Television Systems

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8/27/12
Television Systems
• Television means seeing at a distance. To be
successful, a television system may be required to
reproduce faithfully;
1. The shape of each object, or structural content
2. The relative brightness of each object, or tonal
content
3. Motion, or kinematic content
4. Sound
5. Color, or chromatic content
6. Perspective, or stereoscopic content
Short History
• 1978: William Crookes in England invented the
crooks tube, which produce cathode rays.
• 1884: Paul Nipkow in Germany built a mechanical
scanning device, the Nipkow disk, a rotating disc
with spiral pattern of holes in it.
• 1897: Karl Ferdinand Braun of Germany, modified
the Crookes tube to produce the ancestor of
modern tv receiver picture tubes.
• 1900: Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi is
credited with coining the word “television”
Short History
• 1906: Boris Rosing in Russia began experimenting
with the Nipkow disc and cathode ray tube
eventually succeeding in transmitting some
crude tv pictures.
• 1923; Vladimir Zworkin in the USA invented the
first electronic camera tube, the Iconoscope.
• 1926: John Logie Baird demonstrated a workable
tv system (30lines/frame; 5 frames/sec) using
mechanical scanning by Nipkow disc.
• 1928: Baird demonstrated color TV
Short History
• 1929: The BBC began regular broadcasting
using Baird’s system (405lines/frame,
25frames/sec)
• 1975 Sony introduced their videocasette tape
recorder system, Betamax for domestic
vievers.
• 1979: Matsushita in Japan developed pocket
sized flat tv screen, using LCD
• 1989: Japan began broadcasting HDTV
Simplified TV System
Synchronizing
Signals
AM
Transmitter
FM
Transmitter
Diplexer
TV
Camera
FM
Receiver
AM
Receiver
loudspeaker
Picture
tube
Picture Reproduction
• The picture is divided into elementary areas of
black and white. When each picture element
is transmitted to the right side of the figure
and reproduced in the original position with
its shade of black and white, the image is
duplicated.
Interlaced vs. Progressive Scan
• Interlace is a technique of improving the picture
quality of a video signal without consuming extra
bandwidth. Interlaced video was designed for
display on CRT televisions. Interlaced scan refers
to one of two common methods for "painting" a
video image on an electronic display screen (the
other being progressive scan) by scanning or
displaying each line or row of pixels. This
technique uses two fields to create a frame. One
field contains all the odd lines in the image, the
other contains all the even lines of the image

Interlaced vs. Progressive Scan
• Progressive or non-interlaced scanning is a
method for displaying, storing or transmitting
moving images in which all the lines of each
frame are drawn in sequence. The system was
originally known as "sequential scanning"
(actually a more technically correct description)
when it was used in the Baird 240 line television
transmissions from Alexandra Palace.
Interlaced Scan
Interlaced Scan
Interlaced Scan
Interlaced Scan
Progressive Scan
Picture Qualities
• Brightness: the overall or average intensity, which
determines the background level in the
reproduced picture.
• Contrast: the difference in intensity between
black and white parts of the reproduced picture.
• Detail: the quality of detail, also called resolution
or definition, depends on the number of picture
elements that can be reproduced.
Picture Qualities
• Color level or saturation: The color
information superimposed on a monochrome
picture that depends on the amplitude of the
3.58 MHz monochrome signal.
• Hue: the color of an object depends on the
phase angle of the 3.58 MHz chrominance
signal
• Aspect ratio: The ratio of the width to height
of the picture frame.
Picture Qualities
Quality Picture Signal
Contrast
Range between black and
white
Amplitude of ac video
signal
Brightness Background illumination DC bias on picture tube
Resolution Sharpness of detail
Frequency response of
video signal
Color Saturation Intensity or level of color
Amplitude of 3.58 MHz
chroma signal
Hue Tint of color
Phase angle of 3.58 MHz
signal
Camera Tubes
1. Iconoscope: the first camera tube used in TV’s
invented in the 1920’s
2. Image Orthicon: it consists of three sections; image
section, scanning section, the electron multiplier. In
the image-orthicon tube, the target material is
photoemissive—that is, it emits electrons when it is
struck by light.
3. Vidicon: consists of glass envelope with an optically
flat faceplate at the end to receive the light input. In
the vidicon camera tube, the target material, made of
antimony, is photoconductive—that is, it conducts
electricity when it is struck by light.
Camera Tubes
5. Plumbicon: trademark of Philips. Similar to the basic
vidicon, but the image plate is made of lead oxide
(PbO)
6. Saticon: trademark of Hitachi Ltd. The image plate is
made of selenium, arsenic and tellurium
7. Silicon Dioxide Vidicon: silicon dioxide is used for the
image plate
8. Chalnicon: trademark of Toshiba. The target plate is a
complex arrangement consisting of tin oxide,
cadmium selenide and arsenic trisulfide.

