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0 Concept of Teaching and Learning

2.1 Definition of Teaching and Learning

Teaching is a series of activities carried out to produce changes in behavior of students.

Teaching is a process of delivering knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which causes changes of behavior of students.

Teaching refers as an activity or process which is related with the impart of certain specific knowledge or skill, guiding and assessing, with the aim of assisting students to learn effectively.

Thomas F. Green in his book The Activities of Teaching, considered that the aim of teaching is to change the behaviour and character of the students through the acquiring of knowledge and belief.
Within the context of formal education, the concept of teaching can be explained as a process which is related with the impart of knowledge or skills so that students can learn and acquire them effectively.

In order to achieve the aim of teaching, the teaching process has to be implemented systematically, according to the teaching procedures such as planning, organizing, implementing and assessing, including feedback.
Planning & organizing Implementation Assessment

Teaching Process

Teaching can be defined as an assignment activity which is systematically planned, organized, implemented and assessed by the teacher, who, in the process of teaching, applied suitable teaching method and technique to guide, encourage and motivate student to take their own initiative to learn, so as to achieve the learning objectives set.

Elements in teaching series are teaching procedures, climate and environment, implementation strategies (teaching strategies), monitoring and evaluation.

Learning: Individual changes due to experience (Slavin,1997)

learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individuals knowledge or behavior (Woolfolk, 2004)

Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour of any organism, including the lowest strata of animals, due to experience. Kimble (1961) defined learning as an experience which produces a relatively permanent change in potential behaviour. This change in potential behaviour excludes natural changes of behaviour due to biological growth or development, or temporary changes due to effects of drugs or physical fatigue.

Wayne Weiten (1994) considered learning not only includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills, but also formation of habits, personality traits, emotional responses and personal tastes. In fact, most of the human behaviours are the result of learning.


Concept of learning process: Humans use their sensory organs to acquire experience and knowledge in their environment. Human sensory organs are being used to select suitable stimuli from their surrounding and later process them in their mind to become meaningful experience or knowledge.
Subsequently these will be applied when a similar situation occurred. The act to apply experience or knowledge which has been acquired during the learning process can be seen as a change in the human behaviour

8 learning components adapted from Ewells understandings of the richness and complexity of learning based on the converging evidence from neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and developmental research.

2.2 Principles of Learning (Ewell) Active involvement: Student is actively involved and participates in the instruction. Information is not delivered but they create it. Pattern recognition and connectivism: They have the opportunity to establish, test, and rework patterns and connections as they make meaning out of learning situations

Informal learning: Learning does not occur in classroom settings only, nor is it contained within the time frame of a lesson. Learning is informal and it can be acquired anywhere, at any time.


First hand experience: Because students are actively involved in creating their own patterns and connections and because learning occurs in informal settings, besides the classroom, it is inevitable that we will have misconceptions.
Direct experience in a real context is required in order to change or alter these preconceived notions.

Compelling situation: If a learning situation is a compelling situation, which goes beyond a direct experience in that the situation involves real consequences, then the learning will be more challenging and interesting for the students.


Continuous reinforcement: Ewell stresses the importance of the incentives as well as the corrective role of frequent feedback, which students should get from instructors and peers throughout the learning process; without opportunity for practice, even well learned abilities will go away.

Stimulating environment: Following the point about frequent feedback, Ewell emphasizes that the feedback will be most effective if it is delivered in an enjoyable setting that involves personal interactions and a considerable level of personal support.


Reflection: Reflection is necessary to reach the point of deeper learning required for this information to be used in future situations. In our model, reflection becomes one of the primary elements of learning because we feel that through reflection students can take control of their own learning.

The practise of reflection enhances self-assessment skills that lead to recognizing what has worked and what needs to be improved. All of this leads to transfer of learning to new setting and for long term impact. (Bransford et al.. 1999. ch. 3)

2.3 Types of learning (Gagne)

Intellectual skills Cognitive strategies Verbal information Psychomotor skills Attitude


3.0 Theories of Learning

3.1 Behaviorist Theory 3.1.1 Watsons Conditioning Theory Humans inherit three kinds of natural emotions, i.e. fear, anger and love. Human emotion can be learned through the process of conditioning.


