Adoption of Supercritical Technology in IndiaA ‘Rationale’

India have a considerable potential for adding up new power generation capacity based on coal, having proven reserves of over 202 billion tones. ¨ Substantial demand for adoption of supercritical steam technology is developing, driven largely by the need to minimize the environmental impact of power generation by achieving higher efficiencies of energy conversion. ¨ In Asia, particularly in India and the Far East, environmental requirements are tightening and look set to tighten further. The conventional power plant will not be able to meet the environmental norms and efficiency demands of the future.

The principal advantages of supercritical steam cycles are:
• • Reduced fuel costs due to improved thermal efficiency CO2 emissions reduced by about 15%, per unit of electricity generated, when compared with typical existing sub-critical plant Well-proven technology with excellent availability, comparable with that of existing sub-critical plant Very good part-load efficiencies, typically half the drop in efficiency experienced by sub-critical plant

Plant costs comparable with sub-critical technology and less than other clean coal technologies
Very low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulates achievable using modern flue gas clean-up equipment.

.      Turbine material development Alternative boiler technology for gasification cycles.Front line issues  Development of high temperature creep resistant alloy steels. Advanced controls & Instrumentation Stringent Boiler Water Quality Control Transfer of Technology (TOT) . like FBCs etc.

such as P91. The trend towards progressively higher thermal efficiencies can only be achieved if better materials can be identified for a number of critical components. but long-term performance data are not yet available . used for thick section boiler components and steam pipes. are the key new materials that have driven forward the supercritical technology to steam temperatures over 565 degrees Centigrade into the USC range. P92 (NF616) and P122 (HCM12A).MATERIALS AND METTALLURGY  The steam conditions and hence the thermal efficiency of advanced supercritical steam cycles are primarily limited by the available materials.  The recently developed high creep strength martensitic 9 to 12 percent Cr steels. • High strength ferritic 9-12Cr steels for use in thick section components are now commercially available for temperatures up to 620 degrees Celsius. Field tests are in progress.

MATERIALS AND METTALLURGY…Contd . • Initial data on two experimental 12 Cr ferritic steels indicate that they may be capable of long-term service up to 650 degrees Celsius. Field trials are in progress. Higher strength materials are needed for upper water construction of plants with steam pressures above 24 Mpa. A high strength 1-1/2 percent Cr steel recently ASME Code approved as T-23 is the preferred candidate material for this application. The ASME Boiler Code Group has approved none of these steels so far. but more data are required to confirm this. • • . Advanced austenitic stainless steels for reheater and super-heater tubing are available for service temperatures up to 650 degrees Celsius and possibly 700 degrees Celsius.

S. .   Several units of 250 MW size have been deployed in Europe and the U. PC plants of 400-1000 MW have entered service in Japan and Europe over the past five years with design heat rates 5 to 7 percent lower than standard sub-critical plants. The longer-term reliability of these USC plants in Europe and Japan is of key importance to the future of this technology. In the smaller sizes 50-150 MW they have shown reliabilities similar to PC plants of the same size. Larger units of 400-600 MW have been designed and could potentially make use of the higher efficiency super critical steam cycles. AFBC plants are particularly suitable for lower quality and high ash coals.USC/SC TECHNOLOGY WORLD WIDE  Several USC.

  Short-term creep rupture data suggest that these steels may have equivalent creep properties to T91 steel whilst requiring no post-weld heat treatment. Candidate materials currently at the most advanced stage of development are P92. B: boron). Japanese manufacturers claim to have already demonstrated materials suitable for 650C steam temperatures. and 7Cr.V121. but all require post-weld heat treatment during fabrication  .B1010 (Ti: titanium. All three steels offer considerably enhanced creep-rupture properties over more conventional equivalent steels.R&D IN METALLURGY  The main R&D efforts are in Japan. T91 and X20Cr. Mo. are the most likely materials to be selected for steam conditions up to 625C/325 bar.Mo. developed by Sumitomo Metal industries and MHI. For steam conditions >625C/325bar stronger materials will be required. T23. developed by Mannesmann and Valourec. Furnace wall tubing.V. the USA (funded by the US Department of Energy. USDOE) and Germany (including the MARCKO Program). P122 and E911.Ti.