Camera Tubes
9. Newvicon: trademark of Matsushita Electric. The target
plate is made of amorphous zinc selenium layer backed by
antimony trisulfide.
10. CCD – charge coupled device (IC): In a CCD, the light from
a scene strikes an array of photodiodes, arranged on a
silicon chip, that produce electricity then send this
electricity to tiny capacitors, whose amount of charge
stored depends on the strength of the light that struck the
photodiode. The CCD converts the incoming light from the
scene into an electrical signal by releasing the charges
from the photodiodes in an order that follows the
scanning pattern that the receiver will follow in re-
creating the image.


Picture Definition
0.835H
H = 63.5μsec
H
E
I
G
H
T

PICTURE WIDTH
V=1/60 Hz
483 to 485 scan lines or vertical resolutions are visible
every frame (338 to 340 if Kell factor is considered)







40 to 42 lines are blanked out or lost during vertical
retrace
0.165H
B
l
a
n
k
e
d

o
u
t

H = T
H
+ R
H
= 0.835H + 0.165H
V = T
V
+ R
V
= 0.92V + 0.08V
Picture Definition
Parameter General Solution
Width of Line
Aspect ratio
Number of horizontal visible lines
(# of Pixels in the vertical direction)
Number of vertical visible lines
(# of Pixels in the horizontal direction)
Total number of pixel per horizontal
line
Total number of Pixel in Frame
N
H
w
p
=
V
H
p
p
N
N
V
H
a = =
S V
N N N ÷ =
) ( 7 . 0
S V
N N N ÷ = (w/ Kell Factor)
(w/ Kell Factor)
(w/ Kell Factor)
(w/ Kell Factor)
V H
N a N × =
H video H
T BW N 2 × =
835 . 0
H
L
N
N =
H L
N N =
V L P
N N N × =
V H P
N N N × =
Picture Definition
Parameter General Solution
Video Bandwidth
Time to scan pixel
Time to scan N pixels in line
video H
BW N
t
1 sec 5 . 53
= =
µ
t N t
N
× =
2
H L
Video
f N
BW =
If Kell factor is considered
Note: The Kell factor is also known as the utilization factor.
H L
V
video
f N
N
BW 35 . 0
80
= =
Picture Definition
N = total number of scan lines per frame (525 for NTSC)
N
S
= number of scan lines suppressed during retrace (40 to
42)
w = width of scan line
H
P
= horizontal dimension of the viewing area of the CRT
V
P
= vertical dimension of the viewing area of the CRT
a = aspect ratio
N
V
= vertical resolution in lines/detail or pixels
N
H
= horizontal resolution in lines/detail or pixels
T
H
= horizontal trace period (53 to 53.5μsec)
f
H
= 15, 750 Hz


Monochrome Video Signal
0
– 20
– 40
20
40
60
80
100
10
20 30 40 50 60 70
I
R
E

u
n
i
t
s

Peak
white
H Blanking
≈ 10μsec
Luminance Information
Front
Porch
Back
Porch
H synch
7.5
Black Set-up
Blanking Level
Tip of Synch
63.5 μsec (line period)
( )
min max
5 . 7 l l l IRE ÷ × + =
Luminance level to IRE unit conversion
Where, l = luminance of video signal
Horizontal Blanking Interval
Back porch
Front porch
H
63.5 us
75%
100%
12.5%
67.5%
Horizontal Blanking Interval
Period Time (usesc)
Total Line 63.5
H Blanking 9.5 to 11.5 (10.5 typical)
H Synch Pulse 4.75 ± 0.5
Front Porch 1.27
Back Porch 3.81
Visible Line Time 52 to 54
Vertical Blanking Interval
3H 3H 3H 12H
Equalizing pulses Vertical synch pulses Equalizing pulses
Vertical blanking interval occupies the time required for approximately 21 horizontal lines
Blanking level
With horizontal
Sync pulses
Top of
picture
Bottom of
picture
H is length of one horizontal line (63.5 μsec)
Vertical Blanking Interval
Period Time
Total Field (V) 16.7 ms
V Blanking 0.05 to 0.08 V
V Synch Pulse 0.5H = 31.76 usec
Total of six V synch
pulses
3H = 190.5 usec
Each Equalizing pulse 0.04H = 2.54 usec
Each Serration pulse 0.04H = 2.54 usec
Visible Field time 0.92 to 0.95V
Spectrum of Standard TV Signal
• Monochrome TV
Picture
Carrier
Sound
Carrier
4.2 MHz
6 MHz
4.5 MHz
1.25
MHz
0.25
MHz
Spectrum of Standard TV Signal
• Color TV
Picture
Carrier
Sound
Carrier
6 MHz
4.5 MHz
1.25
MHz
0.25
MHz
3.579545 MHz
I
Q
Y sideband
Chrominance
subcarrier
Y-I-Q Matrix Weightings





