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These skills are acquired step by step Pupils need a lot of practice in using vocabulary and building sentence structures.
Basic background knowledge of grammar and using it correctly is a plus point . Teachers should wean pupils away from word level and phrase level to simple sentences and henceforth to parallel writing.

Teaching Grammar through writing

Students are more aware of grammar and sentence structure by using tables. The technique of using a table can be used with any text. Pupils are made aware of sentence structures by writing in columns

Keep to simple sentences which

will build the pupils confidence . Use single pictures initially. Tell pupils that a sentence structure should have a subject, verb and a story line. Add on the time tense if any for that particular sentence.

Building confidence Start with very simple sentence structures. Eg: Kadir cycling. Ah Seng Rama- cyclingschool -boys cycling- school -boys cycled-schoolyesterday

Teachers can initially

guide the students . Pupils can work individually or in groups.

Read the text and complete the

missing words. My favourite animals are cows. They are very useful and give us many things both when they are living and when they are dead. They give us milk that we can drink and make into butter, cheese or yoghurt. We can make

How to exploit the text fully.

Use WH-questions Matching sentence parts Gap filling Word Arrangement Expansion using table method Parallel Writing

Writing using the table method

Subject Who/What Verbwhat object what object where

Cows They They We

are give give

very useful us many things. us milk. from the milk

can make cheese, butter or yoghurt.

Boost their confidence with individual pictures

Teachers can work with individual pictures. Do a picture study. Ask WH- questions to familiarize pupils with visual clues. Get pupils to answer the questions. Teachers can work around the same picture by giving a a variety of exercises.

Questioning Technique

One way to help students

to understand a picture is to put forth a series of WHquestions. Use WH-questions to get pupils to respond and identify other visual clues.

Alina- twelve old- collecting stamps

Use WH-Questions as a way to expand sentences

Twelve years old Alina Stamp album

Collecting stamps


why how
during free time


How old is Alina? (v) (s) Alina is twelve years old. (s) (v) (o) What is her favourite hobby? (v) (s) Her favourite hobby is collecting stamps

Does she collect many stamps? s v o She collects many stamps. s v o Where does she keep them? s v She keeps them in a stamp album

-(tall tree)- (grows along seaside-) (leaves- long)

Time -

Subject The coconut tree


OBJECT tall tree a tall tree

It leaves

grows -

along the sea side long

The leaves



(-trunk hard ) (used -make bridges.) (fruits- big - green )

Time -

Subject trunk The trunk


object hard

make bridges
is hard .

fruits The fruits

Is used

to make bridges.
big-green -brown big and green .


Use WH-Questions to prompt answers.

Halim ,Helmi



catch birds

saw bird



last weekend

WH-Questions to guide pupils

1. Who went into the jungle? Subject

Story line Halim and into the Helmi jungle 2. Why did they go into the jungle? Subject Verb Story Line They went/ to catch wanted to birds

Verb went

3. What did Halim see?

Subject Verb Story Line Halim/He saw bird.

4. What did the boys do ? Subject Verb

Halim and Helmi-jungle-birds-Halim- bird

Time -

Subject Halim and Helmi Halim and Helmi -

verb went

object jungle Into a jungle. birds

Halim Halim


to catch birds
bird a bird.

(Monday - night market ) (stalls )( people) (- noisy)

Time Monday Last Monday -

Subject Pn Alina and Ainee They They -

verb went

object night market to the night market stalls many stalls people many people noisy

saw saw -