may allow operation at steam temperatures of 630C. Circumferential water wall cracking has been the major source of boiler tube failures for supercritical units.. The objective of EPRI project on this aspect was to determine the root cause(s) of the circumferential cracking experienced on the fireside of water wall tubes of supercritical steam boilers in the United States. but again more advanced work is needed. such as NF709.. Information is now available from detailed monitoring to provide guidance on controlling these failures.R&D IN METALLURGY Contd. The recent ASTM/ASME-approved P92 and P122 steels should allow construction of thick-section components and steam lines for PF plant operating with steam parameters up to 325bar/610C. HRBC and HR6W.   .  More highly alloyed steels under development.

headers and steam chests that are much more resistant to thermal fatigue and where thermal fatigue can be better predicted. . including thermal fatigue has been under way. multiple components can be used to reduce component sizes and hence wall thickness.Boiler Design  Considerable research effort into plant damage. for example. To prevent problems. This is leading to new designs of. aimed at supporting existing operating plant.

By the addition of cobalt to 12%Cr. Creep testing to 40.V. Nb: niobium) are becoming available for turbine rotors and casings for construction of 300-325bar/600-610C steam turbines. Mo.000h. together with large-scale fabrication trails. A number of design changes are also being developed to allow higher temperatures and pressures to be used are (a)    (b) (c) (d) Partial triple-casing on turbines or use of inlet guide vanes to reduce the peak pressures seen by the HP cylinder Steam inlets and valves welded rather than flanged to give reduced leakage and fewer maintenance problems Use of heat shields and cooling steam in the IP turbine inlet New blade coatings to reduce solid particle erosion where high-velocity inlets are used to minimize pressure effects  .W steel (i.Ni B (W: tungsten. has so far demonstrated reliable results.W. turbine parameters of 600C/325bar can be considered achievable. Japan expects to be able to manufacture steam turbines capable of handling final steam conditions of 650C/325bar.Turbine Material Development  New alloys based upon 10% Cr. NF 12 and HR 1200). Hence.Nb.e.

Turbine Cycle Development Some of the highlights of the development are:    • • Improved blading profiles making use of modern CFD techniques Higher final feed temperatures and bled-steam temperatures bled-steam tapping off the HP cylinder Improved efficiency of auxiliaries Lower condenser pressures using larger condensers and larger LP exhaust areas (this requires site-specific cost optimization for each project) OTHER OPTIONS • Trend to larger unit sizes improving turbine efficiencies • Increasing automation and levels of control • Optimizing plant layout.g. e. . to shorten pipe runs and ductwork.

Control & Instrumentation           Advanced control techniques should be developed to optimize plant operation and maintenance. to avoid temperature excursions and improve ramp rates Improve reliability and repeatability of cycling procedures Condition-monitor both boiler and turbine components Forecast damages accumulation and allows targeted preventative maintenance. Ensure higher reliability of temperature sensors Monitor high temperature fire side corrosion in super-heater section March towards maximum allowable operating point from metallurgical point of view requires use of advanced control. Fuzzy logic control. Predictive Adaptive Control etc. State Variable Control. These include intelligent control systems to: Maintain uniform temperatures across the boiler by control of burner parameters Minimize carbon-in-ash or NOx formation in the same way Better match of load and firing during load changes.  Intelligent soot blower control . These are. as normal PID control is intolerable.

supercritical steam cycles can be used for any technology using a steam cycle to generate electricity.  For all the above cycles.Alternative Boiler Technology In principle. supercritical cycles need to be of a certain size. so no supercritical version has been constructed. . Supercritical plant can therefore be incorporated into:        gasification cycles FBCs any process involving an HRSG to power a turbine generator However. and also to be able to generate hightemperature steam. in order to be commercially viable. one or both of these factors have been missing to date.

.Transfer of Supercritical / Ultra. as summarized at Table below This table also shows the Value addition to the production chain.Supercritical (SC/ USC) Technology from a developed economy to India vis-à-vis an imported SC/USC Methodology  Production Technologies & value addition to each of the component of the production chain  An exercise of breaking down each major component/sub system into constituent Production technology/Production chain has been undertaken for Supercritical Power Project firing high ash Indian coal.

Tables 1 & 2 .

