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EARTHING

by: RAIS BIN MAAT Institut Latihan dan Pembangunan Infrastruktur Ikram

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TUJUAN PEMBUMIAN
Mengalirkan arus bocor kebumi dengan seberapa banyak dan cepat supaya alat perlindungan, geganti atau peranti perlindungan dapat berfungsi dengan berkesan bagi mengelakkan berlakunya kejutan elektrik Mendapatkan voltan rujukan kosong untuk star point alatubah dan janakuasa supaya talian neutral dapat digunakan dan voltan bekalan stabil serta mengelakkan voltan terapong Mendapatkan voltan samaupaya (equipotential voltage) supaya tidak berlaku step voltage bahan pengalir yang terdedah (exposed conductive parts)
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CLASIFICATION OF EARTHING SYSTEM


Supply authority or supply source earthing arrangement are indicated by the first letter: T one or more points of supply are directly connected to earth I supply system not earth, or one point earth through a fault limiting impedance

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CLASIFICATION OF EARTHING SYSTEM


Relationship of exposed conductive parts to earth are indicated by the second letter T exposed conductive parts connected directly to earth and which is independent of the supply earth N exposed conductive parts connected directly to the earth point of the source of the supply
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CLASIFICATION OF EARTHING SYSTEM


Arrangement of neutral and protective conductors in T-N system is indicated by a third letter S separate neutral and protective conductors C neutral and protective conductors combined in a single conductor

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EARTHING SYSTEM
For normal installation practice, earthing is to connect together the exposed conductive parts of various items of the equipment to a common terminal (main earthing terminal), this in turn is connected by the earthing conductor to an earth electrode, buried in the mass of earth The earth installation must be capable must of carrying the prospective fault currents without danger and without excessive heat. It must have low resistance at all times with good resistance to corrosion
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ELECTRODE
The most important part of the earthing system is the electrode Electrode are made from a number of materials like cast iron, steel, copper or stainless steel and they may be in the form of plate, tubes, rods or strips The most favored material is copper which has good conductivity, is corrosion resistance to many of the salts that exist in the soil and it is a material that is easily worked
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ELECTRODE
These consist of some form of deeply buried conductor, since the major earth resistance lies on the top soil Buried copper or galvanized earth plate have largely given place to threaded copper-clad steel-cored rods

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TYPES OF ELECTRODE
Earth rods or pipes Earth tapes or wires Earth plates Earth electrodes embedded in foundation Metallic reinforcement of concrete structure Metal pipes Lead sheaths or other metallic covering of cables
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EARTH RESISTANCE
The earth resistance depends on soil resistivity and characteristic. The type of soil suitable for earth electrode are: Wet marshy ground Clay, loam soil, arable land Clayey soil, loam mixed with small quantity of sand Damp and wet sand
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EARTH RESISTANCE
Achieving a good earth will depend on local soil condition. Three factors that affect the soil resistivity are: Moisture content of the soil Chemical composition of the soil Temperature of the soil

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EARTH RESISTANCE
In area of high soil resistivity, it is difficult to obtain an earth resistance say one ohm or less. Several option are available in the form of soil conditioning agent e.g copper sulphate, sodium carbonate, bentonite and marconite

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APA YANG PERLU DIBUMIKAN


Semua peralatan elektrik yang dibuat dari logam atau bahan yang boleh mengalirkan elektrik, samada alatan elektrik ataupun bukan Star point alatubah dan janakuasa Terminal bumi DB, lampu, soket 13A, dsb. Konduit, trunking, tray, riser, busduct, dan apa-apa jua bahagian logam pemasangan elektrik
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EARTH PLATE

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STEP VOLTAGE

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STEP VOLTAGE

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AVERAGE RESISTIVITY OF THE EARTH


Type of Earth Wet organic soil Moist soil Dry soil Resistivity/Ohm-meters 10 100 1000

Bed rock
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10000
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JENIS KABEL BUMI


PVC hijau PVC hitam untuk star point janakuasa Pita tembaga (copper tape) 3mm x 25mm

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SAIZ KABEL BUMI


Sama dengan saiz kabel fasa sehingga 16mm 16mm jika saiz kabel fasa diantara 16mm hingga 35mm Separuh dari saiz kabel fasa jika saiz kabel fasa melebehi 35mm Gunakan pita tembaga 3mm x 25mm jika saiz kabel bumi melebehi 70mm CENTRAL earthing bar 50mm x 6mm

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CENTRAL EARTHING BAR

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CENTRAL EARTHING BAR

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CENTRAL EARTHING BAR

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EARTH CHAMBER

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JENIS-JENIS ELEKTROD BUMI


Standard copper-jacketed steel core earth rod 16mm diameter and 1500mm long G.I pipe 2 in diameter Wire mesh Building steel reinforcement Javelin rod (overhead line)

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UJIAN ELEKTROD BUMI


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RINTANGAN ELEKTROD BUMI


Elektrod bumi pemasangan Elektrod bumi penangkap kilat 1 ohm 10 ohms 2 ohms 10 ohms 15 ohms 25 ohms
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Transformer and generating station 10,000 kVA and over Small transformer stations and distributing stations
Small outdoor station Distribution transformer installation
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JENIS SAMBUNGAN KE ELEKTROD


Earth clip Plumbed joint Brazing Bolt & nut / socketing Riverting Exothermic welding (CADWELD/FURSE WELD) Cold pressure welding
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COPPER TAPE PEMBUMIAN SEMASA PEMBINAAN

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PEMBUMIAN SUISGIAR MENGGUNAKAN COPPER BRAID

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DOWN CONDUCTOR INSPECTION POINT

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DOWN CONDUCTOR INSPECTION POINT

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PEMBUMIAN PAPAN SUIS

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PEMBUMIAN PAPAN SUIS

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PEMBUMIAN BILIK SUIS

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PEMBUMIAN DIBAWAH TIANG TALIAN AERIAL

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PEMBUMIAN DIPENAMATAN KABEL

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PEMBUMIAN DIPENAMATAN KABEL

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PEMBUMIAN DIPENAMATAN KABEL DAN STAR POINT ALATUBAH

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