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May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO


I. History of Spread Spectrum

II. Spread Spectrum System Model
III. Spread Spectrum Classification IV. Spread Spectrum Techniques

she devised together with music composer George Antheil a system to stop enemy detection and jamming of radio controlled torpedoes by hopping around a set of frequencies in a random fashion. She was granted a patent in 1942 (US pat. in 1940 at the age of 26. Techniques known since 1940s and used in military. An Austrian refugee. communication systems since 1950s.History of Spread Spectrum Spread Spectrum was actually invented by 1940s Hollywood actress Hedy Lamarr(1913-2000). . 2292387) but considered it her contribution to the war effort and never profited.

Introduction to Spread Spectrum “Spread” radio signal over a wide frequency range Several magnitudes higher than minimum requirement Gained popularity by the needs of military communication Proved to resistant against hostile jammers Ration of information bandwidth and spreading bandwidth is identified as spreading gain or processing gain Processing gain does not combat white Noise .

Offers the following applications: 􀂉 􀂉 able to deal with multi-path multiple access due to different spreading sequences 􀂉 􀂉 spreading sequence design is very important for performance low probability of interception 􀂉 􀂉 privacy anti-jam capabilities .

Spread Spectrum Applications Interference ̶ Prevents interference at specific frequencies ̶ E. electrical systems Military ̶ Prevents signal jamming ̶ Scrambling of „secret‟ messages Wireless LAN security ̶ Prevents ‘eavesdropping’ of wireless links ̶ Prevents „hacking‟ into wireless LANs CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) ̶ Multiple separate channels in same medium using different spreading codes .g. other radio users.

System Model: Spread Spectrum Transmission .

. Thus. (This is also true for frequency and pulse code modulation!) The spreading sequence has to be independent from the information. no possibility to calculate the information if the sequence is known and vice versa.Spread Spectrum Criteria A communication system is considered a spread spectrum system if it satisfies the following two criteria: Bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal has to be greater than the information bandwidth.

Spread Spectrum Classification .

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Information signal is directly modulated (multiplicated) by a spreading sequences (see next slide) Spreading sequence consists out of chips each with a duration of tchip A set of chips represent a bit. the exact number of chips per bit equals the spreading gain Near far effect Require continuous bandwidth .

Z.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Example May 28-June1. Colorado Springs. 2001 R. CO 11 . Ziemer.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum: Transmission Technique .

Colorado Springs. Z. CO 13 . Ziemer.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Transmitter May 28-June1. 2001 R.

2001 R.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Receiver May 28-June1. CO 14 . Colorado Springs. Z. Ziemer.

Colorado Springs. Ziemer. CO 15 . Z. 2001 R.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Using BPSK Example May 28-June1.

Approximate Spectrum of DSSS Signal May 28-June1. Colorado Springs. 2001 R. Z. CO 16 . Ziemer.

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum The information signal is transmitted on different frequencies Time is divided in slots Each slot the frequency is changed The change of the frequency is referred to as slow if more than one bit is transmitted on one frequency. and as fast if one bit is transmitted over multiple frequencies The frequencies are chosen based on the spreading sequences Collisions may occur if two WTs use the same frequency In case of few collisions the error can be adjusted at the receiver side Coherent bandwidth does not have to be continuous .

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum .

each TF long Each frame is divided in slots Each wireless terminal send in exactly one of these slots per frame regarding the spreading sequence No near far effect .Time Hopping Spread Spectrum Time divided into frames.

SS Technique Direct Sequence Comparison of different Spread Spectrum Techniques advantage 􀂉 best behavior in multi path rejection 􀂉 no synchronization 􀂉 simple implementation 􀂉 difficult to detect 􀂉 no need for coherent bandwidth 􀂉 less affected by the near far effect 􀂉 high bandwidth efficiency 􀂉 less complex hardware 􀂉 less affected by the disadvantage 􀂉 near far effect 􀂉 coherent bandwidth Frequency Hopper 􀂉 complex hardware 􀂉 error correction needed 􀂉 error correction needed Time Hopper .

The Idea In MCM . . we split the data in to different streams and transmit using separate Sub Carriers.

DS-CDMA Figure: The Principle of DS-CDMA .