       PF 540…Sub-critical PF fired unit with 169 kg/Cm2. 566/ 5930C  PF 710…Ultra-supercritical PF fired unit with 300 kg/Cm2. 538/ 5650C PF 610…Super-critical PF fired unit with 246 kg/Cm2. temperature up to 7100C . 538/ 5380C PF 580…Super-critical PF fired unit with 246 kg/Cm2.Cost structure in the countries of origin and absorption The cost data has been obtained through literature survey for the following four main variants of SC / USC plants.

Japan) variation in cost structure of major components of SC / USC technology is also worked out at the following Table  . Average figures indicating cost of all major components/ sub systems in case of import from USA. Availability of various components of supercritical / ultrasupercritical Technologies suitable for high ash Indian coals is given at this Table. Europe. the countries of origin for the above three variants of SC / USC are also calculated at this table.e. Europe & Japan i. Country wise (USA.Cost Data …contd  The cost figures in $/kW is worked out in table below for the components available in India.

Tables 3&4 .

4. 538/ 5650C…(Refer Fig. 4.2) Normal pace…3 and ½ years Accelerated TOT…3 years   PF 710…Ultra-supercritical PF fired unit with 300 kg/Cm2. both at normal pace and at an accelerated pace is worked out as under:  PF 580…Super-critical PF fired unit with 246 kg/Cm2. 566/ 5930C…(Refer Fig. temperature up to 7100C… (Refer Fig.1) Normal pace…2 and ½ years Accelerated TOT…2 years     PF 610…Super-critical PF fired unit with 246 kg/Cm2.VELOCITY OF TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY  Determination of Velocity of Transfer of Technology (TOT) from a developed economy to India Using the program TOT the velocity of the transfer of technology.3) Normal pace…6 and ½ years Accelerated TOT…5 years TRANSPARANCIES . 4.

058 PF 580…5.635 . per MW @ Rs.45/ US $ ) of the following variance of a Sub-critical and three types of Imported SCU / USC units may be worked out as under:     PF 540…5.454 PF 710…9. Cr.396 PF 610…5.Overall SC/ USC Power plant cost analysis – results and discussions  An analysis of the results of the table 3 shows that specific cost ( Rs.

the corresponding figures are:   PF 540…2.687 This cost does not include the cost of transfer of technology and the time required for TOT and consequent add on to the cost. .114 PF 710 …6. In case of partial import.713 PF 580…2.CONTD … For the indigenous development through a systematic transfer of technology (TOT). the cost shall lie between above two sets of figures.988   PF 610…3.

would be of the order of 3 Cr. / MW 5. / MW 5. / MW Cost of indigenous SC plant (PF 580…246 b and 538/565 C) suitable for Indian coals using about 70% indigenous materials.396 Cr. The same is summarized as below: Country USA Europe (Germany) Japan SC Plant PF 580 5.985 Cr.CONTD…  Country wise variation in cost structure of imported SC / USC plants suitable for using above referred technologies.130 Cr./MW at today’s exchange rate (Cost of TOT shall be extra) .

about 1200 km from coal source Following five cases based on steam conditions were analyzed:      Case 1: 169 kg/Cm2 & 538/5380C Case 2: 246 kg/Cm2 & 538/5380C Case 3: 246 kg/Cm2 & 538/5660C Case 4: 246 kg/Cm2 & 566/5660C Case 5: 246 kg/Cm2 & 566/5930C .TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  Techno-economic studies were carried out by EPDC of Japan for: (a) (b) Pit head station specifically Sipat STPP of NTPC Load-centered station (coastal).

Tables 5&6 .

head Washed coal fired Unit amongst all other Super Critical Units. .FINDINGS FROM LEAST COST OPTIMIZATION STUDY   Project cost decreases by about 1.  Cost of generation is least for a Pit.  Maximum cost impact is found for a load center SCU station firing ROM coal.   Cost of generation is highest for ROM coal fired load center SCU with land transport of coal. Heat rate improvement is also highest in this case. The corresponding Heat Rate improvement is by about 2.   Parameters selected for super critical unit firing ROM coal at Pithead station as the most optimum for Indian conditions is that of Case 3: 246 kg/Cm2 & 538/5660C.8% through use of washed coal.42% in this case. mainly due to reduction in boiler and its auxiliary plant size for a Super Critical Unit as compared to ROM coal fired Sub critical unit of Case 1 (both being Pit. both for land and land-cum-sea transport between above two Cases.head Units). This is of the order of 288 Crores.

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