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Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B and II-C (World Bank Project) at Kanpur - A Case Study
NH-2, Highway Section from Km.393 (Sikandra) to Km.115 (Khaga) Totaling a length of 190 Kms

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

SRINAGAR DELHI

NH-2, Package IIA, IIB & IIC

SILCHAR PORBANDAR
1. The length of Golden Quadrilateral > Delhi-KolkataChennai-MumbaiDelhi = Km. 5,846 The length of Eastwest-North-South Corridor = Km. 7,300

KOLKATTA

MUMBAI CHENNAI KOCHIN KANYAKUMARI

2.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

INTRODUCTION
NATIONAL HIGHWAYS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (NHDP), the largest infrastructure development project undertaken in independent India, envisages development of 14,000 Km of world class 4/6 lane highways connecting all corners of the country. It includes:

The Golden Quadrilateral: Comprising the metros DelhiKolkata-Chennai-Mumbai-Delhi circuit of 5,846 Km length. Project Cost: over Rs. 25,050 crore. North-South & East-West Corridors : Involving a distance of 7,300 km and costing over Rs. 30,000 crore, connecting Kashmir with Kanyakumari and Silchar with Porbandar.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

The project Road is part of NH-2 (Delhi Calcutta), which forms part of the Golden quadrilateral

The present daily Traffic varies between 10000 20000 PCUs.


The Projected Traffic by year 2025 is 75000 170000 PCUs with the growth of industry and economy The existing Road is proposed to widen to 4/6 lane under World Bank assistance under Grand Trunk Road Improvement Project (GTRIP).

The designer has designed the rigid pavement for a design life of 30 years. The PCA method (The Portland Cement Association) has been used for thickness design of new rigid pavement.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

SALIENT FEATURES OF RIGID PAVEMENTS


Item
Specification Total Length Width Thickness Joint Spacing (Transverse Joint) Dowels (Length, Diameter, Spacing) Tie Bars (Length, Diameter, Spacing) Separator Expansion Joint

Package II-A
MORT&H and Addendum 79.80 Km. 8.75 m 320-330 mm 4.5m C/C 450 mm, 36 mm dia (MS bar), 300 mm C/C 450 mm, 12 mm deformed, 350 mm C/C 125 Micron Thick Polythene Sheet 300 m C/C or at end of days work (Now eliminated) Flexural Strength of beam - 4 Mpa (min), Target Mean strength 5MPa

Package II-B
MORT&H and Addendum 19.86 Km. 8.75 m 330 mm 4.5m C/C 450 mm, 36 mm dia (MS bar), 300 mm C/C 600mm, 12mm deformed, 500 mm C/C 125 Micron Thick Polythene Sheet 300 m C/C or at end of days work Flexural Strength of beam - 4 Mpa (min), Target Mean strength 5MPa

Package IIC
MORT&H and Addendum 93.87 Km. 8.75 m 330 mm 4.5m C/C 450 mm, 36 mm dia (MS bar), 300 mm C/C 450mm, 12mm deformed, 350 mm C/C 125 Micron Thick Polythene Sheet 300 m C/C or at end of days work (Now eliminated) Flexural Strength of beam - 4 Mpa (min), Target Mean strength 5MPa

Specified Strength

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Item Slip Form Paver with Automatic Dowel bar & Tie Bar inserter Kerbs Batch Plant

Package II-A Wirtgen SP 850 (2 Nos.) Slip Form - Separate Steelfield 250 m3 / hr

Package II-B Wirtgen SP 850 (1 Nos.) Slip Form Separate Stetter (2 Nos.) each of 120 m3 / hr

Package IIC

Gomaco GHP 2800 Slip Form Separate Stetter each of 120 m3 /hr

Tippers
Average Production Rate

Volvo 25 ton X 20 Nos.


2.9 Km. per month

Volvo 25 Ton X 16 Nos.


3.0 Km. per month (Max. 5.5 Km. in a month)

TATA 25 Ton X 25 Nos.


