You are on page 1of 41

COGNITION

SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS

• PHYSICAL REALITY vs VIRTUAL REALITY
→ P.R. is thought to exist independent of an
observer (objectivite & unaccessible) → V.R. creates the hypothetical ‘image’ of physical reality (adequate signal to modalities)

 So, what is more REAL?
2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 2

SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS
• EXPT ON COMMISSUROTOMIZED BRAIN

2/23/2013

Student's Presentation

3

SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS • VENTRILOQUISM SHOWS

2/23/2013

Student's Presentation

4

DEFINITION • What is ‘COGNITION’? → Sensing → Interpreting → Decision-making 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 5 .

Reflection 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 6 .VISUAL COGNITION • HOW WE SEE? a) Light: EM Wave. Frequency Range.

VISUAL COGNITION • HOW WE SEE? b) Eye: Simple Receptor for Light stimuli 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 7 .

VISUAL COGNITION 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 8 .

VISUAL COGNITION • HOW WE SEE? c) Brain: Receiving. Interpreting. Directing sensory information 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 9 .

while Right is more for organizing and synthesizing (art-related) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 10 . iteratively and multi-modally → There are functional asymmetries between the two hemispheres of brain: Left more logical and analytical.VISUAL COGNITION • 3 STRIKING OBSERVATIONS OF BRAIN: → Specific parts of visual cortex are responsible to specific visual stimuli (spatial frequency analysis) →Massive parallel distributed processing (PDP) of signals throughout the brain.

VISUAL COGNITION Referring back to the Commissurotomized Brain Experiment: 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 11 .

VISUAL COGNITION Sequence of steps that we follow for Visual Cognition: 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 12 .

VISUAL COGNITION Evolution of Human Eye and Brain: 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 13 .

VISUAL COGNITION Saccadic Eye Movements (Scanpaths): 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 14 .

Economic. Clothing. Position. Age. Activity.VISUAL COGNITION Yarbus (1967): Will. How long 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 15 .

Contours vs Ganzfeld 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 16 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 1.

Gratings 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 17 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 2.

Proximity (Gestalt Psychology) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 18 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 3.

Similarity (Gestalt Psychology) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 19 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 4.

VISUAL COGNITION 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 20 .

VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 5. Continuation (Gestalt Psychology) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 21 .

Closure (Gestalt Psychology) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 22 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 6.

Pragnanz (Gestalt Psychology) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 23 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 7.

Context / Schemata (Top Down Approach) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 24 .VISUAL COGNITION • PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE BASIC STIMULI TO IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS: 8.

VISUAL COGNITION VISUAL DISSONANCE: 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 25 .

VISUAL COGNITION DEPTH PERCEPTION: 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 26 .

VISUAL COGNITION 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 27 .

Diffraction 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 28 .AURAL COGNITION • HOW WE HEAR? a) Sound: Mechanical Wave. Frequency Range.

vibration to Elec. impulses 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 29 .AURAL COGNITION • HOW WE HEAR? b) Ear: Convert Mech.

AURAL COGNITION Impedance Matching. Amplification. Equalization 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 30 .

AURAL COGNITION Basilar Membrane and Tonotopic Frequency distribution 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 31 .

AURAL COGNITION Auditory Masking 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 32 .

AURAL COGNITION • HOW WE HEAR? c) Brain: Receiving. Interpreting. Directing sensory information 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 33 .

AURAL COGNITION Tonotopic and Binaural Hearing (stripes of EE and EI) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 34 .

AURAL COGNITION • AUDITORY ANALOGUE FOR GESTALT THEORY → Figure-Ground vs Use-of-Silence → Proximity-principle vs A regular interval of Short-clicks (temporarily or spatially) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 35 .

AURAL COGNITION • PATTERN-MATCHING IN AUDITORY PERCEPTION → For weak signal. but strong in meaning (name. soft signals for predators) → Previously learnt experience (Amygdala) → Aggregate firing of the nerve cells together with rate of firing match an earlier waveform (‘volley theory’ and ‘place theory’) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 36 .

TRANSMISSION) • EXAMPLE OF A PSQ LIFE CYCLE: 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 37 .AURAL COGNITION • QUALITY (SOUND. PRODUCT.

RELATED APPLICATION AREAS • Medical Therapy (Binaural beats reduce anxiety) • Product Designing (like improvising PSQ) • HR initiatives (behaviour mapped to mind) • Improved acoustic environment and gadgets • Making Weapons (unfortunately) 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 38 .

And I was so surprised that I could turn a yellow letter into an orange letter just by adding a line” → Sound-Colour: “My favorite music has lines that extend horizontally beyond the 'screen' area” • Multimodal PDP more accurately defines the speed and correctness with which individuals perceive external stimulus • Bayesian Model and Max Likelihood Estimation 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 39 .MULTIMODAL COGNITION • SYNESTHESIA → Colour: “I realized that to make an R all I had to do was first write a P and draw a line down from its loop.

SOME ONGOING PROJECTS • BLUE BRAIN PROJECT • DEVELOPING THE SIXTH SENSE • EXPLORING ON AUGMENTED REALITY 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 40 .

COGNITION THANK YOU 2/23/2013 Student's Presentation 41 .