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INTRODUCTION

Engine is a device which transforms one form of energy to other form.

One Form

Energy

Other Form

INTRODUCTION

Heat Engine is a device which transforms chemical energy of the fuel to heat energy which is then used to get work.

ENGINE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION

EXTERNAL COMBUSTION

SPARK IGNITION

COMPRESSION IGNITION

STEAM ENGINE

Internal Combustion Engine .

. Losses of heat is less as compared to External Combustion engine.Internal Combustion Engine     Derives power from the fuel burnt within the engine cylinder. Heat required to obtain power is generated inside the cylinder itself. The heat generated is converted to power with help of piston and crankshaft.

External Combustion Engines .

Losses of heat are more as compared to Internal Combustion engine. The heat generated is converted to power with help of piston and crankshaft. .External Combustion Engines     Fuel is burnt outside the cylinder Derives power from the steam expansion in the engine cylinder.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION SPARK IGNITION COMPRESSION IGNITION .

Spark Ignition Engine Spark Plug .

Spark Ignition Engine    Fuel and air mixture is first compressed with help of piston. Then the fuel is ignited with help of a spark at a constant volume..g. this type of engines are also known as CONSTANT VOLUME CYCLE ENGINE. Petrol and Kerosene engines   . So. Hence a high temperature and pressure are achieved. E.

Compression Ignition Engine Injector .

this type of engines are also known as CONSTANT PRESSURE CYCLE ENGINE.  E. Diesel engines . Hence a high temperature and pressure are achieved. Then the fuel is injected with some desired pressure on charge at constant pressure. Hence the fuel gets ignited.. So.g.Compression Ignition Engine      Only air is first compressed with help of piston.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION 2-STROKE ENGINE 4-STROKE ENGINE .

4-STROKE ENGINE .

Sucks charge into cylinder. Burnt gases are exhausted out of cylinder 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Suction Compression Power Exhaust .4-STROKE ENGINE  It completes its cycle in 4 strokes of piston and two revolutions of flywheel. Charge is ignited and power is generated. Compresses the charge to required pressure.

2-STROKE ENGINE .

Charge is ignited and power is generated. Compresses the charge to required pressure.2-STROKE ENGINE  It completes its cycle in 2 strokes of piston and one revolution of flywheel. Burnt gases are exhausted out of cylinder Suction 1st Compression Power 2nd Exhaust . Sucks charge into cylinder.

is simple and Construction Construction costly. Consumes cheap. .Comparison b/w 4-s & 2-s Engines 4-stroke 2-stroke •Completes one cycle in 4-strokes. Consumes less fuel for same power output.. more fuel for same power output. Turning moment is uniform. same size of engine the power For same size of engine the power obtained is lesser as compared. Valve mechanism is present. is complicated and Ports are present. obtained is more as compared. •Completes one cycle in 2-strokes. Turning For moment is not uniform.

Less noisy. More carbon deposits. Working temperature is comparatively low. carbon deposits. Flywheel is larger due to less frequency of power strokes.Comparison b/w 4-s & 2-s Engines 4-stroke Has 2-stroke easy removal of exhaust gases. Flywheel Has is smaller due to more frequency of power strokes.. Oil consumption is more. Lubrication : has separate oil : oil is mixed with fuel circuit Oil consumption is little. Working temperature is comparatively high. More noisy. . Less itself. Lubrication difficult removal of exhaust gases.

Larger in size.Comparison b/w 4-s & 2-s Engines 4-stroke 2-stroke Crankcase Heavier is not to be air tighten. Crankcase Lighter is to be air tighten self weight. Smaller . in size. in self weight.

.ENGINE COMPONENTS  The main components of engine are            Cylinder & Cylinder Block Piston Connecting rod Crankshaft Crankcase Flywheel Timing Gears Camshaft Tappets and Push rods Valves / Ports Click on the component for details….

Spark plug or Injector

Cross-section of a 4-s Engine

CLYINDER

CYLINDER

Cylinder is a hollow cylindrical part of the engine in which piston slides. Made up :- of high grade cast iron. Function : - It provides space for the movement of piston. - It serves space for the combustion of the fuel.

Parts of Cylinder  Cylinder Block : .It is the solid casting which includes cylinder liner and water jackets .

Parts of Cylinder It is detachable part of the cylinder which cover the cylinder . sparkplugs or injector and valves - .It includes combustion chamber.

Parts of Cylinder  Cylinder Liner : . 1. . . Wet Liner.It is cylindrical lining in which piston slides.There are two types of liners. Dry Liner 2.

Parts of Cylinder  Types of Cylinder Liner : - Water Jackets are not in direct contact with liner Water Jackets are in direct contact with liner .

PISTON .

Made up of cast iron.It transmits the power generated in the cylinder due to pressure and energy by the combustion of the fuel to the crankshaft through connecting rod.PISTON    Piston is cylindrical part of the engine closed at upper end which slides in the cylinder. cast steel or aluminium alloys. . Function : .

Parts of a Piston .

Parts of a Piston Piston Head Piston Rings Piston Pin Oil Rings Piston Skirt .

  . Skirt :It is the lower portion of the piston below piston pin and it designed to absorb the side movements of the piston. . Piston Pin : .Parts of Piston  Piston Head : .Also known as Gudgeon pin or Wrist Pin.Top portion of the piston facing the combustion chamber.Used to join the connecting rod with piston.