1.5 Km. per Month

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Mix Design for Contract Package II A


Ingredients Cement Content Water Content Water Cement Ratio Coarse Aggregate (20 mm) Coarse Aggregate (10 mm) Quantity 370 Kg 148 Lit 0.40 791 Kg 264 Kg

Coarse Aggregate Ratio (20/12.5) Fine Aggregate


CA / FA Ratio Admixture : Plasticizer SP 430 A1 (PQC) Air Entrainer : AEA

75 : 25 828 Kg
56 : 44

2300 ml
185 ml

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Mix Design for Contract Package II B


Ingredients Quantity

Cement Content Water Content Water Cement Ratio Coarse Aggregate (20 mm) Coarse Aggregate (10 mm) Coarse Aggregate Ratio (20/12.5) Fine Aggregate CA / FA Ratio Admixture : Plasticizer SP 430 A1 (PQC) Air Entrainer: AEA

370 Kg 148 Lit 0.40 773 Kg 342 Kg 69 : 31 683 Kg 62 : 38 2590 ml 185 ml

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Mix Design for Contract Package II C


Ingredients Cement Content Water Content Water Cement Ratio Coarse Aggregate (20 mm) Coarse Aggregate (12.5 mm) Coarse Aggregate Ratio (20/12.5) Fine Aggregate CA / FA Ratio Admixture : Plasticizer T101S Air Entrainer Quantity 380 Kg 152 Lit 0.40 597 Kg 597 Kg 50 : 50 663 Kg 64 : 36 2280 ml NIL

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Key Points
1. During initial trials excessive bleeding, resulted in development of shrinkage cracks. It was controlled by introduction of Air Entraining Agent. Fresh concrete deposited over the filler board due to incorrect installation at construction joints and got in touch with old concrete face. This resulted in spalling of concrete at joints. Correct depth of joint filler board is to be maintained. Exposure of construction joints to local traffic before filling of joint sealant, got partially damaged at transverse edges. Any type of traffic should not be allowed before filling of sealant in all type of joints.

2.

3.

4.

Brush finish done in some reach reflected low durability after opening to traffic. Tine finish is substituted for better durability of roughness.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

TYPICAL X-SECTION OF PQC

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Plan of Joints in PQC


1500 8750 3625 3625

CC Shoulder
4500

4500

Longitudinal Joint
3 mm wide

Transverse Joint
8-10 mm wide

4500

Median Side

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Typical Distribution Plan for Dowel Bars / Tie Bars


8750 1500 3625 3625

4500

Dowel Bars (450 mm long), MS 36mm

(@300 mm C/C)
Tie Bar (600 mm long), Tor Steel

4500

12mm (@ 500 mm C/C)

4500

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

A.

Inflow of Material 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Material

Selection of Quarry / Beds / Physical Properties Production Pattern of Stone Crushing Plants - Jaws; Cone; Impact; Roller. Feed to Crusher/Production/Storage Production Pattern Inflow to Construction Camps/Sites

B.

Processing of Material Ingredients


1. 2. 3. Stack Yards/Stacking of Materials Lab Control Field Control

C.

Finished Product / Services 1. 2. Method of Delivery from Stack Yards to Plant & Site Execution Activities related to Concrete Mix

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

CONCRETE BATCHING PLANT

capacity 120 Cum/Hr


1. 3. 5. Pollution Control / Safety Measures Handling of Material Lab Control Gradation, Slump, Cubes, Beams, 2. 4. 6. Calibration / Operation Temperature Control Chilling Plant & Night working Cleaning / Maintenance

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

SLIP FORM CONCRETE PAVER

Paving screed 9M wide by 0.35M thick. Paving speed 0.5 to 1.5M per min.

Net output @ 110cum/Hr to 325 cum/Hr.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Transport trucks are Backbone of paving operation

An uninterrupted communication between concrete plant and unloading site to be ensured.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Transport trucks are Backbone of paving operation



The loaded dumpers to have the priority of movement. Good maintenance of Service Roads and Sprinkling of water
Bucket door to be properly locked during transportation to avoid leakage of slurry. Mirrors to be installed on left & right of the vehicle. Proper lights during night operation.

Acoustic warning signal to operate during reverse.


Dumpers to be covered by using a removable sheet covering and protecting the entire bucket so that there is : no sun access to the concrete

no wind access during transportation


no rain access no dust access

The cover need to protect the bucket from sun and dust on the way back to the batching plant.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

DLC: TRANSPORTATION & UNLOADING

The Surface of Drainage Layer (Sub-base for rigid pavement) to remain moist before laying of DLC (the base-course layer of rigid pavement).

