings. how food is prepared and eaten. It can be contrasted against polite architecture which is characterized by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements. and the way they use their shelters. and openings such as windows tend to be small or non-existent. Buildings in warm climates. The building knowledge in vernacular architecture is often transported by local traditions and is thus based largely upon knowledge achieved by trial and error and handed down through the generations. Buildings in cold climates invariably have high thermal mass or significant amounts of insulation. They are usually sealed in order to prevent heat loss. . tend to be constructed of lighter materials and to allow significant cross-ventilation through openings in the fabric of the building. It has often been dismissed as crude and unrefined. The size of family units.What is vernacular architecture? It is a term used to categories methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. by contrast. The way of life of building occupants.
.Introduction • • • Rajasthan is the second largest state in India located in the northwest. The first mention of word Rajasthan appears in James Todd's 1829 publication. • There is rich and varied folk culture from villages • which is often depicted and is symbolic of the state. for more than 850 km. which runs through the state from southwest to northeast. almost from one end to the other. The main geographic features of Rajasthan are the Thar Desert and the Aravalli Range. The music is uncomplicated and songs depict day-to-day relationships and chores more often focused around fetching water from wells or ponds. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India • Rajasthan is culturally rich and has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life. Highly cultivated classical music and dance with its own distinct style is part of the cultural tradition of Rajasthan.
The temperature ranges from 10° C to 27° C. Summer The hottest season of Rajasthan. Winters Extending from December to March is the winter season. lies the monsoon. summer. The state receives approximately 90% of its annual rainfall in this season only.Climatic Conditions Rajasthan weather is usually hot and dry. Monsoons. The temperature in this season ranges from 32° C to 45° C. and the minimum is between 18° C and 20° C. . These can be classified as Summers. yet one can see four distinct seasons in this state. Monsoon During the period of July to September. It is the most humid season in Rajasthan. Post Monsoon From October to November is the post monsoon season. Post-monsoon and Winters. extends from April to June. The temperature ranges from 35° C to 40° C. The coldest month of the season is January. The average maximum temperature ranges between 33° C to 38° C.
Bagaru prints. tie and dye prints. semi-precious stones and handicrafts. There is a rich and varied folk culture from villages which is often depicted symbolic of the state. Block prints. and for its traditional. Rajasthani furniture has intricate carvings and bright colours. Rajasthan is famous for textiles. Textiles Sanganer prints Zari embroidery . Sanganer prints and Zari embroidery are major export products from Rajasthan.Culture Rajasthan has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life. colorful art.
therefore. •The land is as dry as a desert can possibly be. heat is instance and hot winds blow with great fury. Jodhpur and Nagaur on the south and Jaisalmer on the southwest. • During the summer the.Introduction • The district of Bikaner lies almost at the northern most edge of the desert. • The surface is for the most part covered with undulating sand hills. •It is bounded on the north east by Ganganagar district by the district of Churu on the east. varying in height from 10m to over 30m. natural that the house is of the region have to be built to respond to such extremes of climate . with no perennial rivers or streams.
. except for one’s that are circular which are either kitchen or store with a conical thatched roof. with flat stone slabs or rough wood roofs. •All major spaces are rectangular.Planning TYPICAL PLAN •The houses are constructed out of stone as well as mud. • Rectangular rooms arranged in geometric pattern around the courtyard constitute the basic plan form.
Art done on boundary walls . •The village Houses have two or three courtyards. plastered with mud. •The outer court has a high and strong compound wall for and protection against the sandstorms. •The inner or central court is the place onto which all rooms open and it is the hub of activities.Planning Mud construction •The walls are either constructed out of sun baked mud bricks or undressed stone.
Small window opening painted white to make the opening look big . • The room which is accessible from the outside maybe used as a visitor’s room or as a shop. •The interior of and these built spaces is used only when the climate is specially severe. •The rear yard is where the food is stored. •The play of walls of different heights set on various planes gives the main façade an appearance characteristic of the area. • Semi open space like verandahs are used most of the time. •Openings in the walls are small and few in number.Planning •The mud plastered walls are painted white at these openings and this makes them look larger.
Rees and steams mixed with mud to provide strength.The further covering of houses is done with thatched roofs. Wall construction with jali Conical thatched roof .
rocky and barren. .Introduction Situated in the heart of the Thar Desert. Less known perhaps is the fact that the town and buildings in it overcome the problem of the severe desert summer by special passive design features. The climate of Jaisalmer is typical of a hot desert region. relieved by sparse scrubby weeds. there are shifting sand dunes. In certain areas around Jaisalmer. but no trees. Jaisalmer is famous for its richly carved building facades. The landscape of the surrounding region is flat. There is scarce and unreliable rainfall.
Planning •In Jaisalmer buildings. •Coupled with the high thermal inertia of the massive stone walls. •Narrow vertical ducts and staircase shafts are used to deflect wind down into the house in Jaisalmer. . such shafts temper air before it enters the living space. •The courtyard effect is well known and used in almost all hot-dry climates. a number of interconnected vertical shafts are used for ventilation.
a verandah and a courtyard. The simplest town house consists of a single room. there are three types of houses in Jaisalmer. The front part of the first floor has a balcony projecting onto the street. The second type of house belongs to the middle-income people. A two or three-storey structure. with the only difference that additional rooms and small enclosed terraces are located at the upper floors. this house type can be considered the typical house of Jaisalmer. . It is similar to the first house type in plan.Planning Depending upon the socio-economic status of the inhabitant.
45m or more in thickness.Construction •The common building material used in Jaisalmer is stone of which there are two types. the use of windows was limited to upper floors only and it is only in recent construction that windows have been built at the street level. Because of the need for privacy. •Doors are built with stone frames and fitted with thick timber shutters. • In better quality construction the stone is dressed and joints made accurately without any mortar. Light yellowish sandstone is used for walls. which are 0. . •Two types of construction are used for roofs and floors. Windows are generally small and are fitted with solid timber shutters.
the layout of the town is the first defense against the harsh climate. STONE WALL OUT IN Stone is a good conductor of heat. . It increases the time gap and provides a cooler day. the street orientation of NW-SE ensures that the building facades are either shaded by the balcony and sunshade projections or by the buildings opposite. During night this heat enters the interior space thus giving cooler nights.Construction In Jaisalmer. The stone walls do not allow the heat to enter the interior space. Even though the major streets are not particularly narrow.
•Roof is also 450mm thick. •The builders of the medieval Indian town of Jaisalmer have done a remarkable job of creating an urban environment that is in tune with nature and provides for more than just the basic needs of the inhabitants. jaggery and hessian are mixed together in the roofing plaster. • Lime . • Stone walls are on an average 450mm thick and plastered with lime. . double layered with a layer of stone veneer with lime kada on it. This mixture is applied on stone slabs. The climate of Jaisalmer is typical of a hot desert region. Situated in the heart of the Thar Desert.Construction • Columns and lintels are also made of dressed stone and stone beams are used in the roof.
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