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Ionisation Energy

Presenter G. Delapenha 26 sept, 2011

Ionisation Energy
Evidence for how the electrons are arranged in atoms comes from ionisation energies. 1st Ionisation Energy The energy required to remove one mole of electrons (to infinity) from one mole of isolated, gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous positive ions. e.g. 1st IE of Na: Na(g) Na+(g) + e 2st Ionisation Energy The energy required to remove one mole of electrons (to infinity) from one mole of gaseous unipositive ions to form one mole of gaseous dipositive ions. 2nd IE of Na: Na+ (g) Na2+(g) + e

Ionisation Energy Influenced by three factors:


1. Atomic Radii Larger atomic radii means higher energy levels are further away from the nucleus. 2. Nuclear Charge(# protons) More charge pulls electrons in closer. (+ and attract each other) 3. Shielding effect (blocking effect?)

Calculating Ionization Energy

E = hL = h

where L is the Avogadro number.

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Successive ionisation energies for potassium
2 electrons
8 electrons 8 electrons

n=1

n=2
n=3

Valence electron 1 electron

n=4
e.c. = 2, 8, 8, 1

Potassium is in group 1
Notice the jump in energy needed to remove the 2nd electron

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Successive ionisation energies for potassium n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4
The different jumps are evidence for the arrangement of electrons in energy levels and sub-levels

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Which group is this element in?
n=1 Valence electrons

n=2

Group 4
Notice the jump in energy needed to remove the 5th electron

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Which group is this element in?

Valence electrons

Group 2
Notice the jump in energy needed to remove the 3rd electron

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Which group is this element in?

Group 3
Notice the jump in energy needed to remove the 4th electron

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Which group is this element in?

Group 5
Notice the jump in energy needed to remove the 6th electron

Ionisation energies and group numbers


Which group is this element in?

Valence electron

Group 1
Notice the jump in energy needed to remove the 2nd electron

Successive ionisation energies (K)

1st ionisation energy

How Ionization Energy data provide evidence for subshells


The energy required to remove electrons was sometimes less than expected due to shielding from filled sub-levels.