Sonianto kuddi Dewa Komang Dewa Made Barto M.

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Background
Adult stem cells are defined as

undifferentiated cells located in specialized tissues that have the potential to self renew indefinitely and also have the ability to differentiate into more specialized cell types. The best-characterized adult stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells that reside in the bone marrow.

Aim
To know how to cure leukemia To know the positive and negative of this

method To know the future potential of regarding the development of stem cell.

What is stem cell?
A stem cell is a very special cell that can get

orders to change into different kinds of cells.  They can change into many kinds of cells such as muscle, blood (bone marrow), nervous tissue, bone,  cartilage and skin cell.
(http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/mcgo4s0/public_html/t5/cellrepair.html)

What is leukemia?
A cancer of white blood cells, or

leukocytes

White blood cells help fight infection.

Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues throughout the body.

Platelets help form blood clots that control bleeding.

Leukemia cells In people with leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells. At first, leukemia cells function almost normally. In time, they may crowd out normal white blood cells, red blood cell and platelets. This makes it hard for blood to do its work.

What is Bone Marrow?
It the spongy material found in the center of

large bones. Produces special parent cells (tem cells), produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Functions:
Red blood cells carry oxygen through the body White blood cells fight off infection Platelets help the blood to clot

Transplants(Leukemia) ?
A bone marrow transplant is

a procedure for replacing blood-forming cells in the bone marrow that have been destroyed by chemotherapy with healthy bone marrow, while peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is a method of replacing blood-forming cells destroyed by cancer treatment.

There are three categories of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation:
A. Autologous B. Allogeneic C. Syngeneic

Allogeneic
 Receive stem cells or bone marrow matched

donor; can be a sibling or family member, or an unrelated donor. Success depends to a large extent on how well the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of the donor's bone marrow match the HLA of the patient's marrow.

Stem cells are blood-forming cells of the bone

marrow; continuously divide to form the new blood cells that populate the arteries and veins. The SCT procedure enables physicians to give chemotherapy and radiotherapy in doses that are strong enough to eliminate leukemia cells.

Autologous transplant?
Patient's own bone marrow or peripheral

blood stem cells are removed and reserved. The patient then receives high doses of chemotherapy or radiation to destroy any cancer cells. Afterward, the patient receives back his or her own blood cells through a transfusion. These cells find their way to the bone marrow and begin to produce a new population of blood cells. Through this process, the patient’s bone

After entering the bloodstream, the

transplanted cells travel to the bone marrow, produce new white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. called "engraftment”.  A stem cell transplant can replace the dysfunctional marrow with new functioning stem cells. These stem cells then travel from the bloodstream to the marrow where ideally, they begin to work properly and produce healthy working blood cells.

Syngeneic: receive stem cells or bone marrow

from an identical twin donor.

Discussion (Positive roles)
To treat patient disease – leukemia.
In adult tissues, such as bone marrow,

muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease. It will help scientists to learn about human growth and cell development.

Negative roles (risk)
Damage to organs or blood vessels Graft versus host disease Death (low immune system) Unable to find a match. Long term effects of such an interference with

nature could materialize. Risks would be quite reduced because patients’ bodies would not reject their own cells.

Future potential
More effective, Reduce the invasiveness and the risk to

patients Advanced technology Vaccine (reduce risk).

Conclusion
There are three categories of bone marrow and

peripheral blood stem cell transplantation : Autologous , Allogeneic , Syngeneic. Treating leukemia with stem cells it is much better than giving drugs. Adult stem cells are more specialized than

embryonic stem cells. Treating leukemia with stem cells have many risks and advantages.

Referenc es
 University of maryland Marlene and Steward: Greenebaum

Cancer Center. Retrieved February 13, 2009 from: http://www.umgcc.org/blood_marrow_program/class_basics. htm#b  Majlis Kanser Nasional (MAKNA), Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Unit in IKM-HUKM. Malaysia. Retrieved February 13, 2009 from: http://www.makna.org.my/bonemarrow.asp  Medicine net. (2009). What is leukemia. Retrieved February 13, 2009 from: http://www.medicinenet.com/leukimia/article.htm#1whatis

 http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page.adp?item_id=5965  http://www.oncologychannel.com/leukemias/treatment.shtml  http://www.wral.com/lifestyles/healthteam/story/3412779/  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-

 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041129112109.ht

 http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/scresearch

disadvantages-of-stem-cell-research.htm

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