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After Tom Sheeran
What are Oil and Gas?
• Oil and Gas are substances found within the earth’s crust. • They are thought to come from decomposed plant and animal matter. • Scientists believe the plants and animals died long ago, and were slowly buried by thick layers of sediments. Over a long period of time, and with pressure and temperature, the organic materials were converted into the oil and gas which are found today.
(For example, we know that present day garbage dumps give off methane gas)
What else do we know about oil and gas?
Oil in it’s natural state can be thick
or thin, black or light colored.
When oil is refined, many
products can be obtained:
Many other materials also come
• • • • • Energy for power Gasoline for cars Diesel fuel for trucks and trains Hi-octane fuels for planes Heating oil for houses from petroleum:
• Plastics • Materials for clothes (example: polyester fabrics) • Chemicals for everyday use • Paints
That’s enough gas in a single barrel of oil to fill your whole house! . The natural gas is in solution. A barrel of oil may contain anywhere from 1 cubic ft of gas. just like the carbon dioxide which is put inside of pop to give it its fizz. some gas is produced with the oil. depending on the type of reservoir. to over 10.Oil has natural gas in it When oil is produced.000 cubic ft.
Where can we find Oil and Gas? .
most oil is trapped in the tiny pore spaces between grains of rock or sand.Some people think that oil is in big pools underground. Most of these pores are too small to be seen with the naked eye. . Actually.
how do we find oil-bearing rocks? • Oil and gas are found in natural traps within the earth.So. Impermeable rock above the trap prevents the oil and gas from migrating up to surface. • These traps consist of domes or faults. . An “impermeable” rock is one that fluid cannot pass through. • without traps. the oil and gas could migrate all the way to the surface and evaporate.
Here’s an example of a dome-shaped Oil reservoir. Why? . Also. note the layer of water below which prevents the oil from escaping down. Oil Water Note the layer of impermeable rock which prevents the oil from migrating upwards.
note the impermeable layer of rock preventing the gas from escaping. Gas Water Again. .Here’s an example of a Gas reservoir.
Here’s an example of an Oil reservoir with a Gas cap Gas Oil Water Why do you suppose the gas is on top? .
How do we find the oil reservoirs? • Geophysicists find reservoirs by bouncing sound waves off them. source t = 1 sec t = 1. and timing how long it takes for the sound to come back • Computers process the data to construct pictures of what the earth looks like underground.42 sec receivers Gas Oil .2 sec t = 1.
What do we do after we find a reservoir? ? ? ? .
We Drill Into It ! ! ! .
What do we drill with ? .
A Drilling Rig ! Here are a few different types of drilling rigs available: Jackup Rig Land Rig For drilling in water depths from 15 ft to +/.350 ft. Drill ships and semi-submersible rigs are for drilling in water depths from 100 to 5000+ ft. . For drilling on land. Inland Barge Drill Ship Semi-Submersible Rig For drilling in water depths from 8 to 30 ft.
What’s a drilling rig ? .
hoisting equipment. steel tanks. solids control equipment. pumps. • A drilling rig has many different parts: a derrick. a substructure.A Drilling Rig is: A package of special equipment put together to enable us to drill into the earth. Everest is tall! . drill pipe. • Did you know that some drilling rigs can drill as deep as 6 miles? That’s as deep as Mt. engines for power. and many other pieces.
substructure Drill string Drill bit This shows a 30 foot section of drill pipe being added to the drill pipe already in the hole. a traveling block. drilling line. of drill pipe. and a drawworks to pull the drilling line up or down. spare drill pipe . This equipment is used to raise or lower the drillstring.This picture shows the hoisting equipment on a rig. The hoisting equipment consists of: derrick a crown block. which is picked up in 30 foot long segments. or “joints”.
