You are on page 1of 16

Sensory Integration Therapy – Some Aspects

Sadhana P. Joshi Head O.T. Department C.O.H.

It explains the relationship between behaviour and neural function. discrimination and recognition of sensory stimuli from the environment and from the C.Introduction Definition • Sensory Integration is defined as a neurological process that organizes sensation of one’s own body and the environment in the brain to make adaptive response and makes it possible to use the body efficiently within the environment. Sensory Integration function will include the awareness. sensory motor behaviour and academic learning. • Background • S. It describes and predicts relationship among neural functioning. Jean Ayers an Occupational Therapist and psychologist. Therapy was conceived and developed by Dr.N. especially sensory processes and integration. • .S and use of this sensory information to direct motor behaviour.I.

Sensory Integration (Figure 1) Sensory Stimuli Input Feedback/ Previous Experience CNS Integration Adaptive Response Output .

Figure 2 .

. Occurs in developmental sequences c. b. accurately judge the requirement of the situation and execute response completely.Assumption of Sensory Integration a. e.I. Neural Plasticity Plasticity refers to the ability of brain to modify and change from 2 to 7 years of age.I Motor ability is a powerful organizer of sensory inputs. Brain functions as an integrated whole though it consists of parts that are hierarchically arranged d. Inner drive Child has inner drive to develop S. Adaptive response Requires the child to organize the sensation. [Controlled sensory input can be used to elicit adaptive response. through participation in sensory motor activity.] Adaptive response contribute to development of S.

iii. Design copying Constructional praxis Postural praxis Praxis on verbal commands Sequential praxis Oral praxis . v. ii. vi. vi. Form and space perception and visio-motor coordination test c. v.Sensory Integration and Praxi’s test (SIPT) Sensory Integration and Praxi’s test (SIPT) includes: a. iv. Tactile and vestibular proprioceptive sensory processing test i. Kinesthesia Finger identification Graphesthesia Localization of tactile stimuli Post rotatory Nystagmus Standing and walking balance b. ii. iii. Praxi’s Test i. iv.

iii. . Bilateral motor coordination Requires the child to imitate smoothly executed movements of hand and feet after they are demonstrated by examiner. ii. Oral praxis Sequencing praxis Graphesthesia Bilateral motor coordination Space visualization Contralateral and preferred hand use e. vi. Bilateral integration and sequencing test i. iv. v.Sensory Integration and Praxi’s test (SIPT) d. Reciprocal interaction of right and left are used.

Become anxious or distressed if feet leave the ground. Limit self to particular food. Movement sensitivity (Vestibular) a. React emotionally or aggressively to touch. g. They desist from splashing water. Prefers long sleeved clothing when it is warm and short sleeved when it is cold.g. Dislike activities if head is upside down (e.Signs and symptoms reflecting sensory integrative root problems Signs and symptoms reflecting sensory integrative root problems: Tactile sensitivity (Hyper) a. . Avoid going barefoot especially sand or grass. Has difficulty standing in line or close to other people. Express distress during grooming b. Fear of falling or height. b. f. Rub or scratch out a spot that has been touched. texture or temperature. Avoid certain tastes or food smell b. d. c. e. c. somersaults) Taste/ Smell sensitivity a.

Has trouble completing task when the radio is on e. Appear to not hear what you say c. Poor endurance f. Problem in tying shoe laces h. Poor handwriting g. Is distracted or has trouble functioning if there is lots of noise around b. Has a weak grasp d. Tires easily c. Poor sense of rhythm i. Has difficulty paying attention Low energy / Weak motor signs a. Seems to have weak muscle b.L j. Poor A. Articulation problem in speech . Can’t work with background noise d.Signs and symptoms reflecting sensory integrative root problems Auditory filtering a.D. Can’t lift heavy objects e.

