Topic 8 Salts

8.1 Salts

ITeach – Chemistry Form 4

Topic 8 Salts

Salts
Examples Of Salts Used In Daily Life Salt exist naturally around us. We use salt in our food, things that we used and others.

Table NaCl

salt,

Marble, CaCO3

Baking powder or sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3

Calcium sulphate, CaSO4 is used as plaster to support broken bones

Ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4 is used as fertilisers in agriculture

Silver bromide, AgBr is used to make film and photography paper

ITeach – Chemistry Form 4

Topik 8 Garam

Garam
Contoh Garam Yang Digunakan Dalam Kehidupan Seharian Garam wujud secara semula jadi di sekeliling kita. Kita menggunakan garam di dalam makanan, barangan yang digunakan dan sebagainya.

Garam NaCl

biasa,

Marmar, CaCO3

Serbuk penaik atau natrium bikarbonat, NaHCO3

Kalsium sulfat, CaSO4 digunakan sebagai plaster untuk menyokong tulang patah

Ammonium fosfat, (NH4)3PO4 digunakan sebagai baja dalam pertanian

Argentum bromida, AgBr digunakan untuk membuat filem dan kertas fotografi

ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4

Topic 8 Salts Salts The Meaning Of Salt Salt is formed in neutralisation process. salt is defined as a compound produced when hydrogen ion. H+ from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion. Cation from the base HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H2O Anion from the acid Thus. Zn2+ (NO . NH4+.)2 3 K+ NO 3 H+ NO 3 Cu2+ (NO 3 )2 NH4+ NO 3 ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 . Salt consist of cation from base that combines with anion from acid.

Kation daripada bes HCl (ak) + NaOH (ak) → NaCl (ak) + H2O Anion daripada asid Oleh itu. Zn2+ (NO . Garam mengandungi kation daripada bes yang bergabung dengan anion daripada asid. NH4+. garam ditakrifkan sebagai sebatian yang terhasil apabila ion hidrogen H+ daripada asid digantikan oleh ion logam atau ion ammonium.)2 3 K+ NO 3 H+ NO 3 Cu2+ (NO 3 )2 NH4+ NO 3 ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .Topik 8 Garam Garam Garam Garam terbentuk dalam proses peneutralan.

K2CO3 Ammonium carbonate. AgCl Lead (II) chloride. BaSO4 ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 . Some are soluble in water and some are insoluble in water. (NH4)2CO3 Carbonate salts All other carbonate salts All chloride salts except some chloride salt Chloride salts • • Silver chloride. PbSO4 Calcium sulphate. CaSO4 Barium sulphate. PbCl2 All sulphate salts except some sulphate salts Sulphate salts • • • Lead (II) sulphate.Topic 8 Salts Salts Soluble And Insoluble Salt Salts can be classified according to its solubility in water. Soluble Salts Insoluble All nitrate salts Nitrate salts No nitrate salts are insoluble Sodium carbonate. Na2CO3 Potassium carbonate.

Topik 8 Garam Garam Garam Larut Dan Garam Tak Larut Garam boleh dikelaskan mengikut keterlarutannya dalam air. Larut Garam Tak Larut Semua garam nitrat Garam nitrat Tiada garam nitrat yang tidak larut Natrium karbonat. PbSO4 Kalsium sulfat. BaSO4 ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 . (NH4)2CO3 Garam karbonat Semua garam karbonat yang lain Semua garam klorida kecuali beberapa garam klorida Garam klorida • • Argentum klorida. PbCl2 Semua garam sulfat kecuali sesetengah garam sulfat Garam sulfat • • • Plumbum (II) sulfat. CaSO4 Barium sulfat. Sesetengah garam larut dalam air dan sesetengah tidak larut. K2CO3 Ammonium karbonat. Na2CO3 Kalium karbonat. AgCl Plumbum (II) klorida.

Topic 8 Salts Salts Preparation Of Soluble Salts Method Other salt • • • Sodium salts Potassium salts Ammonium salts Method Acid+ Metal Oxide →Salt + Water Neutralisation Acid+ Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas Acid+ Alkali → Salt + Water Acid+ Metal carbonate → Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide Soluble salts are not pure and contain impurities. They are purified through recrystallisation process. ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .

Ia akan ditulenkan melalui proses penghabluran. ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .Topik 8 Garam Garam Penyediaan Garam Larut Kaedah Garam lain • • • Garam natrium Kaedah Garam kalium Garam ammonium Asid+ Oksida logam →Garam + Air Peneutralan Asid+ Logam → Garam + Gas hidrogen Asid+ Alkali → Garam + Air Asid+ Karbonat logam → Garam + Air + Karbon dioksida Garam larut tidak tulen dan mengandungi bendasing.

sharp corners and straight sides. Crystals have fixed angles between two neighbouring surfaces. Crystals have different geometrical shapes such as cuboids. Crystals of the same substance have same shape but different in sizes.Topic 8 Salts Salts Physical Characteristics Of Crystal Crystal of sodium chloride Crystal of potassium dichromate Crystal of copper (II) sulphate • • Crystals have flat surfaces. • • ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 . rhombic or prism.

Topik 8 Garam Garam Sifat Fizik Hablur Hablur natrium klorida Hablur kalium dikromat Hablur kuprum (II) sulfat • • Hablur mempunyai permukaan yang rata. • • ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 . Hablur mempunyai sudut tetap diantara dua permukaan bersebelahan. Hablur bahan yang sama mempunyai bentuk yang sama tetapi saiz yang berbeza. jarum atau kepingan. bucu tajam dan sisi lurus. Hablur mempunyai bentuk geometri yang berbeza seperti kuboid.

Insoluble salts are prepared through precipitation reaction where two different aqueous solution containing ions of insoluble salt are mixed together.ions (anion). Example: Lead (II) iodide consists of Pb2+ ions (cation) and I.Topic 8 Salts Salts Preparation Of Insoluble Salts • Insoluble salts are ionic compounds consist of cations and anions. • Aqueous solution containing cations + Aqueous solution containing anions Insoluble salt obtained through filtration • Examples: Lead (II) sulphate Pb (NO3) (aq) + Na2 SO4 (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq) • Calcium carbonate Ca Cl2 (aq) + Na CO3 (aq) → CaCO3 (s) + 2NaCl (aq) ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .

Topik 8 Garam Garam Penyediaan Garam Tak Larut • Garam tak larut merupakan sebatian ionik yang mengandungi kation dan anion.(anion). Garam tak larut disediakan melalui tindak balas pemendakan di mana dua larutan akueus berbeza yang mengandungi ion garam tak larut dicampur bersama. Contoh: Plumbum (II) iodida mengandungi ion Pb2+ (kation) dan ion I. Larutan akues mengandungi kation • + Larutan akues mengandungi anion Garam tak larut diperolehi melalui penapisan • Contoh: Plumbum (II) sulfat Pb (NO3) (ak) + Na2 SO4 (ak) → PbSO4 (p) + 2NaNO3 (ak) • Kalsium karbonat Ca Cl2 (ak) + Na CO3 (ak) → CaCO3 (p) + 2NaCl (ak) ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .

The ionic equation for the formation of barium sulphate. Example: The formation of precipitate of barium sulphate.Topic 8 Salts Salts Chemical And Ionic Equations • Steps in writing an ionic equation from a chemical equation. BaSO4: Ba2+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) → BaSO4 (s) - ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .(aq) - • • Step 3: Cancel the ions that do not take part in the reaction. BaSO4 Step 1 : Write down the chemical equation BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) → BaSO4 (aq) + 2 NaCl (aq) • Step 2 : Write down all the ions of reactants and products in aqueous state BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) → BaSO4 (aq) + 2 NaCl (aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) +SO42 (aq) → BaSO4 (s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl.

