INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOGRAPHY

Photography is the art, science, and practice of creating pictures by recording radiation on a radiation-sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or electronic image sensors. Photography uses radiation in the UV, visible and near-IR spectrum. For common purposes the term light is used instead of radiation. Light reflected or emitted from objects form a real image on a light sensitive area (film or plate) or a FPA pixel array sensor by means of a pin hole or lens in a device known as a camera during a timed exposure. The result on film or plate is a latent image, subsequently developed into a visual image (negative). An image on paper base is known as a print. The result on the FPA pixel array sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel which is electronically processed and stored in a computer raster image file for subsequent display or processing. Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing, art, and recreational purposes.

It was Sir John Herschel in a lecture before the Royal Society of London, on March 14, 1839 who made the word "photography" known to the whole world. The word photography is based on the Greek word photos meaning light and graphé meaning representation by means of lines or drawing, together meaning "drawing with light“.

is converted to a usable image. but can be reproduced on paper or film. and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. after appropriate processing.the first pentaprism SLR Nikon F of 1959 the first 35mm film camera 21st Century camera. The resulting digital image is stored electronically. • • The camera is the image-forming device. . or a digital electronic or magnetic memory. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS) technology. Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or "raw file" (in digital cameras) which. The respective recording medium can be the film itself.

controls the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. . The controls usually include but are not limited to the following: Description Control Focus Aperture The adjustment to place the sharpest focus where it is desired on the subject. the greater the depth of field. ISO speed ISO speeds are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system. Adjustment of the lens opening. aperture. A correct combination of ISO speed.' indicated by a centered meter. The higher the f-number. Faster shutter speeds decrease both the amount of light and the amount of image blurring from motion of the subject and/or camera. the less light. hence it is 'correctly exposed. the film is less sensitive to light. and shutter speed leads to an image that is neither too dark nor too light. Shutter speed Adjustment of the speed. manually or automatically. which controls the amount of light passing through the lens. the smaller the opening. whereas with a lower ISO number. sharp and well illuminated. The higher the ISO number the greater the film sensitivity to light. of a few controls to ensure the photograph is clear. measured as f-number. expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle.CAMERA CONTROLS In most cameras. the process of obtaining a usable exposure must involve the use.

white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature. 200mm etc & has relate to shutter speed. It is the measurement of exposure so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Metering Focal length Type of lens Normal. long focus. Modern cameras meter and set exposure automatically. macro. the electronic control for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions. this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or color correction filters. ensures that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. fish-eye or zoom The resolution as measured in pixels in digicams & grains of silver recording material halide in photo films. telephoto. film-based cameras. In mechanical. wide angle. Focal length of the camera lens may be 50mm. This is done by setting the "film speed" or ISO sensitivity into the meter. . Earlier. Photographers may employ white balance for aesthetics. To translate the amount of light into a usable aperture and shutter speed. correct exposure was accomplished with the use of a separate light metering device. Ex.CAMERA CONTROLS Control White balance Description In digicams. the meter needs to adjust for the sensitivity of the film or sensor to light.

biology and medicine. Macrophotography subjects may include insects.TYPES OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Photojournalism . Photojournalism pictures are often powerful images that engage the viewer with the news story by capturing the original emotions.Documentary photographs tell stories with images.photography in which pictures are taken at close range. parachutes. Aerial photographers use planes. Photos may be used for surveying or construction. Action Photography . A documentary photographer may shoot a series of images of the inner city homeless or chronicle the events of an international combat. Macrophotography . Microphotography . flowers. microphotography is used in disciplines as diverse as astronomy.While professionals who take action shots may specialize in a variety of different subjects. the texture of a woven sweater or any object where close-up photography reveals interesting details.requires the photographer to shoot only the facts: no alteration or embellishment of the photo is permitted.uses specialized cameras and microscopes to capture images of extremely small subjects. For example. Aerial photography – is specializing in taking photos from the air. Documentary Photography . balloons and remote controlled aircraft to take pictures from the air. • • • • • . to capture birds or weather on film or for military purposes. sports photography is one of the fastest and most exiting types of photography.