Watsons experiment
White mouse-Little Albert interested to play. White mouse and loud sound- Little Albert panic and frightened. After conditioned response was established, only white mouse appeared, Little Albert responded with fear. Little Albert has related loud startling sound with white mouse which he saw. Through conditioning process, he has learned to respond with fear.

Stimulus generalization:

Stimuli resembling white mouse was responded with similar fear reaction which he generalized from a variety of stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus (i.e. the white mouse)


Implications of Watsons learning theory:

All types of behavior can be learned through the conditioning process. To master the skill of solving problems, relate the relationship between all responses systematically. To consolidate what has been learned in the memory, more exercises should be carried out after learning. During the teaching process, teacher should use suitable stimulus to motivate pupils in learning. Avoid using stimulus which will produce negative effect.

3.1.2 Pavlovs Classical Conditioning

Pavlov observed that the dog salivates at the sight of the meat powder was a natural, unlearned reaction. The unconditioned response (UCR : salivation) is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS: meat powder) that occurs without previous conditioning.

The conditioned response (CR: salivation) to a conditioned stimulus (CS: bell) that occurs was the result of previous conditioning.


Sequence of events in classical conditioning:

A) Before conditioning UCS: meat powder UCR: salivation NS: bell sound no response B) During conditioning NS: bell sound UCS: meat powder UCR: salivation C) After conditioning CS: bell sound CR: salivation

Basic processes in classical conditioning:

1. Acquisition: Forming new conditioned responses. Stimuli (UCS & CS) that are special, novel or intense would have more opportunity to produce classical conditioning 2. Extinction: Weakening of conditioned responses. Extinction of learned responses is the result of gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response.

3. Spontaneous recovery: Resurrecting responses. Spontaneous recovery of a learned response is the reappearance of a conditioned response (CR) which was extinct after a long period of nonappearance of the conditioned stimulus (CS)


4. Stimulus generalization The conditioned response of an organism that applies not only to the exact , original conditioned stimulus, but also to other similar stimulus. Stimulus generalization occurs when an individual who has acquired a conditioned response to a certain stimulus, would response the same way to any new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.

5. Stimulus discrimination The individual would not respond the same way as the original stimulus when he/she encounters new stimuli that are similar. 6. Higher-order conditioning Referred to a new conditioned response which is built on the foundation of learned response. A conditioned stimulus is now functioning as an unconditioned stimulus.

Implications of Pavlovs conditioning theory in teaching-learning: 1. Conditioned responses can be fostered through the process of teaching-learning activities. 2. Originally Pavlovs Classical Conditioning Learning Model was used in the field of psychology, and later in behavioural learning (e.g. language learning). Many mathematical principles and laws can also be learned through the process of higher-order conditioning

3. In order to teach effectively the teacher ought to relate practical experience (conditioned stimulus) with the learning task (unconditioned stimulus) so as to produce satisfactory conditioned learning response, i.e. through satisfactory learning activities.

4. Guide pupils to apply skill to make accurate generalization by using various related examples. 5. Guide pupils to use skill to make discrimination e.g. to ascertain the different specific characteristics of parallelogram and rhombus. 6. Allocate sufficient exercises for pupils to strengthen the application of conditioned stimulus and conditioned response. e.g. give related exercises regularly to solve mathematics problems.

7. Use secondary reinforcement to sustain conditioned response and to avoid extinction. e.g. use new, similar stimulus as conditioned stimulus to motivate pupils for their subsequent learning activities. 8. Assist pupils to restore their memory by allowing sufficient resting time until all existing interference in learning has been removed.