• Luminance signal contains all the information required to construct a
black and white picture from the signal.
• The terms in-phase and quadrature refer to the process by which
chrominance (color) signal is combined with the luminance signal.
Chrominance is a combination of both hue and saturation.
Y
(luminance)
I
(In-phase)
Q
(Quadrature)
R (red signal) 0.30 0.60 0.21
G (green signal) 0.59 - 0.28 - 0.52
B (blue signal) 0.11 - 0.32 0.31
Y-I-Q Matrix Weightings
• The components (negative) of -0.28G and -0.32B
total -0.60, which equals the positive value of 0.60R.
These values are chosen to make the amplitude of
the video signal become zero (0) for white.
• The components (positive) of 0.21G and 0.31B total
0.52, which equals the positive value of
-0.52R. These values are chosen to make the
amplitude of the video signal become zero (0) for
white
Both the I and Q signals are zero for white since there is no
chrominance information in white.
Luminance and IRE unit
Wh Yel Cyn Grn Mg Rd Bl Blk
Summary of IRE Units
Color Luminance
IRE
Equivalent Unit
White 100% 100
Yellow 89% 89.825
Cyan 70% 72.25
Green 59% 62.075
Magenta 41% 45.425
Red 30% 35.25
Blue 11% 17.675
Black 0% 7.5
Chrominance of Color Video Signal
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
I
Q
C
phase
1
tan 33

2 2
Q I C
magnitude
+ =
Television Receiver
• The TV receiver utilizes the superheterodyne
principle. It is more complex because it must
handle video and synchronizing signals as well
as the audio signal.
• Ghosting (Double-image distortion) – noise in
the receiver that is caused by two signals
arriving at the receiver at two different times
Television Receiver
Mixer
Video
Amp
Video IF
Amp
Video
Detector
Sound
IF Stages
Audio
Amp
Sound
FM det.
L.O.
Vert. Osc.
& Amp
Synch
Separator
Hor. Osc
& Amp
HV
Supply
Tuner
RF
Amp
Synch
Amp.
yoke
LV
Supply
Yoke and Flyback Transformer
• Yoke – the coil around the CRT tube that
deflects the electron beam with its magnetic
field.
• Flyback transformer – used in TV receiver to
produce the high voltage needed for the
picture tube anode. It has an output of 10kV
or more which is required by the CRT anode to
make the electron beam travel from its
cathode to the phosphor.
Tuner and IF Amplifiers
• The tuner of a TV receiver is also called the
front end and contains the RF amplifier, mixer
and local oscillator. The functions are:
– Select the desired station
– Provide amplification
– Prevents the L.O. from being driven into the
antenna and radiating unwanted interference
– Steps down the RF to IF
– Provides proper impedance matching between
the antenna feedline to the tuner itself.
IF Amplifiers
• The major function of the IF is to provide the bulk of
the set’s selectivity and amplification. The standard IF
frequencies are 45.75 MHz for the picture carrier and
41.25 MHz for the sound carrier. The mixer action
causes a reversal in frequency when the IF amplifier
accepts the difference between the higher LO and the
RF signal. Thus, the sound carrier that is 4.5 MHz above
the picture carrier in the RF signal ends up being 4.5
MHz below it in the mixer output into the first IF stage.
• Sets that process the sound and video in the same IF
stage are known as inter-carrier systems.
IF Signal Frequency Inversion
• The IF frequencies are always equal to the difference
between the local oscillator and RF frequencies. The
effect of inversion of IF frequencies when receiving
channel 5 is shown on the table below:
Channel 5
76 – 82 MHz
Transmitted
RF (MHz)
Local Oscillator
Freq. (MHz)
IF (MHz)
Upper Channel Freq. 82 123 41
Sound Carrier 81.75 123 41.25
Picture Carrier 77.25 123 45.75
Lower Channel Freq. 76 123 47
Stagger Tuning
• The TV receiver IF requires wide bandwidth
but still have relatively sharp fall-off at the
passband edges, and this is achieved through
the use of stagger tuning. Stagger tuning is
the technique of cascading a number of tuned
bandpass filters, each having a slight offset
bandpass frequency, to form a wider flat
bandpass with steep high and low frequency
roll-off skirts.
Stagger Tuning
Overall response
Δf = 4MHz
Q
1
= 20 Q
2
= 20
Q
3
= 10
IF Amplifier Response
• For the ideal overall response curve, the
sound IF carrier and its narrow bandwidth
sidebands are amplified at only one tenth the
midband IF gain. This is done to minimize
interference effects that the sound would
otherwise have on the picture .
IF Amplifier Response
IF gain
100 %
50 %
10 %
0.75 MHz
Picture Carrier
45.75 MHz
Sound Carrier
41.25 MHz
frequency
Wavetraps
• To obtain the steep attenuation for the sound
carrier, it is necessary to incorporate a wavetrap
( or trap) in the IF stage. A trap is a high-Q
bandstop circuit that attenuates a narrow band of
frequencies. Traps are employed in high quality
sets to eliminate carrier signals of adjacent
channels.
– Series resonant circuit
– Parallel resonant circuit
– Bridged-T trap
Wavetraps
Input
output
L
C
Input output
L
C
Series resonant wavetrap Parallel resonant wavetrap
Wavetraps
output
L
1
C
1
C
2
C
A
L
A
R
A
R
B
L
B
input
Bridged-T trap
Video Section
Dc
restorer
1
st
Video
Amp
2
nd
Video
Amp
Sync
Take-off
Contrast
Control
AGC
Take-off
Brightness
control
Video
Detector
Sound
Take-off
Video amplifier section
From
Common IF
Video Section
• The video section takes the output of the video
detector and amplifies it to sufficient level to be
applied to the picture tube cathode. This signal
varies the electron beam strength so that white
and black spots are seen as black and white spots
on CRT face.
• The contrast control varies the amplitude of the
signal applied to the CRT.
• The synch takeoff is the point where the
horizontal and vertical pulses are extracted from
the video signal.
Video Section
• The dc restoration is not necessary if the video
amplifiers use direct coupling. If capacitive
coupling is used, the dc portion of the video
signal is lost and the dc picture background
levels will be erroneous, and their color in
color sets will be incorrect.
• The brightness control is user adjustment just
as the contrast control. It simply varies the dc
level applied to the control grid.
Monochrome CRT
G
1
Control grid
G
2
Screen grid
G
3
Focus grid
G
4
Ultor
or second anode
Ultor connection
Phosphor
coating on
the Inside
Aquadag
coating on
the inside
and outside
heater
Base
pins
cathode
Monochrome CRT
• The electron gun emits a beam of electron, the
intensity of which is controlled by the video signal
through the control grid.
• The screen grid (first anode) serves to accelerate
the electron beam
• The screen grid and the focus grid form an
electrostatic lens to focus the electron beam on
the screen
• The second anode (ultor) is connected to the high
voltage supply (10-12 kVA) and accelerates the
beam to its final velocity.

