CHAPTER 2

2.1 MATTER
Most of the things that we could see in this world are MATTER

What is matter?
Matter means: - anything that occupies space & has mass - made up of tiny & discrete particles - Exist as element @ compound
Next

A pure substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substance physically & chemically Matter .

Usually made up of two or more elements which are chemically bonded together Matter .

Consist of atoms. Matter are made up of tiny & discrete particles 2. Size of particles are very minute ~~ 1x 10-7cm 3.1. molecules ions Next .

Let’s see the particles in bromine liquid Particle theory .

The smallest particle of an element and not breakable anymore. Examples: Atom of hydrogen atom of magnesium atom of oxygen atom of chlorine O Cl Particle theory H Mg .

A group of two @ more atoms. which might consist of: one type of element (Element) @ different types of element (Compound) .

Examples of element molecules: Molecule of hydrogen gas Molecule of oxygen gas Molecule of chlorine gas .

H2O N Molecule of ammonia. C2H5OH C C Particle theory . NH3 Molecule of ethanol.Examples of compound molecules: Molecule of water.

Ions are atoms which have charge
+ Positively-charged ion /cation (loss e-)

Negatively charged ion / anion (gain e-)

Examples of ions:
Hydrogen atom
H
Lose electron

H+

Hydrogen ion

Magnesium atom
Mg
Lose electron

Magnesium ion
Mg2+

Oxygen atom
Chlorine atom

O Cl

Gain electron

Oxide ion O2
-

Gain electron

Cl
-

Chlorine ion
Particle theory Symbol of element

Matter consist of particles which constantly moving .• Kinetic means motion (move) • Kinetic theory states that: 1.

collide with each other . particles move in random motion .2.

.move slower B.move faster . substance is heated.A.particles lose kinetic energy . substance is cooled. .particles gain kinetic energy .

Heat energy makes particles move faster!!! .

liquid and gas .Experiment which supports the kinetic theory: Investigating the diffusion of particles in a solid.

What is diffusion ? How diffusion supports the kinetic theory ? .

Diffusion happens anyway that different concentration of particles .

liquid.Is the rate of diffusion different in solid. and gas state? Let’s get an experiment to check it out!!! .

Diffusion in Solid (membrane) .

Diffusion in Liquid ( ) .

Diffusion in Gas (air) .

Diffusion affected by Density .

.

.

faster in liquid and fastest in gas • Diffusion occurs faster in subtance with lower density • Diffusion supports kinetic energy .The conclusion is……. • Diffusion happens in solid. liquid. and gas states • Diffusion occurs slowest in solid.

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The Physical States of Matter Solid Gas Liquid .

The Arrangement of Particles .

The Shape & Volume of Particles .

The Movement & Energy Content of Particles .

The Attraction Force between Particles .

The Physical Changes of Matter Melting Solid Sublimation Sublimation Freezing Boiling Liquid Gas Condensation .

Determine the Melting Point of Naphthalene Melting point – the temperature which a solid becomes liquid .

Diagram of heating naphthalene Solid naphthalene Water Q1-Q4 Q5-Q7 .

Heating curve of naphthalene Temperature / ˚C D 79˚C A B C Time / minute Q1-Q4 Q5-Q7 .

.

What is the Melting point? A: 79˚C What is the physical state at B-C? A: solid and liquid Where is point that Melting process started? A: B Where is point that Melting process ended? A: C graph apparatus .

Why the curve of heating has no change at B-C? A: because the heat energy absorbed by naphthalene molecules to overcome the forces of attraction to becomes liquid Why solid naphthalene heated in water ? A: to ensure a uniform heating If the melting point of Substance X is 123˚C. can we still use water as medium? Why? A: No. graph apparatus Physical changes . Because its melting point is higher than the boiling point of water. We can use oil bath to replace water.

Determine the Freezing Point of Naphthalene Freezing point – the temperature which a solution becomes solid .

Cooling curve of naphthalene Temperature / ˚C E 79˚C F G H Time / minute Q1-Q4 Q5-Q7 .

Is the freezing point same with the Melting point? A: Yes. both are 79˚C What is the physical state change in this experiment? A: Liquid naphthalene changes to solid Where is the point that freezing process started? A: F Where is the point that freezing process ended? A: G .