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

DLC LAYING BY PAVER

Moisture loss to be minimized during haulage and laying of Dry Lean Concrete.
Uninterrupted running of DLC Paver minimize cold joints and surface cracks. Minimum 7days curing by gunny bags / Hessian cloth and sprinkling of water.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

SEQUENCE OF COMPACTION FOR DLC

752

DLC DL

DLC
Open Vibration Close Vibration

(B) 1 Completed Zone (5) (4) (3) (2) (A) 2 (1)

Vibration starts from lower end, covering entire width in each pass with offsets

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

DLC COMPACTION

Starting from lower edge towards upper edge Vibration in forward direction with plain pass in reverse. Controlled speed in forward and reverse movements. No stoppage of roller on the green Bed

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

FINISHED DLC SURFACE BEING CURED BY SPRINKLING OF WATER

Adequate barricading to avoid movement of villagers and animals

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Preparation of Surface for PQC Paver


Compacting Shoulder for PQC Paver Track Care taken not to damage the DLC edge

Alignment for PQC Paver


Steel Pegs of sensor wire to be fixed in obstruction free area and secured for safety In case of night working, sensor wire to be fixed during day light and protected

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Laying Polythene Sheet ( 125 ) over DLC

Any foreign material / loose aggregates to be cleaned before spreading the sheet. Wrinkles are avoided during placing Longitudinal overlaps to start from higher end of DLC towards lower end Sheet to be secured by umbrella cap GI Pins

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

OPERATION OF SLIP FORM PAVER

Paving unit to be cleaned free of any remaining concrete of previous day operation. All Grade and Steering sensors to be installed correctly All inbuilt vibrator needles to be checked for their function All reservoirs for water, fuel, hydraulic oils etc. to be sufficient for days work.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

PQC Laying

Unloading Concrete
Use of higher capacity dumpers to

minimize movement on Ploythene Sheets. Dumpers equipped with acoustic warning signals. Caution on Super elevated portions to avoid overturning. Dumping in two rows by Dumpers to facilitate even distribution by bucket spreader. Care taken not to damage the Polythene Sheet during movement of equipments

Spreading Concrete by Backhoe in front of PQC Paver

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Laying of Concrete Mix


Uniform distribution of Concrete by
bucket spreader

Inbuilt Concrete Vibrators in PQC Paver are regularly checked for vibration

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Placing of Dowel Bars and Tie Bars


Sufficient stock of Tie Bars for days work Tie Bars to be straight & correct in dimension. It helps in regular Placing of Tie Bars.

Dowel Bar Magazine & conveyor Dowel Bars to be cut correct in length and alignment and properly fitted in PVC Caps. All slots of trolley conveyor to be
checked for proper functioning Sufficient stock of Dowel Bars for days work

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

VIEW OF DOWEL BARS

End of Stopper /PVC capped end exposed

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Quality Control Behind the PQC Paver


Leveling of Top Surface by Finishing Beam Correct workability of concrete is very important for smooth finish.

Troweling by Super Smoothener

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

FINISHING AND TEXURING Finishing by Sack, assisted by masons on lateral platform

Making Texture on finished surface by TCM Texturing brush to be kept clean. Increased slump results in slurry deposition. Time gap is required before doing texturing which should be avoided Textures to be created normal to the edges of slab

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

CURING OPERATION BY TCM


Uniform spray of curing compound by spray bar over entire surface i/c vertical edges by hand sprayer to minimize moisture loss Adequate windshield cover helps in homogeneous spray of curing compound

View of Finished Pavement

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

View of Vertical Edge of Slab

Correct vibration by inbuilt vibrators and smooth finish by masons behind Paver avoid the collapse of vertical edges.

Protection from animals / Public is to be ensured

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Control of Moisture loss


Complete Cover to Slab by Jute Bags / Hessian Cloth Continuous Wetting of Hessian Cloth is required

The shape and size of tent is so designed to avoid damage to the pavement It is preferable to have a length of tent protection for a three hours production length of slab by paver.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Initial Joint Cutting

Initial cut upto 1/3rd depth to start just when the concrete has hardened, preferably after 6 to 8 hours of concrete laying. The generated dust during cutting is to be removed / washed away immediately by pressure jets.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Widening of Joints

Widening of transverse Joints up to 8 mm The generated dust during widening is to be removed / washed away immediately by pressure jets.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Joint Preparation

Cleaning of Joints with Air pressure if needed, thin brush is required to clean the vertical faces

Filling of Backer Rod after cleaning of Joint.