BaCl2 (ak) + Na2SO4 (ak) → BaSO4 (ak) + 2 NaCl (ak) Ba2+(ak) + 2Cl-(ak) + 2Na+(ak) + SO42 (ak) → BaSO4 (p) + 2Na+(ak) + 2Cl. Contoh: Pembentukan mendakan barium sulfat. Persamaan ion bagi pembentukan barium sulfat.Topik 8 Garam Garam Persamaan Kimia Dan Ion • Langkah-langkah dalam menulis persamaan ion daripada persamaan kimia. BaSO4: Ba2+ (ak) + SO42 (ak) → BaSO4 (p) - ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .(ak) - • Langkah 3: Potong ion yang tidak mengambil bahagian dalam tindak balas. BaSO4 Langkah 1 : Tulis persamaan kimia BaCl2 (ak) + Na2SO4 (ak) → BaSO4 (ak) + 2 NaCl (ak) • • Langkah 2 : Tulis semua ion bahan tindak balas dan hasil dalam keadaan akues.

The methods in the continuous variation method: • Determine mole ratio of cations A that reacts completely with anions B. Example: x mol of cations A react completely with y mol of anions B. Example: x mol of cations A react completely with y mol of anions B to form Ax By insoluble salt. the ionic equation is : x (ion A) + y (ion B)  Ax By ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 . • Determine empirical formula of the insoluble salt.Topic 8 Salts Salts Constructing Ionic Equations Using The Continuous Variation Method The ionic equation for the formation of insoluble salt can be constructed through the continuous variation method. • Thus.

Contoh: x mol kation A bertindak balas sepenuhnya dengan y mol anion B untuk membentuk garam tak larut Ax By. Kaedah dalam kaedah perubahan berterusan adalah: • Tentukan nisbah mol kation A yang bertindak balas selengkapnya dengan anion B. persamaan ion adalah: x (ion A) + y (ion B)  Ax By ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 . Contoh: x mol kation A bertindak balas sepenuhnya dengan y mol anion B. • • Oleh itu.Topik 8 Garam Garam Membina Persamaan Ion Menggunakan Kaedah Perubahan Berterusan Persamaan ion dalam pembentukan garam tak larut boleh dibina melalui kaedah perubahan berterusan. Tentukan formula empirik bagi garam tak larut.

0125mol 4. 4.5. 16. Number of moles of AgNO3 = 4. Calculate the mass of zinc chloride. 3.25 = 0. number of moles of ZnCl2 = 0. Calculate the number of moles of AgNO3.25 g of silver nitrate. ZnCl2 to produce silver chloride.7 g ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 . 108] Solution 1. O. Zn.Topic 8 Salts Salts Numerical Problems Involving Stoichiometric Reactions In The Preparation Of Salts In preparation of insoluble salt. 1 mol ZnCl2 react with 2 mol AgNO3 Therefore. Compare the mole ratio of ZnCl2 and AgNO3. Calculate the mass of ZnCl2 2 Mass of ZnCl2 = Number of moles x Relative atomic mass = 0. Ag. Cl. ZnCl2 used in this reaction. 65.025mol 170 3. 14.0125 mol × 136 = 1. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.025 mol = 0. [Relative atomic mass: N. AgNO3 react with zinc chloride. ZnCl2 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) 2 AgCl (s) + Zn(NO3)2 (aq) 2.

14. Tulis persamaan kimia yang seimbang untuk tindak balas tersebut.7 g ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 . 65. ZnCl2 menggunakan tindak balas ini. bilangan mol ZnCl2 = 0. Hitung jisim ZnCl2.25 = 0. 4.25 g argentum nitrat. O. 3. ZnCl2 (ak) + 2 AgNO3 (ak) 2 AgCl (p) + Zn(NO3)2 (ak) 2.0125 mol × 136 = 1.Topik 8 Garam Garam Masalah Kuantitatif Melibatkan Tindak Balas Stoikiometri Dalam Penyediaan Garam Dalam penyediaan garam tak larut. [Jisim Atom Relatif : N. Cl. AgNO3 bertindak balas dengan zink klorida ZnCl2. Zn.025 mol = 0.025mol 170 3. Ag. Hitung bilangan mol AgNO3. 16. Hitung jisim zink klorida.0125mol 4.5. 1 mol ZnCl2 bertindak balas dengan 2 mol AgNO3 Oleh itu. 2 Jisim ZnCl2 = Bilangan mol x Jisim atom relatif = 0. Bilangan mol AgNO3 = 4. untuk menghasilkan argentum klorida. 108] Penyelesaian 1. Bandingkan nisbah mol ZnCl2 dan AgNO3.