Why the curve of heating has no change at F-G? A: because the heat energy released during formation of bonds is equal to the heat released to surroundings Why liquid naphthalene in the boiling tube is cooled inside a conical flask? A: to ensure a uniform cooling .

Different solution has different boiling point & freezing point .

Diagram of cooling naphthalene Liquid naphthalene Empty conical flask Q1-Q4 Q5-Q7 .

2.2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE .

The Historical Development Of Atomic Models • John Dalton – imagine atom as a indivisible tiny ball • J. mass of atom concentrated in nucleus • Neils Bohr – proposed the electrons move in shells around the nucleus • James Chadwick – proved the existence of neutrons . Thomson – discovered electrons • Ernest Rutherford – discovered proton.J.

Subatomic Particle In An Atom .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom Proton Electron Neutron .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom Neutron Proton Electron Nucleus of atom Electron shells .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p n Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p n e- Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p +1 n e- Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p +1 n 0 e- Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p +1 n 0 e-1 Relative Mass Location .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p +1 n 0 e-1 Relative Mass Location 1 .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p +1 n 0 e-1 Relative Mass Location 1 1 .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge p +1 n 0 e-1 Relative Mass Location 1 1 1/1240 ≈ 0 .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge Relative Mass p +1 1 n 0 1 e-1 1/1240 ≈ 0 Location in the nucleus atom .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge Relative Mass p +1 1 n 0 1 e-1 1/1240 ≈ 0 Location in the nucleus atom in the nucleus atom .

Subatomic Particle In An Atom PROPERTIES PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Symbol Electric Charge Relative Mass Location p +1 1 in the nucleus atom n 0 1 in the nucleus atom e-1 1/1240 ≈ 0 Electron shells which around the nucleus atom .

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Symbol of Element
Nucleon number
40

Proton number

Ca 20

Symbol of element

-When an atom is neutral , ( its number of proton = e- number of protons = 20 so number of elecrons = 20 - 2.electron configuration = 2.8.8.2 valence electron = 2

1.refer

ions)

3.Next

Electron Configuration
Also known as electron arrangement
How electrons fill into the shells?

Hydrogen Proton number

H 1

Helium Proton number

He 2

1 Lithium Proton number Li 3

2 Beryllium Proton number Be 4

2.1

2.2

Boron proton number B 5 Carbon Proton number C 6 2.4 Nitrogen Proton number N 7 Oxygen Proton number O 8 2.3 2.5 2.6 .

8 Sodium Proton number Na 11 Magnesium Proton number Mg 12 2.Fluorine Proton number F 9 Neon Proton number Ne 10 2.7 2.8.8.2 .1 2.

6 .8.8.3 2.4 Phosphorus Proton number P 15 Sulphur Proton number S 16 2.8.5 2.Aluminium Proton number Al 13 Silicon Proton number Si 14 2.8.

7 Potassium Proton number K 19 2.8.8.8.8.2 .8 Calcium Proton number Ca 20 2.Chlorine Proton number Cl 17 Argon Proton number Ar 18 2.1 2.8.8.

Conclusion: 1st Shell: max 2 e2nd Shell: max 8 e3rd Shell: max 8 e- .

Argon.8. hydrogen is a type of gas / hydrogen is not alkaline metal 3) They have stable // electron arrangement (Helium. they have 2 orbits / electron shells 2) Group 1 is alkaline metals. pn=2 – duplet.1) Because they have the same number of orbits.8 – octet) . 2.

Ne 5) i) K. Cl . B.4) Li. Mg ii) C. Ca.Br. Be. C. S. N.O.

ARRANGEMENT OF SHELLS IN AN ATOM 2 ELECTRONS 8 ELECTRONS NUCLEUS 8 ELECTRONS 1 2 3 4 18 ELECTRONS .

Electron arrangement in the carbon atom 12 6 C  proton number = 6 number of protons = 6 number of electrons = 6 = electron nucleus 2.4 Number of valence electrons = 4 .

23 11 Na = electron Nucleus  number of protons = 11  proton number = 11  number of electrons = 11 Number of valence electrons = 1 2.8.1 Symbol of element .