3.1.3 Thorndikes Operant Conditioning:

Thorndike viewed learning as a series of stimulus-response (S-R) connections or bonds. He described the ways in which these S-R connections could be strengthened or weakened. Learning is a trial and error process. Three laws of Thorndike: 1. The law of readiness 2. The law of exercise 3. The law of effect

Three laws of Thorndike:

1. The law of readiness: When an organism is in a state in which the conduction units (S-R connections) are ready to conduct, then the conduction is satisfying. If the conduction unit is not ready to conduct, then conduction is annoying


2. The law of exercise: Also called the law of use and disuse, states that the more an S-R connection is used, the stronger it will become; the less it is used, the weaker it will become.


3. The law of effect: Thorndikes most important law. It states that an S-R connection followed by satisfaction (reward) is strengthened. Also, a connection followed by annoyance (punishment) is weakened


3.1.4 Skinners Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning: responses (learning) are obviously influenced mainly by stimulus events that follow them. According to Skinner, organisms normally operate on the environment instead of reacting to the stimuli presented to them. Learning occurs because of the influence of the consequences that follow. OC is a form of learning in which voluntary responses are influenced by their consequences.

Two categories of human behaviour (Skinner): 1. Respondent behaviour - an unconditioned behaviour (Pavlovs Conditioning Theory). The response towards stimulus from the environment. Respondent learning (stimulus-response learning)- pupils response towards the presentation of stimulus and is considered passive because without the presence of a stimulus, learning would not occur.

2. Operant behaviour----a kind of voluntary or expected behaviour. A response emitted from own self without the presence of any known stimulus.
Active learning---because learning (response) that occurs is based on its own initiative without waiting for any related stimulus to appear. OB would be strengthened if suitable reinforcement is given immediately after the response.


Two types of reinforcement: (Skinner)

1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement


Effects of reinforcement on operant behaviour:

Positive reinforcement---possibility of repeating desirable (or undesirable) operant behaviour will be enhanced. Negative reinforcement---possibility of repeating the operant behaviour will be enhanced by transferring or removing the unpleasant stimulus.

Operant Conditioning Learning Model covers three important concepts:

1. Operant response occurs from own self. 2. Stimulus which can sustain response is known as reinforcer or reinforcing stimulus. Reinforcer can be positive (e.g. reward) or negative (e.g. punishment-withdrawal of reward).

Reinforcer can be primary or secondary.

Primary reinforcers-unlearned reinforcersthings that satisfy biological needs. Secondary reinforcers-learned reinforcer (money, salary, good grades, praise, attention, and flattery). 3. Reinforcement is a technique or process which uses the reinforcer to strengthen and sustain the relevant response.

Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because of a rewarding stimulus that follows. Negative reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because of the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Punishment involves the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus e.g. canning, with the effect of weakening a response. Negative reinforcement and punishment are opposite procedures that yields opposite effects on respondents behaviour.

The effect of negative reinforcement:

1. Escape learning---acquires a response that decreases or diminishes its unpleasant stimulus e.g. play truant to escape punishment, which becomes a negative reinforcement. 2. Avoidance learning---acquires a response that prevents a certain unpleasant stimulus from occuring e.g. run away from seeing a sign of danger, thus avoiding being exposed to danger.

Schedules of reinforcement:
1. Continuous reinforcement---occurs every time when an expected response is explicitly given. Usually used to shape or establish a new desirable response. 2. Intermittent reinforcement---occurs when a repeated response is reinforced only at some of the time. Provides more resistance to extinction and durable effect for a response. (Reinforces given occasionally would strengthen a response, and provide great resistance to extinction).

Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning:

Acquisition process refers to the formation of a new response. Effective to mould many aspects of animal and human behaviour A gradual process of shaping. Extinction process refers to a gradual weakening and finally disappearance of a response tendency by removal of a positive reinforcement.

Stimulus generalization process refers to increase in responding in the presence of a new stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus. (When a particular stimulus, e.g. a red light occurred consistently with a reinforcer. This particular stimulus would act as a signal indicating that the response would lead to the expected reinforcer.


Stimulus discrimination process refers to non-increase in responding in the presence of a new stimulus that resembles the original discriminative stimulus. (e.g. the dog would only wag its tail when it heard the footstep of the caregiver.