including macrophotography and glamour photography. wedding photos can be retouched and edited to produce a variety of effects.plays a vital role in advertising. buildings can be very demanding to photograph. the goal of portraiture is to capture the personality of the subject or group of subjects on film. Whether the subject is your family or your pet. The need for unique and eye-catching advertising copy means the photographer may work with multiple types of photography. Although the wedding album is a documentary of the wedding day. taking shots underwater can be complicated.is one of the oldest types of photography. Wedding photography . Architectural photography .is usually employed by scuba divers or snorkelers.is a blend of different types of photography. but the key in solving this and attaining good images is understanding image distortion and finding the best time to capture the building at its most glamorous moment. Advertisement photography . as scuba goggles are magnified and distort the photographer’s vision.is all about capturing the interiors and exteriors of buildings to show them at their best to the viewer. Technically. Ex . Portraiture . • • • • . timeless look.TYPES OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Underwater photography . If an amateur has the equipment and the scuba know-how.a photographer may treat some of the pictures with sepia toning to give them a more classic.

.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY • Light is one of a photographer’s most important considerations. whether taken in natural light or the warm glow of incandescent light. any photograph captures the effect of light on objects. In fact. A photographer who understands how the eye and lens perceive the color spectrum can make full use of light in photography.

For instance. When light hits an object. Color photography taken at midday produces the clearest. The portion of the color that is not absorbed by the object but reflected back to eye is the color that the object appears to the human eye. sharpest pictures in bright light. the blue portion of the color spectrum is dominant. if you shine light through a prism. different shades of the color spectrum dominate natural light. For instance. at midday. the object absorbs some of the color spectrum and reflects back the rest of the colors. However. producing a “cool” light.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY • The Color Spectrum . natural light at sunrise and sunset emphasizes the red portion of the color spectrum. a black object absorbs the entire color spectrum. In contrast.Both the natural light of the sun and artificial incandescent light appear white to the naked eye. it splits into a rainbow of colors. While a red rose reflects the red portion of the color spectrum and absorbs the rest. Natural Light in Color Photography . sunrise and sunset light produces warmer pictures with a softer contrast. a white wall reflects most of the color spectrum back. At different times of the day.Natural light in photography is not as consistent as you may think. This effect shows how the “color” white contains every shade in the color spectrum. • • • . Known as warm light in photography. So our eyes (and the camera lens) see white.

On the other hand.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY • Artificial Light in Photography . Florescent lights produce a diffuse light that often translates into greenish tinges in color photography. • Photographs taken with incandescent light often have a yellow tinge.The direction of light in photography is important: different angles of light produce different shadows. • . direct light is a good choice. it is even more important for black and white or sepia photography since the key feature of black and white photography is the contrast between light and shadow. One method to correct this is to use a blue filter to offset the excessive yellowing. the effect of the lighting depends on the type of bulb used. The loss of contrast that diffuse light produces mutes colors and softens the image. Color Photography or Black and White? While lighting is important for color photography. Using a fluorescent or daytime filter helps remove this unappealing color. Light in photography may be diffuse or direct. such as light from the noon sun. diffuse light hits the subject from several directions. • • • Diffuse and Direct Light in Photography .When photographers use artificial light in photography. If you’re looking for high contrast between light and shadows. Florescent lighting is one example of diffuse light in photography. hits the subject from one direction. changing the appearance of your subject. Direct light.

.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY Digital Cameras and Light in Photography Digital cameras come with specialized light settings. Here are some of the common settings: • auto: when you want the camera to adapt to changing light • • • • • • cloudy: for outdoor use in cloudy or overcast skies daylight or sunny: for outdoors and bright sunlight flash: for taking pictures with the flash fluorescent: for scenes lit by fluorescent lights incandescent or tungsten: for incandescent lighting manual: when you want to manage the lighting of each shot. This requires that the photographer aim the camera at white paper to change the lighting settings manually.

