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CUTTING TECHNOLOGY

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:


MS. SHARMILA SURE

SUBMITTED BY:

NEERAJ KUMAR NEHA PANDEY NOOPUR SINGH PULKIT MISHRA

INTRODUCTION
Cutting production consists of all the processing activities involved in reducing bulk materials and bolts of fabrics and trimmings used in apparel products into component parts that make up the product. The major categories of cutting production process are: marker making spreading cutting positioning marking shading sloping bundling

REQUIREMENTS OF CUTTING TECHNOLOGY


Precision of cut Clean edges Unsorched, un-fused edges Support of the lay Consistent cutting

IMPORTANCE OF CUTTING
As a unit, cutting has a greater effect on excessive manufacturing cost than any other department concerned with the actual production of garments.

Basically there are two types of costs incurred by cutting department


that adds to its importance in the production process: Internal costs External costs

CUTTING TECHNOLOGY IN GARMENT INDUSTRY


Cutting is the preproduction process of separating (sectioning, carving, severing) a spread into garment parts that are the precise size and shape of the pattern pieces on the marker.

Objective: To separate fabric parts as the replicas of pattern pieces in the marker plan.

TYPES OF CUTTING
Fully manual: Manually operated power knife:

Hand operated scissor

Straight knife Band knife Round knife Die cutting Notcher Drill

Computerized methods of fabric cutting:

Computer controlled knife cutting Cutting by Laser beam Cutting by Water jet Cutting by Plasma torch

CUTTING MACHINES
From the standpoint of cutting stroke action, there are two basic types of cutting machines:

Cutting machines

Continuous cutting machine

intermittent cutting machines

Continuous cutting equipment:


It has no negative trust in the blade action, that is, every movement of the blade cuts the fabric. Examples of continuous cutting equipments are Vertical blade reciprocating machine Rotary blade cutting machine Band knife machine.

Intermittent cutting machines:


In intermittent cutting equipment, the tools or machine has two actions; the positive action is the machine movement which actuates the blade for cutting and the negative action is the one which releases the blade in order to reposition the blade for next cutting.

Examples of intermittent cutting machines are: Diecutters Shears Notchers Drills

Vertical stroke cutting machine


Vertical stroke cutting machines is of two types:

Vertical reciprocating cutting machine

Straight knife cutting machine

Inside Slasher

Straight knife cutting machine


Linkage system: Machine base plate The blade housing The power system : motor, switch and outlet Blade drive

Cutting blade
Blade sharpening device Operating handle

Blade guard
Blade cooling system(optional)

Features Length of straight knife Blade shapes(Geometric designs)

Types 4,5,6,81012 Straight edge Saw toothed edge Serrated edge Wave edge 1750 to 3500 rpm

Motor rpm

Vertical cutting stroke velocity

2 X straight knife motor rpm X blade stroke Non staining oils Water with rust inhibitors

Blade cooling fluids

Principle The cutting blade is reciprocated vertically in the blade housing. The blade housing is anchored in the base plate and supports the motor, operating handle and sharpeners. The machine makes only lateral cuts. The blade stroke length, that is, the vertical displacement of the blade during reciprocation depends upon: The blade shape The type of blade edge The blade composition Vertical cutting stroke velocity Horizontal cutting stroke velocity

Straight knife blades

Limitations 1. Deflection of the blade: The vertical knife may curve as it is pushed against many plies in the fabric. If the blade is curved, it is not at the desired 90 degree angle to the spread and pieces in the same stack vary in size as a result. Quality check and blade guard is used in order to overcome this disadvantage. 2. Blade heat: Friction arises as the result of the blade heat which in turn arises due the blade moving against the fabric plies. Friction and heat causes the superimposed plies to fuse with each other. Blade cooling systems provided overcome this disadvantage to a greater extent.

BRANDS
Eastman(bluestreak) Wolf Pacer KM Loin king Maimin Linz Zest Yamata

Brand : Eastman(bluestreak) Cost : $650

Brand : Wolf Pacer Cost : 1,104.91

Brand : KM Cost : 390.00

Brand : Loin king Cost : 450.00

Brand : Maimin Cost : $650

Brand : Linz Zest Cost : $600

Brand : Yamata Cost :$300.42

Inside Slasher
Straight knife machine cut laterally onto the spread and therefore cannot be used for the areas from the center of the garment parts.