Implications of Skinners Operant Conditioning Theory in Teaching and Learning: 1.A newly learned skill or technique can be strengthened and sustained by giving continuous reinforcement followed by intermittent reinforcement. 2.The use of positive reinforcement is more effective than negative reinforcement. 3.The extinction process can be used to modify undesirable behaviour.

4.Guide pupils to master the concept of discrimination to enable them to acquire knowledge and skills accurately. 5.Negative reinforcement can also be used to achieve the desired behaviour.


3.2 Cognitive Theory

Theories based on cognitive perspective, concentrate efforts on learning methods such as insight, reasoning, approach of problem-solving, discovery, conceptualization, assimilation and accommodation


3.2.1 Kohlers Learning Theory

Kohler and Koffka used the cognitive approach to study how a chimpanzee managed to obtain a banana which was hung on a roof of his cage. Situation : Chimpanzee in the cage with three boxes and a banana hung on a roof Tried to jump up several times, but failed to reach the banana. Arranged boxes and managed to get the banana.

Conclusion From Experiment

Animal also used cognitive process to learn. Chimpanzee used the boxes => rational action based on former experience and its perception of the relationship between the stimuli. The perception of this relationship which is used to solve the problem is considered as insight. Insight is the mental ability which helps an individual to perceive all of a sudden, the relationship of the elements in the environment that would provide a way to solve the problem.

Implications of Kohlers Learning Theory:

Encourage pupils to use their insight to solve learning problems. Guide pupils to use their perception to relate elements in the surroundings Present teaching activities step by step Use specific related examples to guide pupils to conclude or generalize. Teaching new experience must be based on pupils ability and existing experience Provide sufficient learning materials to solve problems.

3.2.2 Bruners Concept Formation

Three categories of concept: 1. Conjunctive concept--a concept which contains two or more integrated attributes and they cannot be separated or lessened. 2. Disjunctive concept--attributes which have been integrated into a concept so that they can be used in a certain situation or other situation. 3. Relational conceptattributes contained in the concept which possess special relationship between one another

According to Bruner, language is an important representative in humans cognitive development. Humans use symbols and language so as to help them to think and solve problems, by means of formation of concepts and derivation of generalizations.


Implications of Bruners Theory of Teaching and Learning:

(1) Theorem of learning Mathematics Theorem of Construction Theorem of Notation Theorem of Contrast and Variation Theorem of Relation (2) The Strategy of Teaching and Learning Mathematics

3.2.3 R.M. Gagnes Information Processing Model of Learning

Gagnes learning theory: How humans obtain information during the learning process? Stimuli from the external environment will activate the nervous system through human sensory organs. This information will be interpreted in the short term memory , encode, transit and store in the long term memory in conceptual form. When retrieved, it will first enter the response operator, which will decide , control and implement the form of humans behaviour that interacts with the environment.

According to Gagne, experiences which have been kept in the long term memory are important for humans to facilitate the process of new learning.


Gagnes Phases of Learning and the Instructional Events That Support Learning
Learning Phase 1. Attention; alertness Instructional Event Gain learners attention through unusual event, question, or change of stimulus Inform the learner of the objective; activate motivation Stimulate recall of prior knowledge

2. Expectancy

3. Retrieval (of relevant information and/or skills) to working memory

Learning Phase
4. Selective perception of stimulus features 5. Encoding; storage in LTM 6. Retrieval and responding 7. Reinforcement 8. Cueing retrieval 9. Generalizing

Instructional Event
Present material; highlight distinctive features Provide learning guidance Elicit performance Provide informative feedback Assess performance


In the instructional events model: 1. The first step in learning, and the first challenge for the teacher, is to gain the students attention. 2. The next step is to set an expectancy for learning by letting the students know the goals of the lesson and perhaps arousing their curiosity or providing other motivation for learning. 3. When the students are paying attention and have the right expectations, they need to be reminded of what they already known that is related to the material to be learned.

