# SURVEYING

UNIT-3 -THEODOLITE SURVEYING

Assistant Professor Rajiv Kumar

TRINITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH, PUNE

Introduction
 Theodolite is used to measure the horizontal and

vertical angles.
 Theodolite is more precise than magnetic

compass.
 Magnetic compass measures the angle up to as

accuracy of 30’. However a vernier theodolite measures the angles up to and accuracy of 10’’, 20”.
 There are variety of theodolite vernier, optic,

Type of theodolite

Vertical axis

VERNIER THEODOLITE Traverse/horizontal axis
Vertical circle rigidly fixed to the telescope

Line of Sight

 Vernier theodolite is

also known and transit.
Horizontal circle assembly
 A transit theodolite is

one in which the telescope can be rotated in a vertical plane.

Three assemblies of Theodolite

 Main parts of a theodolite  Levelling head (7): Levelling head is used to attach the instrument to tripod and attach the plumb bob along the vertical axis of the instrument. .

The graduations are in degree divided in to 3 parts so that each division equals to 20 min. from 0 to 360°.  Upper plate (17): Horizontal plate of smaller diameter provided with two verniers.  The size of the theodolite is defined by the diameter of horizontal circle.  Horizontal angles are measured with this plate. They are used to read fractions of the horizontal circle plate graduations. These verniers are designated as A and B. . The verniers are graduated in 20 min and each minute is divided in 3 to 5 parts making least count 20” or 10”. in a clockwise direction.MAIN PARTS-2  Lower plate/circle plate (18): an annular horizontal plate with the graduations provided all around. on diametrically opposite parts of its circumference.

Main parts-3  Clamps and tangent screws (15. . The associated lower tangent screw allows small motion of the plate in locked position. When this clamp is released the lower plate does not move but the upper vernier plate moves with the instrument. 19):  There are two clamps and associated tangent screws with the plate.  The upper clamp screw locks or releases the upper vernier plate.  Lower clamp screw locks or releases the lower plate. These screws facilitate the motion of the instruments in horizontal plane. When this screw is unlocked both upper and lower plates move together. The upper tangent screw allows the fine adjustment. This causes the change in the reading.

 Telescope (10): The essential parts of the telescopes are eye-piece. .MAIN PARTS-4  Plate level (5):  Spirit level with the bubble and graduation on glass cover.  The spirit level can be adjusted with the foot screw (21) of the levelling head (7). diaphragm with cross hairs.  A single level or two levels fixed in perpendicular direction may be provided. object lens and arrangements to focus the telescope.

. Vertical circle moves with the telescope when it is rotated in the vertical plane.  Vertical circle clamp and tangent screw (11): Clamping the vertical circle restrict the movement of telescope in vertical plane.  Altitude level (2): A highly sensitive bubble is used for levelling particularly when taking the vertical angle observations.MAIN PARTS-5  Vertical circle (1): circular plate supported on horizontal axis of the instrument between the A-frames. Vertical circle has graduation 0-90 in four quadrants.

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Important Definition Changing face  Revolving the telescope by 180° in vertical plane about horizontal axis  Again revolving the telescope in horizontal plane about vertical axis. .

Adjustment of the theodolite  Temporary Adjustment  Setting up the theodolite .

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Upper clamp is tightened and using the upper tangent screw the vernier A and B are exactly set to 0° and 180°.  Turn the telescope clockwise set vernier A to 0° and vernier      B to approximately 180°. lower one is loosened and telescope is directed towards A and bisect the ranging rod at A. Tightened the lower clamp and turn the lower tangent screw to perfectly bisect ranging rod at A. Upper clamp is tightly fixed. The reading on vernier A and B are noted. Loose the upper clamp and turn the telescope clockwise to bisect the ranging rod at C tightened the upper clamp and do the fine adjustment with upper tangent screw.  The lower clamp is kept fixed and upper clamp is loosened.Measurement of horizontal angle  Measurement of Angle ABC  The instrument is set over B. Vernier A gives the angle directly and vernier B gives the reading by subtracting the initial reading (180°) from final reading .

 Read these two method  Repetition method  Reiteration method .

Vertical angle measurement-1 .

Vertical angle measurement-2 .

 Measurements of  Deflection angle  magnetic bearing B  P A N B  A C .

LAYING OFF ANGLES  The angle is to be laid out no more precisely than the least count of the transit or theodolite. .

Should have double the first angle measurement. then open lock and measure again same angle. . rotate theodolite.LAYING OFF ANGLES  Process: Lock angle.

plunge and make another line towards C. Then go to B.PROLONGING A STRAIGHT LINE  Start by taking distance at A. . rotate 180°. look back at A.

BUCKING IN (INTERLINGING)  Read A. If Distance between B and B’ is 1 M. then do the sighting again. then plunge to B. .5 M to find C. then you have to move 0.

.INTERSECTION OF 2 STRAIGHT LINES  Put 2 strings between points and then get the intersection.

PROLONGING A MEASUREMENT LINE BY TRIANGULATION OVER AN OBSTACLE .

. Random-line method. 2. 3. Right-angle offset method. Triangulation method.PROLONGING A LINE PAST AN OBSTACLE There are 3 methods for it: 1.

PROLONGING A LINE PAST AN OBSTACLE .

N. Duggal)  Ranging and extending a line  Method of traversing  Included angle method  Deflection angle method  Fast angle (or magnetic bearing method) . Basak. S. Read assignment (N. K.

Computation of latitude and departure  Latitude of a line is the distances measured parallel to the north south of the North-South direction  Departure of the line is the distance measured parallel to the east-west direction .

Computing latitude and departure .

then he changed his direction and walked 512 steps in the direction N10⁰E and reached a point C then again he changed his direction and walked 15 04 steps in the direction S65⁰E and reached a point D as shown in Figure Now the surveyor wants to return to the starting point A. . a surveyor with the hand compass started from point A and walked a thousand steps in the direction S67⁰W and reached a point B.Problem-1  While making survey through the woods. In which direction should he move and how many steps should he take.

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Sources of errors in theodolite  Instrumental errors  Non adjustment of plate bubble  Line of collimation not being perpendicular to horizontal axis  Horizontal axis not being perpendicular to vertical axis  Line of collimation not being parallel to axis of telescope  Eccentricity of inner and outer axes  Graduation not being uniform  Verniers being eccentric .

and this may lead to wrong readings on verniers  Closing error .  High winds cause vibration in the instrument. . Personal errors  Natural errors  High temperature causes error due to irregular refraction.

.Balancing of traverse  Bowditch’s rule:  Total error is distributed in proportion to the lengths of the traverse legs.

Calculation of traverse area .

Problem  Calculate the latitudes. Line AB BC CD DE EA Length 89.26 WCB 45⁰ 10’ 72⁰ 05’ 161⁰ 52’ 228⁰ 43’ 300⁰ 42’ .18 159. Adjust also the traverse using Bowditch’s rule. departures and closing error for the following traverse conducted at allahabad.31 219.10 232.76 151.