To remove a section of fabric without cutting the area, a slasher is required which is the adapted version of vertical knife and cuts the spread from above much the same as a jigsaw cutting round the section of fabric to be removed.

Principle A slasher has no vertical blade housing in which the blade oscillates, so the machine resembles a jigsaw. It permits the cutter to cut the spread vertically. The ability of the slasher to enter a spread vertically enables the cutter to cut islands(such as double darts) out of the spread without making a cut across the fabric to the island area.

Rotary cutting machine


Rotary cutting machine or round knife cutting machines have same linkage as that of the straight knife cutting machine. The basic difference lies in terms of: Blade shape(circular) Blade thrust(one-way)

Principle The rotary circular machine has a whose edge rotates counter clockwise into the super imposed plies as the machine is propelled laterally into the spread. This cuts the fabric in one way thrust of the blade edge. The cutting capacity of the rotary machine is governed by: Knife diameter Motor horse power Motor speed

Features Length of round knife

Types 2 , 3,3 ,4 ,5 ,5 , 6, 7, 8 and 12 Circular Waved Obtuse angle parameter Toothed 1000 to 3500 rpm Motor rpm X blade diameter 1/6,1/4,1/3 H.P 90 degree

Blade shapes(Geometric designs)

Motor rpm Vertical cutting stroke velocity(rotary) Motor horse power Cutting pitch

Limitations The cut able height is max, hence only limited number of plies can be cut using round knife. They do not cut into sharp concave curve with accuracy of the vertical blade.

BRANDS
Eastman Cardinal Round Knife (Rotary) Wolf Blazer Round Knife KM Maimin round knife Consew 515E Cloth Cutting Machine JM-100

Brand : Eastman (Rotary) Cost : $650

Brand : Wolf Blazer Cost : $450

Brand : KM Cost : $395

Brand : Maimin Cost : $749

Brand: Consew

Brand: JM-100

Band-knife machine
Band knife machines are used when higher standards of accuracy are required(such as in block cutting) that can be obtained with the straight knife. These machines are mounted permanently from a housing so that they are suspended at 90 degree angle a work surface of 2 or 3 square feet.

Principle The blade of band knife circulates in the basic shapes of the standard conveyor band: two equal parallel lines whose parallel ends are joined by semicircles. The principle of operation is different from the straight knife in that the band knife passes trough the slot in the cutting table in fixed position and the section of lay to be cut is moved passed it.

Features Size of table top Diameter of the wheel Size of band knife Air blowing motor

Types 1200 X 1600mm, 1500 X 1800mm, 1500 X 2400mm 700mm-1200mm 0.45 X 10 X 3500mm-0.45 X 10 X 4450mm 180 W(approx.)

Cutting pitch
Vertical stroke cutting velocity

90 degree
VCSV =motor rpm or =circumference of the blade X motor rpm or =velocity of the point at the perimeter of the drive pulley

Limitation The turning of the black on the blade disrupts the super imposed plies, hence the use of vacuum tables is must in case of band knife Band knife unlike straight or round knife is not portable.

BRANDS
Anysew BK Cosmotex CZD series Super silent Sanyu

Brand : Anysew Cost : $1475

Brand : BK Cost : $1300

Brand : cosmotex cost : $1525

Brand : supersilent cost : $1200

Brand : CZD series cost : $1260

Brand : Sanyu series Cost : $1530

Die cutters: Clickers and Pressers


Die cutting is used for cutting intricate patterns with peak precision. Dies are pre shaped metal outline with one cutting edge. There are two types of die cutters

Die cutters

Clickers

Pressers

All die cutting machines have following parts: The machine frame The cutting bed or table clock The ram head The die The motor The ram dive system The ram head height adjuster

The difference lies in the ram drive system.

Principle : On engaging the machine, the ram head moves into the place above the die, applies tons of pressure to the die, releases and return to position. The cutting action is vertical as the ram presses the die into the surface of the fabric.