2 Qualitative Analysis Of Salts ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .Topic 8 Salts 8.

Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Is used to determine the substances present in a compound. Steps to be taken in identifying anions and cations present in salts are: Observation on the physical properties of salts Action of heat on salts Test cations anions for and Confirmatory test for cations and anions ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .

Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Digunakan untuk menentukan identiti sesuatu bahan dalam sebatian. Langkah yang perlu diambil dalam mengenal pasti anion dan kation dalam suatu garam adalah: Pemerhatian ke atas sifat fizik garam Tindakan haba ke atas garam Ujian kation anion bagi dan Ujian pengesahan bagi anion dan kation ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .

Cu (NO3)2 • CuO Ferum (II) salts.Pb2+ ZnO Copper (II) salts. Fe2 (SO4)3.Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Observations On The Physical Properties Of Salts The physical properties of salts that need to be observed are: • Physical state • Colour • Solubility in water Colour of solid and solution of salts: Cations / anions / salt Salts of Ca2+. FeCl3 PbO ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 Brown when hot Yellow when cooled Insoluble . • CuCO3. • CuSO4. Fe (NO3)3. Al3+. Fe (NO3)2. FeCl2 Colour Solid White Yellow when hot White when cooled • Green • Blue • Black Green Brown • • • Aqueous solution Colourless Insoluble Insoluble Blue Insoluble Green Yellow/ brownish-yellow/ Brown Ferum (III) salts. Mg2+. FeSO4.

Al3+. Mg2+. Fe (NO3)2. Fe (NO3)3. Cu (NO3)2 • CuO Garam ferum (II). FeSO4. FeCl2 Warna Pepejal Putih Kuning apabila panas Putih apabila sejuk • Hijau • Biru • Hitam Hijau Perang • • • Larutan akues Tidak berwarna Tak larut Tak larut Biru Tak larut Hijau Kuning/ Kuning keperangan/ Perang Garam ferum (III). Fe2 (SO4)3. kuning apabila sejuk Tak larut . • CuSO4. • CuCO3.Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Pemerhatian Ke Atas Sifat Fizik Garam • Sifat fizikal garam yang perlu diperhatikan adalah: Keadaan fizik • Warna • Keterlarutan dalam air Warna Pepejal Dan Larutan Garam: Kation / anion / garam Garam bagi Ca2+. FeCl3 PbO ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 Perang apabila panas.Pb2+ ZnO Garam kuprum (II).

Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Test For Gases • Salts may produce certain gases in reactions carried out during laboratory test on salts. • • • • The gas evolved may be identified by: Observation of the colour Test with moist blue and red litmus paper Test with lime water • • Test with a glowing wooden splinter Test with KMnO4 solution ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .

• Gas yang dibebaskan mungkin boleh dikenali dengan: • Memerhatikan warnanya • Diuji menggunakan kertas litmus biru lembap dan kertas litmus merah lembap Diuji dengan air kapur Diuji menggunakan kayu uji berbara • • • Diuji dengan larutan KMnO4 ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Ujian Gas • Garam mungkin menghasilkan gas tertentu dalam tindak balas yang dijalankan ke atas garam sewaktu ujikaji di dalam makmal.

salts ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Inference On The Type Of Salt Based On The Gas Gas released O2 Salt KNO3 and NaNO3 CO2 All carbonate salts except K2CO3 and Na2CO3 All nitrate salts except KNO3 and NaNO3 NO2 and O2 NH3 Ammonium salt SO2 Several SO42.

Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Inferens Ke Atas Jenis Garam Berdasarkan Gas Yang Dibebaskan Gas yang terbebas O2 Garam KNO3 dan NaNO3 CO2 Semua garam karbonat kecuali K2CO3 dan Na2CO3 Semua garam nitrat kecuali KNO3 dan NaNO3 NO2 dan O2 NH3 Garam ammonium SO2 Beberapa garam SO42- ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .

Except Na2CO3 and K2CO3  Nitrate salts Decompose when heated and release O2 gas.salts only form NO2. group 1 nitrate. Effect of heat on salts Carbonate salts   Decompose when heated to release CO2 gas. NO3.Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Action Of Heat On Salts Salts will decompose when heated.salt and O2. However. ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 . It may result in a colour change or evolution of gas or water vapour.

Garam nitrat Terurai apabila dipanaskan dan membebaskan gas O2. perwapan air dan perubahan gas. ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .dan O2. garam NO3hanya membentuk garam NO2. untuk kumpulan 1 nitrat. Kecuali Na2CO3 dan K2CO3. Tindakan Haba Ke Atas Garam Garam karbonat   Terurai apabila dipanaskan untuk membebaskan gas CO2.  Walaubagaimanapun.Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Tindakan Haba Ke Atas Garam Garam akan terurai apabila dipanaskan. Ini menyebabkan garam mengalami perubahan warna.

CO32. - Test Anion Carbonate ion. CO 23 Chloride ion. SO 24 Nitrate ion. Gas released turns lime water cloudy No precipitate No change No precipitate White precipitate No precipitate No precipitate White precipitate No precipitate No precipitate No change No change No change Brown ring . SO 42 and nitrate ions. sulphate ions. Cl-. NO 3 No change Dilute hydrochloric acid Dilute hydrochloric acid + Barium chloride solution Dilute nitric acid + silver nitrate solution Dilute sulphuric acid + Iron (II) sulphate solution + concentrated sulphuric acid ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 Effervescence. NO 3 are tested in qualitative analysis through various chemical test. ClNo change Sulphate ion.Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Test For Anions Carbonate ions. chloride ions.

SO42 . - Ujian Anion Ion karbonat. NO 3 .Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Ujian Bagi Anion Ion karbonat. dan ion nitrat. Cl-. Gas yang terbebas menjadikan air kapur keruh Tiada mendakan Tiada perubahan Asid hidroklorik cair + larutan barium klorida Asid nitrik cair + larutan argentum nitrat Asid sulfurik cair + larutan ferum (II) sulfat + asid sulfurik pekat ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 Tiada mendakan Mendakan putih Tiada mendakan Tiada mendakan Mendakan putih Tiada mendakan Tiada mendakan Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Gelang perang terbentuk . NO 3 Tiada perubahan Asid hidroklorik cair Pembuakan. SO 24 Ion nitrat. ion sulfat. ClTiada perubahan Ion sulfat.diuji dalam analisis kualitatif melalui pelbagai ujian kimia. ion klorida. CO32 . CO 23 Ion klorida.

Topic 8 Salts Qualitative Analysis Of Salts Test For Cations.Sodium Hydroxide Solution Aqueous cation solution + Sodium hydroxide solution in excess NH4+ Mg2+ / Ca2+ Zn2+ / Al3+ / Pb2+ Cu2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ No precipitate White precipitate insoluble in NaOH solution White precipitate soluble in NaOH solution Blue precipitate insoluble in NaOH solution Green precipitate insoluble in NaOH solution Brown precipitate insoluble in NaOH solution ITeach – Chemistry Form 4 .

Topik 8 Garam Analisis Kualitatif Garam Ujian Bagi Kation.Larutan Natrium Hidroksida Larutan akues kation + Lebihan larutan natrium hidroksida NH4+ Mg2+ / Ca2+ Zn2+ / Al3+ / Pb2+ Cu2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Tiada mendakan Mendakan putih tidak larut dalam larutan NaOH Mendakan putih larut dalam larutan NaOH Mendakan biru tidak larut dalam larutan NaOH Mendakan hijau tidak larut dalam larutan NaOH Mendakan perang tidak larut dalam larutan NaOH ITeach – Kimia Tingkatan 4 .

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