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Try to draw out the electron arrangement in shells .

Draw & state the electron arrangement of the elements below 15 7 24 X 12 Y 39 19 Z .

Let us learn some chemical words !! .

Electron configuration – arrangement of electron .• • Proton number (p) – number of protons in the nucleus of atom Nucleon number (p+n)– total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of atom 3. Valence electron – the electrons in the outermost shell 4.

Repeat them !! Proton number number of protons in the nucleus of atom Nucleon number total number of protons and nucleons in the nucleus of atom Valence electron the electrons in the outermost shell Electron configuration – arrangement of electron .

Try this out!!!

Q1
Elements

Fill in the blanks
Proton Number 3 Nucleon Number 7 Number of Neutrons

A

B C D E F

6 16 17

12 19

10

40

16 18 20

Q1
Elements Proton Number 3

Answers
Nucleon Number 7 Number of Neutrons 4

A

B C D E F

6 9 16 17 20

12 19 32 35 40

6 10 16 18 20

7 2.6 19 32 40 16 2.8.Q2 Elements Number of Neutron Fill in the blanks Nucleon Number Number of electrons Electron Configuration A B C D E F 5 8 14 20 9 2.3 .

2 2.2 .6 2.6 2.8.3 2.8.7 2.8.Q2 Elements Number of Neutron Answers Nucleon Number Number of electrons Electron Configuration A B C D E F 5 8 10 14 16 20 9 16 19 27 32 40 4 8 9 13 16 20 2.8.

3 ISOTOPES .2.

What is isotopes? • Isotopes is just like twins. same genetic but different of DNA • atoms of the same element with same number of protons but different number of neutrons .

Examples of Isotopes • Take a look at Wikipedia isotopes table • Hydrogen : 1 1 H 2 1 H 3 1 H • Graphite : • Oxygen : 12 6 16 8 C 13 6 C O 14 6 C O O 17 8 18 8 .

Isotopes of Hydrogen Hydrogen : 1 1 H 2 1 3 1 H H .

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron No of ee.configuration Valence e16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O O .

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O O 8 No of ee.configuration Valence e- .

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 8 O 8 No of ee.configuration Valence e- .

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 8 O 8 8 No of ee.configuration Valence e- .

configuration Valence e- .Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 O 16 16 16 No of ee.

configuration Valence e- .Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 16 16 No of ee.

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.configuration Valence e- .

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.configuration Valence e- 16 .

configuration Valence e- 16 16 .Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.configuration Valence e- 16 16 16 .

configuration Valence e- 16 2.Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.6 16 16 .8.

Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.6 16 .8.configuration Valence e- 16 2.6 16 2.8.

8.6 16 2.6 .Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.6 16 2.configuration Valence e- 16 2.8.8.

8.8.6 6 16 2.6 16 2.8.Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.configuration Valence e- 16 2.6 .

6 6 16 2.8.Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.6 .8.6 6 16 2.8.configuration Valence e- 16 2.

8.6 6 16 2.6 6 .configuration Valence e- 16 2.Properties of isotopes Oxygen Isotopes No of proton No of neutron 16 8 O 17 18 8 8 O 16 17 O 16 18 16 16 No of ee.8.8.6 6 16 2.

Conclusion: • Number of valence electron are same • The chemical properties also same • The physical properties might be same. might be different .

Try this out!!! .

Q3. Answer the structure questions Elements Proton Number Nucleon Number P Q R S T U 3 9 16 15 16 18 7 19 32 31 33 40 .

2.7 How many valence electrons that element Q has? 7 How many electron shells that element Q has? two .a) A: b) A: c) A: d) A: e) A: What means proton number? The numbers of proton in the nucleus of an atom What means nucleon number? The numbers of proton & neutron in the nucleus of an atom Write the electron arrangement for element Q.

A: R & T. neutrons. Because they have same valence electron h) How many protons. and electrons are there in atom S? A: 15 protons.f) Which pair of elements are isotopes? Explain. A: 40 18 U . Because they have same proton number but different nucleon number g) Is R&T have same chemical properties? Why? U A: Yes. 16 neutrons and 15 electrons 40 18 i) Write the symbol to represent atom U.

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