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• In The name of Almighty Allah, The Merciful, The Beneficent

Assalam u Alykum WRWB

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Electron transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Objectives
1. 2. Define reducing equivalents and list their sources and fates. List the components of electron transport chain and describe the process of electron transport Define oxidative phosphorylation and list their products

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Explain the importance of oxidative phosphorylation
Define energy, energy currency (ATP) and energy storage (creatine phosphate) ad describe the functions of Creatine phosphate and ATP.

• • It all happens in mitochondrion or at the inner mitochondrial membrane (eukaryotic cells) .Transport (Oxidation) and ATP synthesis (Phosphorylation) . • Oxidative Phosphorylation: Coupling e. The purpose of oxidation is to obtain energy.• Biological oxidations are catalyzed by intracellular enzymes. • Electron Transport: Electrons carried by reduced coenzymes (NADH or FADH2) are passed sequentially through a chain of proteins and coenzymes (so called electron transport chain)to O2 .

.consume energy – The actual energy available to do work (utilizable) is known as free energy.Energy and Free energy All biochemical processes (reactions) involve the energy transactions – Exergonic reactions –release energy – Endergonic reactions.

• The reducing equivalents are defined as a proton plus an electron. FAD.Reducing equivalents • The free energy stored in food stuffs is extracted in the form of reducing equivalents. H+ + e• The reducing equivalents are transferred to ETC via different carriers like NAD. . FMN etc • ATP is synthesized by oxidative Phosphorylation.

.Reducing equivalents • Are transported Via Conjugate oxidant/reductant pairs – NAD-NADH – FAD-FADH2 – FMN-FMNH2 • Redox Potential (E0): is the quantitative measure of tendency of a redox pair to loose or gain electrons. and a positive E0 means a greater tendency to gain electrons. • A more negative E0 means a greater tendency to loose electrons.

Electron Transport (ETC) the mitochondrion contained the enzymes responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation In inner membrane knobs Impermeable to ions and most other compounds .

Electron Carriers The transfer of electrons is not directly to oxygen but through coenzymes There are 2 sites of entry NAD+ for electrons into the FMN electron transport chain: NAD+ or FAD FeS FAD FeS ubiquinone Cyt b ubiquinone FeS Cyt c1 Cyt c Cyt a Cyt a3 1/2 O2 Both are coenzymes for dehydrogenase enzymes .

that transfer and 1 e. • the only electron carrier not bound to a protein. Q can mediate etransfer between 2 e.• Coenzyme Q (CoQ. • it can accept/donate 1 or 2 e-. It dissolves in the hydrocarbon core of a membrane. Q or ubiquinone) is lipidsoluble.carriers .

Cytochromes NAD+ FMN FeS FAD FeS ubiquinone Cyt b ubiquinone FeS Cyt c1 Cyt c Cyt a Cyt a3 1/2 O2 proteins that accept electrons from QH2 or FeS Ultimately transfers the electrons to oxygen .

Mitochondrial Complexes NAD+ FMN I FeS FAD FeS ubiquinone Cyt b NADH Dehydrogenase II Succinate dehydrogenase ubiquinone Cytochrome Oxidase FeS Cyt c1 Cyt c Cyt a Cyt a3 1/2 O2 III CoQ-cyt c Reductase IV .

hemes. flavin nucleotides. III and IV do the pumping of protons These are transmembrane protein complexes containing quinones. The inner membrane (IMM) is impermeable to ions and polar molecules. . Specific transporters shuttle metabolites such as ATP and organic ions. sulfur clusters. and copper ions.Electron Transport chain (ETC) ETC present in inner mitochondrial membrane as four complexes Complexes I.

.Oxidative Phosphorylation • Definition: Oxidative Phosphorylation is the process in which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to O2 by ETC.

. – The Protons flow back into the mitochondrial matrix and induce a conformational change in the enzyme ATPase which synthesizes ATP from ADP and Pi. more H+ on outer side of IMM than inside.Mechanism of Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmotic hypothesis and binding change model) – The Electron transport through ETC is coupled with translocation of protons across IMM. – This results in the formation of an electrochemical gradient i.e.

2H+/2e. .Matrix H+ + NADH NAD+ + 2H+ 2H+ + ½ O2 H2O I 2 eQ –– III IV ++ 4H+ 4H+ cyt c 2H+ Intermembrane Space 4H+ are pumped per 2e.for complex I. The H+/e.passing through complex III.ratio is less certain for the other complexes: probably 4H+/2e.for complex IV.

inside the membrane. As NADH delivers more H+ and electrons into the ETS.Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor. . and OH. from the matrix to the intermembrane space 3.Protons (indicated by + charge) are translocated across the membrane. combining with electrons and H+ ions to produce water 4.1. through a series of electron carriers 2.Electrons are transported along the inner mitochondrial membrane. the proton gradient increases. with H+ building up outside the inner mitochondrial membrane.

OH.ATP4ADP3- INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H+ NADH + H+ H+ eNAD+ H+ 4H+ ½O2 e-H O 2 complex I FMNH2 eeinner e membrane CoQ complex III e.b cyt e H+ C1 e cyt e a-a3 C eH+ complex IV OH- ATP4ADP3ADP3- OH.ADP3- ATP4- 3H+ ATP4- F1 MATRIX stalk Fo Proton gradient/Charge gradient 3H+ Electron transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation .ADP3.ADP3ADP33Pi.

g. Classification – Pyrophosphates e. ATP – Acyl Phosphates e.High Energy Compounds Definition: Certain compounds which on hydrolysis yield at least 7cal/mol free energy at pH 7.3-bisphosphoglycerate – Enol Phosphates e.g. Phosphoenolpyruvate – Thioesters e.0 are known as high energy compounds.g. Creatine Phosphate .g.1. Acetyl Co A – Phosphagens e.g.

.The Energy Currency of Cell ATP made up of adenine.ATP. ribose and a triphosphate moiety.

• ATP is hydrolyzed to yield energy ATP + H2O → ADP +Pi + 7. • ATP also acts a phosphate donor to low energy phosphate compounds.3 Cal • ATP serves as the Energy currency of Cell as it is being constantly utilized and regenerated in ATP-ADP cycle. .ATP. • ATP serves as a link between Catabolism and Anabolism in biological system.The Energy Currency of Cell-con’td • ATP is a unique and most important high energy molecule in the body due to presence of two high energy phosphoanhydride bonds.

• In resting muscle Creatine is again phosphorylated and energy is stored as CP. • When muscles contract (active muscle) energy is derived from breakdown of ATP to ADP and Pi. . • ATP must be reformed quickly to supply the energy which initially comes from creatine phosphate and subsequently from glycolysis. CP donates its phosphate to ADP to form ATP by Enzyme Creatine Phosphokinase.Storage forms of high Energy Phosphate • Creatine Phosphate (CP) is the reservoir of energy in muscles.

3 Glycerol 3-phosphate −9.G0 Compound (kJ/mol) ( kcal/mol) Phosphoenolpyruvate −61.9 −14.0 Fructose 6-phosphate −15.8 −3.2 −3.8 (to 3-phosphoglycerate) Creatine phosphate −43.4 Glucose 6-phosphate −13.9 −3.4 −12.2 −2.5 −7.3 ATP →ADP + Pi −30.8 AMP −14.6 −6.2 .3-Bisphosphoglycerate −49.6 Glucose 1-phosphate −20.1 −10.3 1.9 −5.8 Carbamoyl phosphate −51.6 −6.3 −11.6 Pyrophosphate −27.3 ADP →AMP + Pi −27.

Thank you very much with All the best wishes .