a photographer can then add any combination of these colors together to produce any of the secondary colors (magenta. By using an additive color system. For example. known as cyan). green and blue. In the late 1800s. • • • . The results of each picture rendered an image that had produced an additive effect of all of the colors in the scene. green and blue colored filters. Additive color systems work in a directly opposite manner to subtractive color systems that work by absorbing all of the colors except the one that the object appears to be. yellow or blue-green. then the primary colors will be red.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY ADDITIVE COLOR • Additive Color refers to the process of adding primary colors (of the given color system) together to produce secondary colors. the resulting light will be white. if the RGB color system is the primary color model. If all of the primary colors are added together. This negation of the other colors is the mode in which subtractive color systems work. a red apple appears red because it absorbs all of the colors of the color spectrum except for red. physicist James Clerk Maxwell and photographer Thomas Sutton proved the existence of the additive color system by photographing ribbon under red. For instance.

The four primary colors of the CMYK color system can be combined a variety of ways to create other secondary colors. “key” was added to the system as the black that is characteristic of the “key plate. it is included in the CMYK color model because the combination of each of the three primaries forms a murky brown. yellow and key (black). this subtractive color model works by rendering the color of an object through the light that isn’t absorbed.” Although black isn’t considered to be a primary color in most color systems. blue) is an alternative to the CMYK color model.” CMYK may also be written as YMCK or CYM. Consequently. the two colors that combine to produce the secondary color that the eye sees as “green. magenta. For example. • • • . RGB (red.” the standard plate which is inked with only black. lettuce appears green because it absorbs all colors except for cyan and yellow. green. The color that is most appropriate depends on the subject and the photographer’s eye. rather than a true black. For example. the CMYK tends to produce more purplish blues. Using in printing color photographs. Occasionally pronounced “c-mike.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY CMYK • CMYK is a particular color model based on four primary colors: cyan (bluishgreen). The system a photographer chooses will depend on the true colors he wants rendered in the resulting prints. while an RGB system can render a “pure” blue (one that is 100 percent blue).

a color appears on a photograph. Color depth can render 16 million different colors (about as many as the human eye can discern) in a picture based on a 24 bit per pixel measurement. However.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY COLOR DEPTH • Color Depth refers to the number that a given pixel is assigned in a photograph. • • . In sum total. The number that a pixel is assigned determines the color of the pixel. color depth describes the range of colors a photograph could possibly have. the more refined and detailed a picture will appear. Color depth works by attributing a single color to each pixel. color depth alone doesn’t determine the quality of a photograph. or the degree to which. Color depth along with the dots per inch (DPI) are responsible for photographic quality. Consequently. a picture comes together because each pixel is assigned a distinct color depth. bit-depth or true color. the more color depth numbers are assigned. Color depth is also referred to as pixel-depth. Simply speaking. The higher the DPI (the more dots or pixels that make up an image). Ultimately. with more colors in an image. Color depth is a term that is used in both photography and computer arenas. the color depth determines the richness of.

Not usually available on point-and-shoot or digicams. If your digital camera doesn’t come with color space options. you can select one of three different types of color systems. the Adobe RGB is a colors system that is more extensive than the sRGB in that it offers a broader range of colors. Consequently. The sRGB color space is a widespread system that is the default setting for Windows XP. web browsers and most image editors. The three options for color systems include sRGB. the color space determines the colors that will be visible in a given photograph. Finally. also known as color space.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY • COLOR SYSTEMS Color system. In simple terms. As such. • . The ColorMatch RGB is a color space that includes more colors than sRGB. each of which have unique properties to suit specific needs. When buying a camera or photography software. the ColorMatch RGB is a color system that easily brightens photos. refers to the manner in which colors are abstractly represented as numbers. Adobe RGB and ColorMatch RGB. this color space is generally only available on higher end. sRGB is the color system used by nearly all digital cameras today. it is likely to be equipped with sRGB. more expensive cameras. especially those that are too dark.