Color TV Receiver
Mixer
Video
Amp
Video IF
Amp
Video
Detector
Sound
IF Amp
Audio
Amp
Sound
FM det.
L.O.
Synch
Separator
Hor. Osc
& Amp
HV
Supply
Tuner
RF
Amp
Synch
Amp.
yoke
LV
Supply
Delay
Line
Adder
Luma
Amp
Matrix
Color
Demod
Chroma
Bandpass
Amp
Ver. Osc
& Amp
Keyed
AGC
Sound
IF Det.
Color TV Receiver
• The IF sound detector separates out the
4.5MHz audio signal.
• If the sound signal enters the video detector,
undesirable interference could result, and this
is avoided by taking off the sound before the
video detector. This can be done by installing
wavetrap.
Chrominance and Luminance
• The chrominance and the luminance are
separated through a comb filter. The
composite signal is applied to the input of a
1H (63.5μsec) and the original signal and the
delayed signals are added to give the
luminance output and subtracted to give the
chrominance.
Comb Filter
Σ
Σ
Delay line
63.5 μsec
Composite input
+
+
+

luminance
chrominance
In signal processing, a comb filter adds a delayed version of a signal
to itself, causing constructive and destructive interference. The
frequency response of a comb filter consists of a series of regularly
spaced spikes, giving the appearance of a comb.
Color Demodulation
3.58MHz
Colo Signal
LPF
1.3MHz
Delay line
90 deg.
Phase shifter
3.58MHz
Osc.
Burst Detector
AFPPC Hor. Sync
Keying Pulse
R – Y
G – Y
B – Y
LPF
0.5MHz
Q demod
Bandpass
amp
Color Killer
I demod
Color Demodulation
• The color killer is an electronic stage in color
TV receiver sets which acts as a muting circuit
to cut off the color amplifiers when the TV
receives a monochrome signal
• Colorburst is a analog video, composite video
signal generated by a video-signal generator
used to keep the chrominance subcarrier
synchronized in a color television signal

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