Parts of Piston  Piston Rings :    They are placed in the piston ring grooves and are split expansion type. The clearance of 1mm per 200mm diameter is kept for expansion of the rings during operation in high temperatures. They are made up of cast iron or pressed steel alloy usually. .

. Transmits heat away from piston to the cylinder walls. Reduces contact area between piston and cylinder and hence reduces excessive wear and tear.Parts of Piston   Piston Rings : - Functions : 1. It forms a gas tight combustion chamber. 2. 4. Controls cylinder lubrication. 3.

Parts of Piston  Piston Rings : .They are of two types  Compression Rings. Rings  Oil .

single piece and are always placed in the grooves nearest to the piston head.Compression Rings  They are usually plain.Parts of Piston Piston Rings : .  . They are used for sealing purpose and also for transmission of heat to the cylinder liner.

 . The excess oil is returned back from the holes provided in the ring.Parts of Piston Piston Rings : .Oil Rings  They are usually provided with holes in them and are placed in the lower grooves in the piston skirt.  They are used lubrication as they distribute the oil evenly in the cylinder liner and also prevent excessive oil consumption also.

Parts of Piston Piston Head Flat head in 4stroke Raised Head for Scavenging in 2 stroke .

CONNECTING ROD  Connecting rod is a special type of rod whose one end is connected with the piston and other end is connected with crankshaft. . Made up of drop forged steel. Function :    It transmits the power to crankshaft from the piston.

CONNECTING ROD .

CONNECTING ROD .

Cap :It is the lower most portion of the connecting rod which bolted with head and connects the crankshaft.It is the lower portion of the connecting rod below shank which is connected with the crankshaft.Parts of Connecting Rod  Eye : .Top portion of the connecting rod which is connected with the piston pin.    . Head :.Solid potion of the connecting rod which lies between eye and head. Shank : .

Piston & Crankshaft Assembly .

FLYWHEEL   Flywheel is a wheel mounted on the crankshaft and it is the exterior portion of the engine. . Made up of cast iron.

It also carries ring gear that meshes with the pinion of starting motor for cranking the engine. The rear surface of the flywheel serves as one of the pressure surfaces for the clutch plate.FLYWHEEL   Functions : It stores the energy during the power stroke and returns the same during other idle stroke(s) and thus provides an uniform rotary motion of the flywheel.   .

Power is transmitted to rest of the mechanism using flywheel through pulleys.FLYWHEEL  Functions :  Engine timing marks are usually stamped on the flywheel. couplings.  . etc.

CRANKCASE .

It provides a reservoir for the lubricating oil of the engine.CRANKCASE      Crankcase is that part of the engine which encloses the crankshaft and camshaft. staring motor. . generator. oil filter. It is usually made up of cast iron or cast aluminium. and ignition components. It serves as mounting unit for oil pump. The upper portion of the crankcase is integral with the cylinder block and the lower portion is called as the oil pan.

CRANKSHAFT .

. Function :   It converts reciprocating motion of piston to the rotary motion of flywheel.CRANKSHAFT  Made up of drop forged steel or cast steel.

Parts of Crankshaft  Main Journal : .  Crank Journal : .It is the part where connecting rod is attached.This is the space which supports the crankshaft on crankcase. .  Lubricating oil holes :.These holes are provided for the passage of lubricating oil.

CAMSHAFT  Functions  :- It operates : Fuel Injection Pump  Inlet and Outlet valves  Ignition system  Lubricating oil pump .

chains or spokets. The speed of the camshaft is half of the speed of the crankshaft in four stroke engines. It is driven with the crankshaft by means of gears.CAMSHAFT  It is a shaft which raises and lowers the valves at proper time.   .

TIMING GEAR .

The speed of the camshaft gear is half of the speed of the crankshaft gear in four stroke engines and hence it is also known as Half Timing Gear.   . one mounted one camshaft and other on crankshaft The gear on crankshaft is smaller in size than that of the gear on camshaft.TIMING GEAR  It is combination of two gears.

TIMING GEAR  Functions : Controls the timing of Ignition  Opening and Closing of Valves  Fuel injection  .

VALVES  Valves are small mechanical device used for the opening and closing of the passages leading to the cylinder. .

Exhaust Valve :. .Controls the flow of burnt gases outside the cylinder.VALVES There are two valves in an IC Engine. Inlet Valve :.Controls the flow of charge into the cylinder.

Valve Face Faces the combustion chamber and designed to withstand high temperature and hammering actions due to expanding gases .Parts of a Valve Valve Spring Valve Stem Fixed with the valve head and placed in valve guide Valve Head Head is made inclined at 30’-40’ to prevent leakage.

or 1-4-3-6-2-5. 1-6-2-5-3-4. Eg. The crankshaft is accordingly designed so as to maintain that order.FIRING ORDER It is the sequence in which the power stroke in each cylinder occurs.. 1-4-2-3. Generally the order is such that the firing will be not in neighboring cylinders as to maintain balance and temperatures. .

FIRING INTERVAL  It is the interval between two successive power strokes.  FI = 720 No. of Cylinders ( 2 Stroke) . of Cylinders ( 4 Stroke)  FI = 360 No.