4. With this prior knowledge in their working memories, they are ready to make connections between new and old information. Now it is time to present the new material, highlighting the important aspects or key features. 5. At this point the students should have the new material in their short-term or working memories, so they are ready to process the information and move it to long-term memory. The teachers role now is to provide learning guidance, such as explanations and examples or a guideddiscovery exercise.

6. Students have to demonstrate, to the teacher and to themselves, that they really understand the material. The students must respond in some way. 7. These responses allow the teacher to check the students understanding and provide reinforcement or corrections or both. 8. Finally, to ensure that they can retrieve and apply their new knowledge readily, students should practice in a variety of situations. 9. Reviews at the end of the lesson, week, and unit encourage transfer by extending practice over time.

Gagnes Taxonomy of Learning

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Signal learning Stimulus-response learning Learning through chaining Learning through verbal association Learning through multiple discrimination Concept learning Principle learning Problem-solving

Implications of Gagnes taxonomy of learning with referance to learning of Mathematics:

Four important categories which must be mastered by pupils in Mathematics are fact, skill, concept and principle. Mathematics factsstimulus-response learning Skillschaining Mathematics conceptconcept learning Mathematics principleproblem-solving

3.2.4 David P. Ausubels Theory of Reception Learning Meaningful reception learning is more effective than learning through inquirydiscovery which was suggested by Bruner. Changes in the development of a pupils cognitive structure by assimilating new information can be acquired through subsumption

Two types of subsumption:

1. Derivative subsumption is a new concept derived from existing information and is assimilated into a persons cognitive structure. 2. Correlative subsumption refers to a new information or concept received through the development process of its meaning and assimilated into a pupils cognitive structure. As the new information or concept acquired is more than the existing information (existing cognitive structure), the pupil has to change his existing information through accommodation.

Subordinate learning (deductive learning): General Formulae, principles or rules which have been learned Specific 1.Application of fomulae, principles, theorems or rules. 2.To derive new formulae, principles, theorems or rules


Superordinate learning (inductive learning):

Specific General Specific To observe, Derive Examples to study, generalization, ascertain, concept, interpret principle or law


Learning process according to Ausubels Theory of Reception Learning:


learning (deductive)
Derivative Existing stimuli, information, concept, principle.

Development of cognitive

subsumption process

Superordinate learning (inductive) Integrated learning

Correlative subsumption process

structure through the process of assimilation or accommodation


Advance Organizer:
Theory of reception learningadvance organizer Advance Organizer can be used as a technique to present information in the form of language or learning materials to the pupils, with the aim to activate their existing cognitive structures so that the assimilation process could occur effectively through the learning process. AO can be in the form of concept, principle, law or specific examples which are related to the existing cognitive structure.


Ausubels Cognitive Learning Theory Acquired Information Advance Organizer

Reception Learning

Discovery Learning

Meaningful Learning

Rote Learning

Meaningful Learning

Rote Learning

Derivative Subsumption

Correlative Subsumption

Subordinate learning (Deductive approach) Superordinate learning (Inductive approach) Integrated learning (Eclective approach) Through assimilation/ accommodation process Changes and development in the cognitive structures

Implication of Ausubels Learning Theory: 1. Teach new concept, principle and law by relating them with the existing concept, principle and law. 2. Use advance organizer as learning motivation at the beginning of each lesson. 3. Teach concept, principle and law by using inductive approach, deductive approach or the combination of both, i.e. integrated approach (eclective).

4. Use meaningful reception learning by arranging the learning content systematically and according to the stages, so that pupils can follow them effectively. 5. When using inductive approach apply specific but related examples to guide pupils to derive generalization, concept, principle or law accurately.


6. Use concept, principle and law which have been learned for deductive learning and guide pupils to apply them in various specific examples or formulate new concept, principle or law. 7. Guide pupils to make discrimination by comparing either the similar or different characteristics among the elements or concepts which have been learned.

3.3 Theory of Constructivism

Constructivism Theory assumed that knowledge will not exist outside the mind, but can be created in the mind based on actual experience.