Drilling mud is pumped down the inside of the drill pipe. The mud lifts the cuttings and circulates them back to surface where they are removed. This is the space between the sides of the hole and the drill pipe. . The teeth on the drill bit grind the rock into fragments.Here’s a picture of the drill bit drilling the rock. and into the “annulus”. through jet nozzles in the bit. which turns the bit at the bottom of the hole. The drill string is turned at surface. or “cuttings”.
and form a cuttings pile. 4) the mixture is circulated across screens at surface screens 6) Clean mud falls through the screens and is returned to the pits 3) the mixture of drilling mud and drill cuttings are circulated up the annulus mud pump 5) the drill cuttings are removed. lifting the cuttings removed by the drill bit. .The Drilling Mud Cycle 1) Clean drilling mud is taken from the steel mud tanks and pumped down the inside of the drill pipe. 2) the mud is circulated through the drill bit into the annulus. This can be hauled off and disposed of.
steel casing is run and cemented on the outside to keep the hole from collapsing. 0’ Then. 200’ .Here’s a sequence showing how holes are drilled. First. a large drill bit is used to drill a short interval of hole.
500’ . this new hole is also cased off and cemented. 200’ Then. a smaller bit is run inside the first casing.0’ Next. and drills new hole. This bit drills out the bottom of the casing.
and smaller casing is run to keep the hole from falling in. a smaller hole is drilled out.Again. .
In this way. the geologists must figure out if there is oil or gas in it. . the hole is drilled in stages. until the target reservoir rock is penetrated. At this point.
porosity. density.How do Geologists tell if the reservoir has oil or gas? They do this by running logs across the zone. and pore pressure. . Logs are tools run on electric cable (“wireline”) which record the physical properties in the rock such as resistivity. radioactivity.
Geologists look at logs to decide whether or not to complete a well (if there is oil). or abandon it (if there’s no oil). Gamma Radiation Electrical Resistivity Porosity Sand Shale Siltstone Shale Siltstone Dolomite Shale poor resistivity.Here’s an example of what a log looks like. probably water good porosity poor porosity good porosity 3000’ . may have oil or gas poor resistivity. probably water 500’ good porosity 200’ poor porosity Looks like good sand quality good resistivity.
Can you tell where the geologist would complete this well? Gamma Radiation Electrical Resistivity Porosity good porosity 200’ poor resistivity. Looks like good sand quality poor porosity poor resistivity. probably water good porosity 3000’ . with good porosity and resistivity. may have oil or gas poor porosity good porosity }Right here! This shows a clean sand. probably water poor porosity good porosity 500’ good resistivity.
we run a final string of casing across the production zone.If the well looks good on the logs. and cement it in place. .
.Then. we run perforating guns in the hole and perforate (shoot holes ) in the casing across the productive zone.
with a packer to isolate the produced zone from the casing above.Production tubing is run. tubing Packer .
Finally. which takes it to production facilities on surface. the well is produced into a pipeline. .
oil.The production facilities on surface separate out the gas. and water into their separate phases. Produced Gas Oil Production Separator Produced Water .
From there. the oil and gas may be refined further before being ready to market. Produced Gas Storage Tanks Oil Production Separator Produced Water Oil Refinery .
Finally. the gas and oil can be sold to power cars and heat houses. .
And That’s Where Oil and Gas Come From! The End. .
S. Tom developed this presentation for kids so they may learn more about the oil industry. After graduating. he went to work for Chevron in the Rocky Mountains. Angola and Nigeria. Tom is currently employed by Chevron Nigeria Ltd. in Scotland. for several years before moving overseas.About the Author: Tom Sheeran has been working in the oil and gas industry for over 18 years. Tom and his wife Shallini have 2 children. and is living and working as a resident in Lagos. Nigeria. Drilling Engineer Chevron Nigeria Ltd.com TAS Oct. Australia. and since then has worked all over the world. In 1990 he began working for Chevron Overseas Petroleum. and home-schooled in the U. Venezuela. 1998 . Sheeran Sr. He worked summers on a drilling rig while going to school to earn a degree in Petroleum Engineering. You may contact Tom at: Tom A. Papua New Guinea. SHTA@chevron.