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 Image Digitization
Spatial domain
Intensity domain
1
2
What is an Image ?
• An image is a projection of a 3D scene into a 2D
projection plane.
• An image can be defined as a 2 variable function
f(x,y): R
2
÷R , where for each position (x,y) in the
projection plane, f(x,y) defines the light intensity at this
point.
Image as a function
3
4
i(x,y)
r(x,y)
f(x,y)=i(x,y)·r(x,y)
g(i,j)
Image Acquisition
pixel=picture element
Acquisition System
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World Camera Digitizer
Digital
Image
CMOS sensor
Image Types
Three types of images:
– Binary images
g(x,y) e {0 , 1}
– Grayscale images
g(x,y) e C
typically c={0,…,255}
– Color Images
three channels:
g
R
(x,y)eC g
G
(x,y)eC g
B
(x,y)eC
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Gray Scale Image
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210 209 204 202 197 247 143 71 64 80 84 54 54 57 58
206 196 203 197 195 210 207 56 63 58 53 53 61 62 51
201 207 192 201 198 213 156 69 65 57 55 52 53 60 50
216 206 211 193 202 207 208 57 69 60 55 77 49 62 61
221 206 211 194 196 197 220 56 63 60 55 46 97 58 106
209 214 224 199 194 193 204 173 64 60 59 51 62 56 48
204 212 213 208 191 190 191 214 60 62 66 76 51 49 55
214 215 215 207 208 180 172 188 69 72 55 49 56 52 56
209 205 214 205 204 196 187 196 86 62 66 87 57 60 48
208 209 205 203 202 186 174 185 149 71 63 55 55 45 56
207 210 211 199 217 194 183 177 209 90 62 64 52 93 52
208 205 209 209 197 194 183 187 187 239 58 68 61 51 56
204 206 203 209 195 203 188 185 183 221 75 61 58 60 60
200 203 199 236 188 197 183 190 183 196 122 63 58 64 66
205 210 202 203 199 197 196 181 173 186 105 62 57 64 63
x = 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72
y =
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46
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51
52
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Color Image
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Notations
• Image Intensity 
– Light energy emitted from a unit area in the image
– Device dependence
• Image Brightness 
– The subjective appearance of a unit area in the image
– Context dependence
– Subjective
• Image GrayLevel 
– The relative intensity at each unit area
– Between the lowest intensity (Black value) and the highest
intensity (White value)
– Device independent
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Intensity vs. Brightness
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11
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
Af
1
Af
2
f2
f1
f
1
< f
2
, Af
1
= Af
2
Equal intensity steps:
Equal brightness steps:
Intensity vs. Brightness
Weber Law
• Describe the relationship between the physical magnitudes
of stimuli and the perceived intensity of the stimuli.
• In general, Af needed for just noticeable difference (JND)
over background f was found to satisfy:
12
const
f
f
=
A
Brightness · log(f)
What about Color Space?
• JND in XYZ color space
was measured by Wright
and Pitt,
and MacAdam in
the thirties
• MacAdam ellipses: JND
plotted at the CIExy
diagram
• Conclusion: measuring
perceptual distances in the
cieXYZ space is not a
good idea
Perceptually Uniform Color Space
• Most common: CIEL*a*b* (CIELAB) color space.
• L* represents luminance.
• a* represents the difference between green and red, and
b* represents the difference between yellow and blue.
Perceptually Uniform Color Space
• XYZ to CIELAB conversion:
• where (X
0
,Y
0
,Z
0
) are the XYZ values of a reference white
point
( ) ( )  
( ) ( )  
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
> ÷
=
÷ =
÷ =
otherwise Y Y
Y Y for Y Y
L
Z Z X X b
Y Y X X a
0
0
3 / 1
0
*
3 / 1
0
3 / 1
0
*
3 / 1
0
3 / 1
0
*
903
01 . 0 16 116
200
500
100 100 100 100 100
100 0 0 0 100
100 0 0 0 100
100 0 0 0 100
100 100 100 100 100
Digitization
• Two stages in the digitization process:
– Spatial sampling: Spatial domain
– Quantization: Gray level
16
f
x
y
1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3
4
5
f(x,y)
Continuous Image Digital Image
g(i,j)
e C
j
i
Spatial Sampling
• When a continuous scene is imaged on
the sensor, the continuous image is
divided into discrete elements  picture
elements (pixels)
Spatial Sampling
0
x
Sampling
• The density of the sampling denotes the
separation capability of the resulting image
• Image resolution defines the finest
details that are still visible by the image
• We use a cyclic pattern to test the
separation capability of an image
frequency
1
Wavelength
length unit
cycles of number
Frequency
=
=
Sampling Rate
1D Example:
0
Nyquist Frequency
• Nyquist Rule: To observe details at frequency f
(wavelength d) one must sample at frequency > 2f
(sampling intervals < d/2)
• The Frequency 2f is the Nyquist Frequency.
• Aliasing: If the pattern wavelength is less than 2d
erroneous patterns may be produced.
Aliasing  Moiré Patterns
Temporal Aliasing
Temporal Aliasing Example
Image Demosaicing
• Can we do better than Nyquist?