Definition: Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting our own experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own rules and mental models, which we use to make sense of our experience. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.

Theory of Constructivism is identical to the Theory of Cognitive Constructivism or Constructivism. According to Von Glaserfeld(1991), the concept of constructivism is based on the following assumptions: Knowledge can be formed by individuals who take their own initiatives. The aim to form knowledge is to adapt oneself in the environment. The process of knowledge formation is the result of individual experience.

Guiding principles of constructivism:

1. Learning is a search for meaning. Therefore, learning must start with the issues around which students are actively trying to construct meaning. 2. Meaning requires understanding wholes as well as parts. And parts must be understood in the context of wholes. Therefore, the learning process focuses on primary concepts, not isolated facts.

3. In order to teach well, we must understand the mental models that students use to perceive the world and the assumptions they make to support those models.


4. The purpose of learning is for an individual to construct his or her own meaning, not just memorize the right answers and regurgitate someone elses meaning. Since education is inherently interdisciplinary, the only valuable way to measure learning is to make the assessment part of the learning process, ensuring it provides students with information on the quality of their learning.


The idea of constructivism was originated from Piagets Cognitive Development Theory and Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development.


Piagets Cognitive Development Theory

(1) Schema Referred as a structured clusters of information (represent event, concept, action or process) The way to organize and simplify information Individuals schema=>characteristics of individual behaviour (eg: action, language, thinking, opinion or idea) varies according to the process of learning.


(2) Adaptation and Equilibration - Individual in his environment = existing schemas satisfy all his needs during self-adaptation process (no need to change the present schema) - Individual in a new environment = existing schemas cannot fulfill adaptation process (need to change schemas to fulfill the needs, equilibration will be restored again) - Adaptation => a process of change in schema to meet the requirement of a certain situation

-The process of change in an individuals behaviour (schema) to adapt himself in the environment => learning process - During this process, equilibration is equivalent to the internal motivating force (learning motivation) - Piaget referred this internal motivating force as intrinsic motivation of individual to adapt himself in the environment

(3) Assimilation and Accommodation

- During adaptation process, individuals schemes will slowly change. - Two forms of adaptation are assimilation and accommodation. - Assimilation: Fitting new information into existing schemes.


- Accommodation: Altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information. - Both of these are interrelated and complementary . - To use assimilation or accommodation depends on decision involving individuals cognitive structure. - Cognitive structure is individuals existed experience.


Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development

ZPD is the pupils performance , under the help of adults or cooperation from their peers; would be better than using their own ability alone, and in this way, they can achieve a higher level of potential development. Pupils early understanding normally comes from the support of educated adults, teachers or peers through interaction. This will enable pupils to make further progress in the zone of proximal development, which is beyond their independent ability to achieve.

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

Pupils actual development (able to learn and perform task individually) Zone of Proximal Development (able to learn and perform various tasks with help from others Potential development limit (unable to learn or perform any task even with help)

Most difficult task that can be learned or performed individually

Most difficult task that can be learned or performed with help from others


According to Theory of Constructivism, knowledge can be formed through the process of inter-influence between previous learning and related new learning.


Theory of Constructivism also emphasized the metacognitive development process. (plan, direct, control, examine and evaluate all cognitive thinking processes, covering critical and creative thinking, so as to make appropriate decision to solve problems).


In order to achieve the aim of effective learning, pupils need to plan their own learning strategy, think of the effective way to learn, as well as to evaluate and make reflection regarding what they have learned


Under constructivism, knowledge is not used to clarify reality, but it is used as a means to rationalize the action and experience which an individual undergoes.

Thus in a similar situation, knowledge acquired may not be the same for every individual.


How constructivism impacts learning:

CurriculumConstructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving.


InstructionUnder the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students.


AssessmentConstructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress.


3.4 Social Learning Theory

Social perspective or Neobehaviourism suggested that learning theory should integrate behaviourism and cognitivism. Bandura: Learning should go through the process of modelling (observation and imitation process)


Three basic elements of Social Learning Theory: 1. Individual process intrinsic motivation 2. Environment external stimulus 3. Behaviour individuals action Learning =I x B x E (the interaction between an individuals intrinsic motivation and behaviour with his environment).