However. • When the color of a photograph is off. Conversely. colors that appear bluer fall within 16. the color sensitivity of the film hasn’t been properly calibrated to the color temperature of the photographed object.e. a term borrowed from physics.000K. it will produce a visibly bluish light. . Such filters can effectively balance a photo’s color. color temperature refers to the visible light an object radiates based on its inherent heat. throughout a light bulb’s life.COLOUR & LIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPHY COLOR TEMPERATURE • Color temperature. cooler objects radiate more reds. is the measurement (in Kelvin) of a color’s intensity on a scale of blue to red. a deep blue.800K. just before it burns out). a color that is traditionally considered to be a cooler color on the color wheel. the bulb will appear red when it is hot. The following are the color temperatures of everyday sights: sunrise and sunset registers at around 1.500K. If you aren’t sure how to pair an object’s color temperature with the appropriately sensitive film. For example. • Ironically. warmer objects (those registering higher Kelvin temperatures) emit blue. when the bulb is its hottest (i. In broad terms. try using filters on your camera lens.600K. cloudless sky emits 20. typically associated as a warmer color.000K. • While the red end of the color spectrum has a color temperature of 1. an electronic camera flash has a color temperature of 5.

The further away an image that a photographer is attempting to capture within their angle of view. For instance. the longer and more narrow the lens should be. a picture of the stars or far-off marine life would be taken with a longer. Also known as angle of coverage or field of view.Angle of View • Angle of View is the amount of a scene a photograph captures and can be measured vertically. narrower lens than one that has an image with an angle of view that is twenty feet away. a lowered or slanted angle of view may give your pictures an unconventional flare. they can use a petal or a hooded lens respectively. changing the angle of view of a scene can add a fresh. as is the traditional method. horizontally or diagonally. if a photographer wants to include more or less light within an angle of view. Similarly. While wide-angle lens tend to capture more of a scene than any other lenses. unique spin to a traditional picture. angle of view changes given the type of lens a photographer uses to take a picture. Rather than shooting a photo straight on. Whether you are a novice or expert photographer. • • • . longer lenses generally get about two degrees of a scene within their angle of view.

Commonly. . By altering the shape of the print. you should examine an aspect ratio chart to assess what aspect ratio for film that you will need so that the image shows up clearly. 35 mm film measures 36:24. creating an aspect ration of 3:2. Although aspect ratios are a central descriptor in photography. It is important to know a film’s aspect ratio because varying ratios may not conform clearly to certain photo print sizes. Such an aspect ratio tends to produce 6″x4″ printed pictures. If you attempt to print photographs that don’t conform to the film’s aspect ratio. the photo printer can maintain the integrity of the image. by adding a border) or crop the photo’s top and/or sides. Therefore. they are also important in cinema and computer technology.e. if you want to print a photograph at a specific size. the photo printer will either pad the picture’s edges (i.Aspect Ratio • Aspect Ratio is a measurement of a photograph’s width to height.

Ex. The depth of field that a photographer chooses to enhance a given picture is an entirely subjective choice. Three factors play a hand in determining or affecting depth of field: the lens aperture (how open the lens is). • . depending on the aspects he wishes to enhance within the given frame. placing the camera at a distance from the object will create a greater depth of field. smaller lens apertures (lens with smaller diameters) and shorter lens lengths both create more broad depths of field. The outer fuzzy edges pinpoint where the picture loses its depth of field. Similarly. The closer an object is to the lens. landscape shots tend to have greater depths of field while portraits have minimal depths of field. Conversely. When looking at a picture.Depth of Field • Depth of Field refers to the distance around an object that appears in focus in the frame or photograph. you can recognize its depth of field by noticing where the photo becomes blurry and unfocused. the length of lens being used and the object’s size (the later includes the distance the object is away from the photographer). the less depth of field will appear in the resulting photograph.

Common fnumbers on a lens are f/1. a photographer can alter the fnumber by changing the f-stop setting on the camera’s lens. etc. Therefore the smaller the f-number. thus. and f-number) represents a decrease of light entering the lens by half the previous intensity. moving to a higher f-number will halve the amount of light. f/8. On a camera. the faster the shutter speed should be set. f/4. also known as a focal ratio. f/2. Most lenses have f-stops that are represented numerically by integral powers of the square root of two. So. the more light the camera lets in through the lens. is the ratio of the diameter of the lens aperture to the length of the lens.F-Number • F-Number. Each increment of an f-stop (and. . The more light the lens allows into the camera. so as not to overexpose the film.

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