The precision of die cutting is decreased if

Cutting ram and surfaces are parallel The die walls are not perpendicular to these surfaces. The die walls are too thick The spread section is not leveled on the cutting bed The cutting bed and ram surfaces are not level. The die cutting edge is dull, nipped or chipped

BRANDS
Herman Schwabe Swing Arm Die Cutter cost: $2,000

Drills
Cutting drills are used to place precise guide marks on the surfaces of the superimposed plies.

Cutting drills

Awl drill

Hypodermic drill

Awl drill: It has a solid needle whose function is to cut a hole in the cut parts for the sewing operator to identify. Hypodermic drill: It has hollow needles which contain marking fluid and mark the fabric with fluid as the needle is withdrawn.

Principle: The base is placed on the spread; the motor is started and it rotates the needle. The rotating needle is pressed down by the cutter.

BRANDS
Eastman # CD3 Cloth Drill cost : $250

Notchers
A notcher is a hand-held device with a vertical electrical element that scorches the fabric at the point of contact.

Temperature and notch depth are adjustable dependable on the fabric

It is used to mark notches on the natural fibre and knits as the marks are clearly visible. It is not a good choice for the thermoplastic fibers as it melts the plies together.

BRANDS
Eastman # HVN Hot Notcher 110 volt Cost : $300

Servo cutters
The bridge between computer controlled and manual cutting is the servo-cutting system.

This types of system has an overhead servo motor with adjustable speed and a suspension system that supports the knife perpendicular to the table. This reduces the problem with tilting the blade and in accurate cutting. It combine vertical and band knife cutting into one.

MODERN CUTTING EQUIPMENTS

COMPUTER CONTROLLED CUTTING


The input for this operation comes from the marker generated on computerized marker planning systems.
The computerized data is transferred to the cutting unit by tapes, floppy discs and directly from the marker planning system.

Advantages 8 times faster than manual cutting. More accurate. Most effective investment for large scale industry.

LASER CUTTING
A laser produces a beam of light that can be focused into a very small spot(0.25 mm) producing a very high energy density and rapid localized increase in temperature. Cutting takes place by burning, melting and vaporization.

Limitations Scorching of edges takes place. Thermoplastic fibre melts and hence it is not suitable. Cannot cut thick plies.

PLASMA CUTTING
Cutting is achieved by means of high velocity jet of high temperature ionized argon gas. There is no need of sharpening.

Limitations

Scorching of edges takes place. Thermoplastic fibre melts and hence it is not suitable. Limit depth of focus

WATER JET CUTTING


A very high velocity, small diameter stream of water is created by applying high pressure to the nozzle.
The high pressure jet acts as a solid tool when it encounters the material to be cut, tearing the fibres apart.

Limitations Only used for sample/single ply cutting. only pure water can be used.

ULTRASONIC CUTTING
Vibration frequency in the 20KHz range produces 1/20mm movement in the blade.

Limitation The ultrasonic cutting uses disposable knife blade, hence is expensive. Only a single ply can be cut. Low vacuum is needed.

OSHIMA Band knife machine with air blowing


Variable speed control of the blade facilitates the cutting of diverse fabrics. The blowing from table top makes the airspace under cutting fabric what facilitates the manoeuvring of it. Oshima band knife is equipped with the special detector (responsible for the work of band knife blade) and with the band knife security system BSS (protects band knife blade from escape from the course).

Specification:
Table size: 1500 mm x 1800 mm. Gap between the blade and carrier arm is 900 mm Cutting capacity maximum: 180 mm Dimension of the band knife blade: 3860 x 10 x 0,45 mm Voltage: 230V

CUTTING TECHNOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT FABRICS


Computerized panel cutting machine: for cutting mattress materials Transmission material Knife Motor Circuit control operation Low noise high quality infra red control system Speed of cuttin:5m/min Power: 1.5kw Slittering:160 to 2500mm

Bundle cutting and leather slitting machine: Machine head cutter Guide rail Moving sets Maximum width of slitting rolls:1200mm Machine head driving speed:60rpm

Bias cutting and winding machine:

It can roll up straight stripe or diagonal stripe material and cut it into bias strips used in leather, shoes, suitcases, garments and bags industry.