Banduras Modelling Theory

Children in general normally imitate the model and even react more agressive than the aggressive behaviour they have observed. Learning through observation is a basic form of human behaviour. Observational learning, also called social learning theory, occurs when an observers behaviour changes after viewing the behaviour of a model. An observers bahaviour can be affected by the positive or negative consequencescalled vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishmentof a models behaviour.

Process of Observational Learning

Pupil A


Pupil B recites poem

Reinforcement: Praise from teacher

Imitation: Tendency of pupil A to recite poem strengthened


Learning Process Through Observation

Modelling: Bandura identified four basic elements in the learning process through observation, namely: 1. Attention---concentration while observing 2. Retentionsustain the behaviour observed in his memory. 3. Reproductionrepeat his imitated behaviour. 4. Reinforcement/Motivationsatisfaction, reward

How Observational Learning Impacts Learning:

Curriculumstudents must get a chance to observe and model the behaviour that leads to a positive reinforcement. InstructionEducators must encourage collaborative learning, since much of learning happens within important social and environmental contexts. AssessmentA learned behaviour often cannot be performed unless there is the right environment for it. Educators must provide the incentive and the supportive environment for the behaviour to happen. Otherwise, assessment may not be accurate

3.5 The Humanistic Learning Theory

Humanistic psychologists advocate psychological research on human nature, potential, experience, values, creativeness and self-actualization. Individual value should be respected in the course of learning.


Concepts of Humanistic Theory 1. Human nature is basically good and noble. Human becomes evil because of the influence of the environment. 2. The theory of hierarchical needs is basically the motivation theory. 3. The theory of self-actualization is the main core of humanistic psychology. The elements of self-actualization should cover the actualization of perfect human nature and individual potentials.

4. Theory on education reformation is the main theme of humanistic psychology. Education development should be pupilcentred; teaching should emphasize individual potential, meaningful and useful learning experience and process, and the fostering of true, sincere relationship and mutual trust between teacher and pupils (affective education and knowledge-based education))

Humans learning depends on their individual emotion and feeling. They have their own way of learning and is different from others. Thus, teaching and learning strategy should be organized to meet the need and emotional development of the pupils. Every individual possesses his own potential and desire to achieve self-excellence. Teachers should consider pupils selfesteem and guide them to develop their potential to the optimal level.

3.5.1 Carl Rogerss Learning Theory

1. Every individuals experience is a logicalphenomenon, i.e. his experience can only be felt and understood by himself. 2. Every individual forms his own unique concept through the value system and self-belief which are different from others. 3. An individuals explicit behaviour is in accordance with his own self-concept and belief. 4. Understanding of an individuals behaviour can only be obtained through the communication process.

Principles of Rogerss Approach in Education: 1. Emphasize on learner-centred education. 2. Emphasize on freedom to learn. The rational and approach are: Learning is considered as curiousity to know. Learning can only occur if the learning materials are meaningful as well as in accordance with the pupils learning objectives.

Effectiveness in learning can only be achieved under non-threatening condition. Effectiveness in learning result will only occur when pupils take their own initiative and fully involve themselves in the learning activities. Guide pupils to evaluate their own learning result, so as to improve their reflective thinking and creative skill. Teaching-learning activities should be related to actual life experience. The aim is to instill the value of living skill among pupils.

Rogerss view on education:

Humans are born with the potential to strive for self-perfection. Learning is a natural instinct possessed by human beings. Meaningful learning materials and in accordance with pupils learning objective will assist them to participate in learning activities, with the aim of producing effective results.

Evaluation based on pupils own reflective thinking is better than others evaluation on them. Learning activities should be based on everyday experience, so as to instill the value of actual living skill. The most effective learning method is learn how to learn, so that the pupils could acquire knowledge by means of his own learning.