Uniform depth for placing of backer rod to be maintained .

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Joint Preparation

Top surface to be cleaned before application of Protection Tape for adequate adhesion. Sealant Primer not to spill out on protection tape and to be applied uniformly.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Joint Filling

The Concavity in the sealant material is accurately maintained by use of grooving tools.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

TYPICAL SECTION OF TRANSVERSE / LONGITUDINAL JOINTS


8-10 mm. Recess 3 to 5 mm. Sealant + Recess 3 _ 1 Expanded closed cell Polyethylene Foam Backer Rod 3-4 mm. Sealant
20-30 mm.

Expanded closed cell 25-30 mm. d/3 Polyethylene Foam Backer Rod 3-4 mm. saw cut in green concrete

d/3

TRANSVERSE JOINT
PQC PQC

LONGITUDINAL JOINT

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Riding Quality in Highway :


Working within the Design Parameters, geometric of Highway (i.e. ruling gradient, Grade Separators, Horizontal Curves, super elevations and design speed), the riding quality of a Highway mainly depends on :

1.
2.

3.
4. 5. 6.

Use of Homogeneous Materials as specified for various layers. e.g. Sub Grade, Drainage Layer, Sub Base, Base Course and Bituminous layers for flexible pavement. Use of Well graded and Homogeneous Concrete Mixes for Rigid Pavements. Control in Compaction and thickness of individual layers. Control of levels and surface regularities. Proper Roads Signage with design speed. Plying within the specified design speed.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

CONTROL OF ALIGNMENT, LEVEL AND SURFACE REGULARITY


Horizontal Alignment : 10mm w.r. to C/Line of C/Way. Surface Levels : +5 mm, -6mm Surface Regularity :

Longitudinal 4mm : maximum 20Nos. in 300M

Longitudinal Length and Maximum 9 Nos. in 75M Longitudinal Length. 7mm : Maximum 2Nos. in 300M length and Maximum 1 No. in 75M length.

Transverse

Max. 3mm underside of 3M Straight-Edge

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Construction Joint in PQC

PVC Caps

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

SITE TESTING DURING NIGHT

Slump Testing
Slump Cone to be removed correctly to maintain accuracy

Beam and Cube Samples


Beam and Cube moulds to be kept on a leveled horizontal bed Correct application of shuttering oil to avoid damage of edges / corners

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Kerb Casting in Stages

First stage of kerb casting in progress. Second stage of kerb laying to be done after initial hardening of first stage.

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Kerb casting in one stage

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

JOINTS IN KERB

Joint cutting in kerb is done when the concrete has just hardened

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

VIEW OF KERB WITH RIGID PAVEMENT

Construction of Concrete Pavement in Packages II-A, II-B & II-C of NHAI (World Bank Project) at Kanpur

Specific observations and suggestions


1. 2.
At present, maximum size of aggregate used is 20mm. The 40mm size aggregate, if introduced in the design of PQC mix, will provide better concrete properties. The width of DLC layer (Base course for PQC) has to be sufficient enough for smooth movement of paver tracks. The movement of paver on in-sufficient width breaks the edges of DLC and creates problem for the movement of Paver, which may further affect the riding quality. The width of contraction joint should be kept to a minimum, i.e. between 3.0 mm to 6.0 mm to minimize the breaking of edges etc. However in some of the contracts, the width of the contraction joints is kept more than 10 mm, which is not really required. The texture depth as specified in MORT&H specifications is 1.0 mm + 0.25 mm - 0.35 mm which is difficult to achieve at site. The depth of texture should be specified as 2.0 mm to 4.0 mm with + 0.5 mm. Brush finish done for texturing on PQC surface reflects low durability on the stretches after the opening to traffic. With the passage of time, it will further reduce, rendering a smooth skidding surface. Methodology for roughening the surface at later stage, should be included in future specifications. Guidelines for repair of cracks and broken joints should be elaborated & included in specifications.

3.

4. 5.

6.