Automatic bag cutting machine: Used to cutting straight and 45degree diagonal straps in widths of woven fabrics, adhesive bonded fabric, foam, cladding, paper and reflector-ized materials.

Trimming machine: type of cloth cutting machine Maximum size for sawing: 3500*60mm

Automatic knitting fabric binding machine:

cross cuts knitted fabric into piping strips. Binding width: 15-130mm Cutting speed: 25000mm/min

CUTTING MACHINES USED FOR DIFFERENT FABRICS

FABRIC

MACHINE USED

knitted

Die cutters/

straight knife
woven Continuous fringe cutter/straight knife cutter

Non-woven

Laser cutting/ Straight knife

FABRIC TYPE MACHINE USED

cotton Denim

Straight knife/round knife Straight knife/round knife

Corduroy

Straight knife (nap fabric)/die cutters

Silk/synthetic Straight knife/round knife /chiffon

Leather/ rubber

Straight knife/round knife

Woven fabrics
Passed against two scissor-shaped cutters which, through suitable linkage, are actuated by the lay at the end of its travel in beating up a pick. These cutters cut the fabric between the two pairs of leno ends at each edge, removing a ragged fringe. To maintain the cutters close to the inner pair of leno ends at each edge, the fabric edge contacts a vertical guide which with the cutters can move a small distance parallel to the wefts.

Knitted fabrics
A device for cutting fabric has a pinning frame placed on a support of a press having a head relatively movable toward and away from the support. A die is then forced through the fabric and both apertures by relative movement of the head toward the support to cut the material against the support of the press. Drills and notchers should not be used in knitted areas as they create runs in the exposed finished garments.

QUALITY CONSIDERATION IN CUTTING


Knife cutting Maintaining accuracy is difficult when cutting pieces with very sharp and acute angles, multiple changes in curves or very small pattern pieces. The size of the knife blade and the weight of the cutting tool also restrict the accuracy of the cut parts. Cutting operator errors too need to be controlled.

Computer controlled cutting

The machine are normally placed at the end of the table and thus distortion of the plies during movement of spread can occur. The cutting though is excellent but in case of synthetic fibres , the edge of the cut pieces may be sharp because of the melting that may occur with laser or high speed cutting.

Die cutting A main quality benefit of die cutting is the precision of the cut parts that results from the die. Also quickness of cut even for very complex cuts or cuts with extreme or exaggerated shapes is a quality benefit.

SPACE MANAGEMENT FOR CUTTING PRODUCTION


Die cutting and band knife work cutting stations should contain definite spaces for: 1. Stacking uncut blocks (tiered racks) 2. Stacking cut blocks 3. Receptacle for cut scraps 4. Storing the die between cuts

Portable cutting stations should have : 1. Spaces on tables to dispose the scrap temporarily 2. Scrap bins on casters

CUT PLAN
CUTPLAN optimizes cutting orders to utilize the least amount of fabric, maximize cutting heights, minimize the number of bundles, and create the fewest new markers/nests. CUTPLAN handles virtually every cutting scenario: 1. fabric and accessory markers 2. single and multiple colors 3. small and large quantity cut orders 4. face-to-face, open-only, mixed, and tubular goods 5. small markers only (1-4 sizes, 1-2, etc) 6. separates markers (coat/pant mixing)

CUT PLANNING

END BITS

CUT PARTS

BUNDELED PARTS

CUTTING TABLE WITH SERVO ASSISTED STRAIGHT KNIFE

BAND KNIFE1

BUNDLIN G & TICKETI NG

ENTER

DRILLING & NOTCHING

EXIT

END BITS

CUT PARTS

DRILLING & NOTCHING

CUTTING TABLE

BAND KNIFE2

BUNDLIN G & TICKETI NG

BUNDELED PARTS

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Apparel manufacturing by Glock and Kuntz Apparel manufacturing handbook by Jacob Solinger Introduction to clothing technology by Cooklin www.alibaba.com www.imsmachines.com www.sewingmachinery.com www.tradeindia.com www.advancedsewing.com www.advance-enterprises.co.uk

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