The main focus of the curriculum should shift from environmental factors to the individuals world (learning materials, method of learning, quantity of learning and values should be determined by the pupils themselves). School should provide opportunity for pupils to discover themselves and master reflective thinking skill to assess their own self, as well as to acquire the ability for self-discipline

3.5.2 Maslows Learning Theory

Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 5. Self-Actualization 4. Esteem: Respect 3. Belonging: Family and Friends 2. Safety: Shelter and Security 1. Physiological: Food and Water


The basic concepts in Maslows Theory of Needs are based on these hierarchical human needs. The concepts are: 1. Motivation: -is referred to intrinsic motivation, the internal power existed in the physiological and psychological development of individuals. -would help humans to strive for excellent achievement which occurs spontaneously without any influence of external stimuli.

2. The motivational relationship among the hierarchical needs. -When an individual has obtained satisfaction in a certain hierarchy, then the need to achieve a higher hierarchical need will be aroused naturally.
3. If individuals hierarchical need is at the lowest level, then there will be more similar characteristic and less flexibilities, as well as very little differences among the individuals. (Only a few can reach the highest level of selfactualization)

According to Maslow, individuals who possess potential to strive with their own initiative, so as to obtain satisfaction in a higher hierarchical order, will usually possess the following characteristics: Able to understand reality Possess own thinking Able to accept ownself, other people and the natural environment Possess own philosophy of life and moral values

Able to follow the time trend without loosing their own identities Possess wide range of interest in various social activities Have few closed friends and like to help others Practise democracy and possess humorous character Able to handle conflict between happy feeling with bitter experience

Implications of the concepts of needs in classroom practice:

1. Ensure the pupils basic needs are fulfilled 2. The classroom condition must be conducive so that pupils would feel pleasant, happy, harmonious and secure to involve themselves in the learning activities. 3. Be emphatic to fulfill pupils need for love and affection.

4. Instill self-esteem value and provide suitable motivation and reinforcement. 5. Plan teaching activities according to pupils ability so as to enhance their confidence and fulfill their thriving need. 6. Instill self-motivation value so that pupils understand and accept themselves, actively involve in social activities and subsequently determine their aim in life and try to achieve the highest level of self-actualization

Main Ideas of Learning Theories in Humanistic Perspective:

1. Humanistic psychologists emphasized the importance of affective aspect. 2. Every pupil has his own inclination to achieve self-objective and goal through the realization of his own potential development. 3. Human instinct possess the need to acquire knowledge and understanding. 4. Learning motivation should be directed to develop pupils overall potentials.

Implications of Learning Theories in Humanistic Perspective:

The approach of humanistic school stressed the importance of developing individual potential. The strategy and method of teaching-learning should be oriented towards pupil-centred, individual method, inquiry-discovery, practical approach, as well as enrichment and remedial activities. Teacher should play the role as facilitator and organizer so as to motivate the pupils to use their own learning strategy to achieve selfperfection.

Islamic Perspectives
Islam gives special attention to life long education in mankind. Therefore many Muslim thinkers came forward to contribute ideas to promote education.


Saidina Ali r.a.

Educate your children to enable them to live in an era which is very different from your present era.


Implications of learning theories on the learning of children with special needs: 1. Obtain as much information as possible about each pupil. 2. Consult and collaborate with specialists. 3. Communicate regularly with parents. 4. When reasonable, hold the same expectations for pupils with disabilities as for other pupils.


5. Identify prerequisite knowledge and skills a pupil may not have acquired. 6. Be flexible in approaches to instruction. 7. Include pupils in planning and decision making.


8. Promote interaction between pupils with special needs and their nondisabled classmates. -teach effective social skills -provide examples of effective interaction -ask pupils with and without disabilities to assist their classmates -provide opportunities for cooperation on academic tasks and in recreation -encourage pupils with special needs to participate in extracurricular activities and community events. -develop nondisabled pupils understanding of pupils with special needs

9. Look for gradual improvement rather than overnight success. 10.Individualize instruction for all pupils. 11.Keep your eyes open for pupils which may qualify for special services.