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JIMMA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CENG 4057: FOUNDATION ENGINEERING II


SIVA

Instructor: Petros Fekadu

02/2011

Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering

ground
N. Sivakugan
SIVA

Duration: 11 min 56 s

Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. It includes : investigating existing subsurface conditions and materials; determining their physical/mechanical and chemical properties that are relevant to the project considered, assessing risks posed by site conditions; designing earthworks and structure foundations; and monitoring site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction. Its focus is on design and construction of foundations, underground structures, tunnels, embankments and dams.
All man made structures, except those which float or fly, are supported by natural soil or rock deposits.
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Important Examples

Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy)

Settling Circular Bank (Addis Ababa)


This bank is known for its uniform settlement.

Although intended to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose substrate that has allowed the foundation to shift direction.
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Geotechnical Engineering

Soil Mechanics

Soil Mechanics I Soil Mechanics II Foundation Engineering I Foundation Engineering II Engineering Geology

Foundation Eng.

Engineering Geology

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Typical Geotechnical Project


Geo-Laboratory ~ for testing

soil properties

Design Office ~ for design & analysis

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Shallow Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground ~ mostly for firm soils or light loads

firm ground

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bed rock

Shallow Foundations

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Deep Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground ~ mostly for weak soils or heavy loads

P I L E

weak soil

bed rock
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Deep Foundations

Driven timber piles, Pacific Highway


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Retaining Walls
~ for retaining soils from spreading laterally

retaining wall
Road Train

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Earth Dams
~ for impounding water

reservoir

clay core

shell

soil

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Concrete Dams

reservoir

concrete dam

soil

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Concrete Dams
Is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze river. Its the world's largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.

Three Gorges Dam, Hong Kong


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Concrete Dams

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Earthworks
~ preparing the ground prior to construction

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Roadwork, Pacific Highway

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Construction hazard
~ an unwelcome visitor at an earthwork site.

What does it have to do with Geo?#!

A dead Anaconda python (courtesy: J. Brunskill)


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Chilean copper mine workers

On 5 August 2010, a cave-in occurred at the San Jos copper-gold mine in the Atacama Desert near Copiap, Chile. The accident left 33 men trapped 700 metres below ground. The miners survived underground for a record 69 days. All 33 were rescued and brought to the surface on 13 October 2010
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Geofabrics
~ used for reinforcement, separation, filtration and drainage in roads, retaining walls, embankments

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Geofabrics used on Pacific Highway

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Reinforced Earth Walls


~ using geofabrics to strengthen the soil

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Soil Nailing
~ steel rods placed into holes drilled into the walls and grouted

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Sheet Piles
~ sheets of interlockingsteel or timber driven into the ground, forming a continuous sheet

warehouse

ship

sheet pile

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Sheet Piles
~ resist lateral earth pressures

~ used in excavations, waterfront structures, ..

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Sheet Piles
~ used in temporary works

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Sheet Piles
~ interlocking sections

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Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to prevent water seeping in

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Landslides

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Tunneling
A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for egress, commonly at each end. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal.

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Blasting

For ore recovery in mines Aggregate production

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Ground Improvement

Impact Roller to Compact the Ground


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Ground Improvement

Sheepsfoot Roller to Compact Clay Soils


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Ground Improvement

Smooth-wheeled Roller
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Ground Improvement
Big weights dropped from 25 m, compacting the ground.

Craters formed in compaction


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Environmental Geomechanics

Waste Disposal in Landfills


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Soil Testing

Cone Penetration Test Truck Lavarach Barracks, Townsville


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Soil Testing

Vane Shear Test


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Standard Penetration Test

More Field Tests

Soil Testing

Triaxial Test on Soil Sample in Laboratory


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Soil Testing

Variety of Field Testing Devices


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Typical Safety Factors


Type of Design Safety Factor Probability of Failure

Earthworks

1.3-1.5

1/500 1/1500 1/5000

Retaining 1.5-2.0 structures Foundations 2.0-3.0

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Some unsung heroes of Civil Engineering

foundations

soil exploration tunneling

buried right under your feet.


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Great Contributors to the Developments in Geotechnical Engineering

Karl Terzaghi 1883-1963 Father of SM Consolidation, BC

C.A.Coulomb 1736-1806 Wedge theory Shear strength

Sivas teacher in USA deserves gold frame

WJM Rankine 1820-1872 Lateral earth P. Retaining walls

A.Casagrande 1902-1981
Soil testing Seepage & Liquefaction

L. Bjerrum 1918-1973

Pore pressure BC A.W.Skempton G.F.Sowers 19141921-1996

G.A. Leonards 1921-1997

Geotechnical Engineering Landmarks

Leaning Tower of Pisa


Our blunders become monuments!

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Hoover Dam, USA


a concrete arch-gravity dam

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Tallest (221 m) concrete dam

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Burj Khalifa
Dubai, United Arab Emirates

oThe tallest building in the world. oThe tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m.

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Course Outline

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