Computer is a Latin word which mean to compute or in other words we can say that it’s a machine which can

perform computations millions and billions time faster than a human.  It a device which can process data into useful information.  The things which make computer different from other electronic device are;  Accuracy; e.g. password  High processing speed; e.g. card reader  Versatility  Input and output (which other devices don’t have)


 2 .The history of the computers starts out about 2000 yrs ago with the birth of abacus.  it was look like the in figure:  2nd scientist that used same ideas but with different concept was Napier bones created a Logarithm tables to facilitate calculation and perform arithmetic calculations. It was a wooden rack holding wires with beads strung on them when these beads moved around according to programming rules memorized by the users all arithmetic problems can be done .

3 . but he died before he could build it • It was built after his death. philosopher)./.Pascal's Pascaline Calculator : • Pascal a French mathematician invented a machine that had a system of gears a one tooth gear engages with another and than system of calculator was abolished in which +.* were been made and these were the refinements on design of Pascal and Leibniz.-. Charles Babbage: • In 1822 Charles Babbage (English mathematician. powered by steam. sometimes called the “father of computing” built the Difference Engine • Machine designed to automate the computation (tabulation) of polynomial functions (which are known to be good approximations of many useful functions) • Based on the “method of finite difference” • Implements some storage • In 1833 Babbage designed the Analytical Engine.

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• Computer generation are divided into 5 types : • First Generation (Vacuum Tubes) • Second Generation(Transistors) • Third Generation(Integrated Circuit) • Fourth Generation(Microprocessors) • Fifth Generation(Artificial Intelligence) 5 .

UNIVAC – 1 (UNIVERSIAL AUTOMATIC COMPUTER). Vacuum tubes get hot and burn out computers of this generation were very large machines. The most important computers of this generation were  ENIAC-1(ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTERGATOR AND COMPUTER). 6 .  Special rooms with air conditioning were needed to house them because of the heat generated by the vacuum tubes.Computers of this generation used vacuum tubes to perform calculations vacuum tubes were expensive because of the amount of material and skill needed to manufacture them.

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Vacuum tubes are used for: amplification of a weak current.A vacuum tube also called a electron tubes is a sealed glass or metalceramic enclosure used in electronic circuitry to control the flow of electrons between the metal electrodes sealed inside the tubes. The air inside the tubes is removed by a vacuum. rectification of an alternating current to direct current (AC to DC). 8 .

Do not get hot & burn like a vacuum tube. A transistor can work 40 times faster than a vacuum tube. and William Brattain . CDC 164 etc.IBM 1400 SERIES . Advantages : 200 transistors are about same size as one vacuum tube in a computer.Second Generation(Transistors) Transistors were invented in 1947 by William Shockley. 9   1) 2) 3) 4)   . Typical example of this generation are as follow :IBM 7094 SERIES . Much less expensive than a vacuum tube. john Bardeen. They fill the half the room and were small in size but very efficient .

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8 others were Univac Ac 9000 and IBM 370 etc .Third Generation(Integrated Circuit) (IC) or integrated circuits The third generation was the major invention the concept of ic. Clair kilby in 1958. more reliable and lower price and also became common medium to large scale in business. An ic was about ¼ inch square and contain thousands of transistors. The most successful computers of this generation were IBM system/360 and PDP . A single ic chip contains thousands of transistors now the computer became smaller in size . 1st ic was invented and used in 1961 . 11  1)    . These computer used magnetic core memory as internal storage. The concept of ic was developed by jack st.faster.

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or microcomputers. Because electricity travels about a foot in a billionth of a second. And microprocessor are based on very large scale integration (VLSI).  13 . The microprocessor was made to be used in calculators. Ted Hoff. the smaller the distance the greater the speed of computers. to the invention of personal computers. It led. not computers.  However what really triggered the tremendous growth of computers and its significant impact on our lives is the invention of the microprocessor. however. employed by Intel invented a chip named 4004 the size of a pencil eraser that could do all the computing and logic work of a computer.Fourth Generation(Microprocessors) The invention of the microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of a full-scale computer). By putting millions of transistors onto one single chip more calculation and faster speeds could be reached by computers.

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They will be able to take commands in a audio visual way and carry out instructions. and computers will be more powerful than those under central processing. 15 . These computers will be under Artificial Intelligence(AI). Parallel Processing is coming and showing the possibility that the power of many CPU's can be used side by side.  The Fifth generations computers are only in the minds of advance research scientists still to be developed and being tested out in the laboratories. Many of the operations which requires low human intelligence will be performed by these computers.

knowledge-based platforms  -artificial intelligence. micro-miniaturization  -voice/data integration. expert systems  -virtual reality generation  Satellite links 16 .  Characteristics: Combinations of some or all of the following technologies:  -extremely large scale integration  -parallel processing  -high speed logic and memory chips  -high performance.

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