. Self injury. Attention problems. lazy. frustrated. irritable. cannot refocus. Difficulty in puzzles Emotional and Behavioural a.g. lack of self confidence. Resistant to change and stubborn Cognitive / Academic a. slow. Poor organization. Becomes frustrated when trying to find object in competing background (e. temper tantrum.Signs and symptoms reflecting sensory integrative root problems Visual / Auditory sensitivity a. Holds hands over ears to protect ears from sound d. moody. Watches everyone when they move around the room e. Low self esteem. No peer relationship. distractible. aloof b. Responds negatively to unexpected sound or bright light c. sequencing and memory Development Dyspraxia is a brain dysfunction that hinders the organization of tactile and sometimes vestibular and proprioceptive sensation and interferes with ability to motor plan. cluttered drawer / shoes from rack) f. aggressive c. impulsive. insecure. forgets assignments/ direction b. Prefers to be in the dark b.

lure and manipulate the child into choosing the activities that will help his brain develop. She cannot organize the child’s brain for him. reaching for an object) Child must actively participate with the environment to improve the organization of his nervous system.Central Principles of Therapy • Central idea of this therapy is to provide and control sensory input especially the input from the vestibular system. cajole. Therapist must encourage. He must do it himself.g. but it is evident that he can’t do without her help. Therapist designs an environment that enables the child to interact more effectively than has ever done before. • • • . muscles and joints and skin in such a way that a child spontaneously forms the adaptive responses that integrate those sensations. Sensory integration occurs when a child spontaneously plans and executes a successful adaptive response to sensory input (e.

clay. Brushing c. pulling and stabilizing) c. ladder. Riding equipments which require muscle activation g. Climbing activities – ropes. Jumping with impact d. Carrying heavy object e. Increase weight of object b. ramps. Application of heavy pressure / Joint compression b.Central Principles of Therapy Direct Treatment Activities Direct treatment activities to assist adaptation to sensory sensitivity (Tactile processing) includea. Localization of touch d. Work with tactual modalities – Lotion paint. Use of resistive activity f. foam e. beans. Rolling on textured surface g. . rice. Swimming Perception of proprioception plus modulation of high activity level and hypersensitivity through use of heavy work – a. Water play f. Use of heavy weight pattern (pushing.

Oral motor Salt. neck and extensor control d. licking – Arousing Crunchy food – Alerting Smooth food – Calming . Taste and smell i. Swing or scooter board b. chewing. Graded experience in use of vision to perceive moving target and flow c. c. smoke – Alerting Vanilla – Relaxing Sucking – Calming Blowing. iv. localize object shift between visual frame of references.Central Principles of Therapy Treatment of vestibular processinga. ii. track and scan their environment while moving. Sour. iii. Graded experience in movement through mobile surface e. Treatment of arousala. iii. bitter. Stabilizing postural control activities which facilitates head. iv. Quality of sensory information can shift level of arousal. ii. Incorporate visual motor activities which assist the child to stabilize their gaze. b.g. hot taste – Alerting Sweet and warm – Relaxing Citrus. i.

ii. quality of information. sing-song pattern help children organize themselves. v. iii. iii. rhythm. context and state in which it is delivered. amusing. iv. Visual g. i. iii. i. Movements Light touch – Alerting Deep pressure – Organizing and centering Temperature can increase or decrease the awareness Cool temperature – Alerting Warm temperature – Calming Fast movement – Alerting Slow movement – Relaxing When body moves in space with orient head in difference plane – Alerting Horizontal position – conductive to sleep Vertical – Alert Subdued and dark environment – Relaxing Bright light – Alerting Open space. iv. iv. i. i.Central Principles of Therapy d. ii. Touch – may be calm or alert e. subdued colors – Calming Changing and moving visual information can increase alerting response Speech pattern. All sensory motor information can alert nervous system depending on mode of delivery. v. relaxing as well as alerting and excessively stimulated. Sound . ii. Sound can be hypnotic. ii. f.

tilt-boards. Suspended equipment mandatory. Exploration and creativity d. barrels. Improve brain processing h. sand pit. Motor planning equipment – Variety of obstacles. Hanging equipments – Hammocks. Flexible sequences c. suspended ladders. Conclusion Sensory Integration approach is having – a. rugs. Child’s control e. Non suspending moving equipments – Balls. .Central Principles of Therapy Sensory Integrated Equipments a. Therapist guided f. Tactile Equipments – Different pillows. jumping board. water pool b. Jungle gym etc. platform swings. c. Non cognitive emphasis b. textures. d. One to one inter-reaction g.

Thank You .