A joint Histogram of r
x
v.s. g
x
Red derivative
G
r
e
e
n
d
e
r
i
v
a
t
i
v
e
100 200 300 400 500
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Image Demosaicing
• Basic idea: use correlations between color
bands
Quantization
• Choose number of gray levels (according
to number of assigned bits)
• Divide continuous range of intensity values
Quantization
Quantization
8 bits image 4 bits image
• Low freq. areas are more sensitive to
quantization
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
2
4
6
8
10
How should we quantize an image?
• Simplest approach: uniform quantization
G
r
a
y

L
e
v
e
l
Sensor Voltage
2
1 i i
i
Z Z
q
+
=
+
K
Z Z
Z Z
k
i i
0
1
÷
= ÷
+
Z
0
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
4
Z
k1
Z
k
. . . .
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
q
k1
. . . . . . . .
sensor
voltage
quantization
level
Nonuniform Quantization
• Quantize according to visual sensitivity
(Weber’s Law)
• Non uniform sensor voltage distribution
Z
7
Z
6
Z
5
Z
4
Z
3
Z
1
Z
0
Z
2
q
6
q
5
q
3
q
2
q
0
q
4
q
1
Low Visual
Sensitivity
High Visual
Sensitivity
Optimal Quantization (LloydMax)
• Content dependant
• Minimize quantization error
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
sensor
voltage
quantization
level
Z
0
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
4
Optimal Quantization (LloydMax)
• Also known as LoydMax quantizer
• Denote P(z) the probability of sensor voltage
• The quantization error is :
• Solution:
• Iterate until convergence (but optimal minimum is not
guaranteed).
( )( ) dz q z z P E
k
i
z
z
i
i
i
¿
}
÷
=
+
÷ =
1
0
2
1
( )
( )
}
}
+
+
=
1
1
i
i
i
i
z
z
z
z
i
dz z P
dz z zP
q
2
1 i i
i
q q
z
+
=
÷
Example
8 bits image
4 bits image
Uniform quantization
4 bits image
Optimal quantization
• Common color resolution for high quality images is
256 levels for each Red, Greed, Blue channels, or
256
3
= 16777216 colors.
• How can an image be displayed with fewer colors
than it contains?
• Select a subset of colors (the colormap or pallet) and
map the rest of the colors to them.
from: Daniel CohenOr
Color Quantization
• With 8 bits per pixel and color look up table we can
display at most 256 distinct colors at a time.
• To do that we need to choose an appropriate set of
representative colors and map the image
into these colors
from: Daniel CohenOr
126 14 111
36 36 111
36
111
5 12
12 17
17 111
14
126
17
36
12
111
36 36 200 12
14
126 17
36 36
111
12
14
36 36 200 12
Color Quantization
from: Daniel CohenOr
2
colors
256
colors
16
colors
4
colors
Color Quantization
Color Quantization
Naïve (uniform) Color
Quantization 24 bit to 8 bit:
Retaining 332 most
significant bits of the R,G
and B components.
false contours
from: Daniel CohenOr
Median Cut
R
G
B
Median Cut
from: Daniel CohenOr
Median Cut
from: Daniel CohenOr
Median Cut
from: Daniel CohenOr
Median Cut
from: Daniel CohenOr
Median Cut
from: Daniel CohenOr
Color_MedCut (Image, n){
For each pixel in Image with color C, map C in RGB space;
B = {RGB space};
While (n > 0) {
L = Heaviest (B);
Split L into L1 and L2;
Remove L from B, and add L1 and L2 instead;
}
For all boxes in B do
assign a representative (color centroid);
For each pixel in Image do
map to one of the representatives;
}
The median cut algorithm
from: Daniel CohenOr
Better Solution
from: Daniel CohenOr
Generalized Lloyed Algorithm (GLA)
p
i
( ) 0
i
q
( ) 1
i
q
from: Daniel CohenOr
Generalized Lloyed Algorithm (GLA)
( ) 1
i
q
p
i
( ) 0
i
q
from: Daniel CohenOr
Generalized Lloyed Algorithm (GLA)
( ) 2
i
q
p
i
( ) 1
i
q
from: Daniel CohenOr
Color_GLloyd(Image, K) {
 Guess K cluster centre locations
 Repeat until convergence {
 For each data point finds out which centre it’s closest to
 For each centre finds the centroid of the points it owns
 Set a new set of cluster centre locations
 optional: split clusters with high variance
}
}
• The GLA algorithms aims at minimizing the quantization
error:
( )
¿¿
= e
÷ =
K
i C j
i j
i
q p E
1
2
8 bit 4 bit 24 bit
from: Daniel CohenOr
More on Color Quantization
• Observation 1: Distances and quantization errors
measured in RGB space, do not relate to human
perception.
• Solution: Apply quantization in perceptually uniform
color space (such as CIELAB).
More on Color Quantization
Original
RGB Quantization Lab Quantization
More on Color Quantization
• Observation 2: Quantization errors are spatially
dependent: we are more sensitive to errors at lower
spatial frequencies.
1 3 10 30 100
S
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
i
t
y
Spatial Frequency
More on Color Quantization
• Solution: Assign weight for each pixel color
• Using this scheme we minimize:
0
50
100
150
200
250
0
100
200
300
0
50
100
150
200
250
W
w
W
w
W
W
( )
¿¿
÷
= e
÷ =
1
0
2
k
i C j
i j j
i
q p w E
Original
Standard quantization Weighted quantization
T H E E N D
57
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