You are on page 1of 52

Internal

OTA000004 SDH Principle


ISSUE 2.20
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Upon completion of this course, you

will be able to:

Understand the basic of SDH multiplexing standard


Know the features, applications and advantages of SDH based equipment

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 2

Chapter1 SDH Overview


Chapter2 Frame Structure & Multiplexing Methods Chapter3 Overhead & Pointers

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 3

References

SDH Principle Manual ITU-T G.701, G.702, G.707

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 4

Emergence of SDH
What is SDH? ---- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ---It defines frame structure, multiplexing method, digital rates hierarchy and interface code pattern. Why did SDH emerge? ---- Need for a system to process increasing amounts of information. ---- New standard that allows mixing equipment from different suppliers.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 5

Advantages of SDH ( Interfaces )


PDH SDH

Electrical interfaces --- Only regional standards. 3 PDH rate hierarchies for PDH: European (2.048 Mb/s), Japanese, North American (1.544 Mb/s). Optical interfaces --- No standards for optical line equipments, manufacturers develop at their will.

Electrical interfaces --- Can be connected with existing PDH signals.

Optical interfaces --- Can be connected to multiple vendors optical transmission equipments.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 6

Disadvantages of PDH (Multiplexing methods )


PDH : Asynchronous Multiplexing The location of low-rate signals in high-rate signals is neither regular nor predictable.

140 Mb/s 34 Mb/s 8 Mb/s de-multiplexer de-multiplexer de-multiplexer multiplexer multiplexer 8 Mb/s 34 Mb/s

140 Mb/s

multiplexer

2 Mb/s

level by level Not suitable for huge-volume transmission


Page 7

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Advantages of SDH (Multiplexing methods )


byte interleaved multiplexing method
STM-1 A
A

Low rate SDH to higher rate SDH ( STM-1STM-4STM-16STM-64 )

One Byte from STM-1 B

STM-1 B
B

4:1
STM-4

C STM-1

D STM-1

--- Synchronous multiplexing method and flexible mapping structure


What about PDH?

--- Use multistage pointer to align PDH loads in SDH frame, thus, dynamic dropand-insert capabilities
All rights reserved Page 8

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Advantages of SDH (OAM function )

PDH

SDH

Weak Operation, Administration & Maintenance function.

Abundant overheads bytes for operation, administration and maintenance. About 5% of the total bytes are being used

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 9

Advantages of SDH ( Compatibility )

PDH, SDH, ATM, Ethernet packing

package

STM-N

SDH network transmit

STM-N

package Processing unpacking PDH, SDH, ATM, Ethernet

Processing

receive

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 10

Comparison between SDH and PDH


Low bandwidth utilization ratio.
Signal E0 E1 Digital Bit Rate 64 kbit/s 2.048 Mbit/s Channels One 64 kbit/s 32 E0

PDH Hierarchy

E2
E3 E4 Bit Rate 155.52 Mbit/s 622.08 Mbit/s 2488.32Mbit/s 9953.28Mbit/s

8.448 Mbit/s
34.368 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s Abbreviated 155 Mbit/s 622 Mbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s 10 Gbit/s

128 E0
16 E1 64 E1 SDH STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 SDH Capacity 63 E1, 3 E3 or 1 E4 252 E1, 12 E3 or 4 E4 1008 E1, 48 E3 or 16 E4 4032 E1, 192 E3, 64 E4

SDH Hierarchy
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 11

Chapter1 SDH Overview


Chapter2 Frame Structure & Multiplexing Methods Chapter3 Overhead & Pointers

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 12

SDH Frame Structure


Frame = 125 us From ITU-T G.707: 1. One frame lasts for 125 microseconds (8000 frames/s) Rectangular block structure 9 rows and 270 columns(STM-1) Each unit is one byte (8 bits) Transmission mode: Byte by byte, row by row, from left to right, from top to bottom

2.

3. 4.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
270 Columns

9 rows

Bit rate of STM-1= 9*270*8*8000


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 13

SDH Frame Structure


Frame = 125 us

Three parts

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

RSOH AU-PTR

Information Payload

9 rows

MSOH

9 270 Columns
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 14

SDH Frame Structure


Information Payload Also known as Virtual Container level 4 (VC-4) Used to transport low speed tributary signals Contains low rate signals and Path Overhead (POH) Location: rows #1 ~ #9, columns #10 ~ #270

LPOH, TU-PTR
RSOH

package
AU-PTR
9 rows

HPOH
1

Payload

low rate signal


package

MSOH

LPOH, TU-PTR
9 270 Columns
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Data package
All rights reserved Page 15

SDH Frame Structure


Section Overhead
Functions : Fulfills the section layer OAM
1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9

Types of Section Overhead


RSOH

1.
AU-PTR

Information Payload

9 rows

MSOH

9 270 Columns

RSOH monitors the regenerator section 2. MSOH monitors the multiplexing section Location: 1. RSOH: rows #1 ~ #3, columns #1 ~ #9 2. MSOH: rows #5 ~ #9, columns #1 ~ #9

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 16

SDH Frame Structure


AU-PTR
Function: Indicates the first byte of VC4 Location: row #4, columns #1 ~ #9
RSOH
4 AU-PTR

Information Payload

9 rows

MSOH
J1

9 270 Columns

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 17

SDH Multiplexing Method


SDH Multiplexing includes:

Low to high rate SDH signals ( STM-1 STM-N ) PDH to SDH signals ( 2M, 34M & 140M STM-N ) Other hierarchy signals to SDH Signals ( IP STM-N )
Some terms and definitions:

Mapping Aligning Multiplexing

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 18

SDH Multiplexing Structure


1 STM-64 STM-16 STM-4 1 1 AUG-64 4 AUG-16 4 1 1 AU-4-64c VC-4-64c C-4-64c

AU-4-16c AU-4-4c

VC-4-16c

C-4-16c C-4-4c

1
VC-4-4c

AUG-4
4 1

STM-1

AUG-1

AU-4 3

VC-4

C-4

139264 kbit/s

Mapping Aligning Multiplexing

TUG-3

1 TU-3 TUG-2 TU-12 VC-12


Page 19

VC-3

C-3

34368 kbit/s

Pointer processing

Go to glossary
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

C-12

2048 kbit/s

All rights reserved

SDH Tributary Multiplexing (140M)


140 Mbit/s to STM-N

C4 1 Rate adaptation Add HPOH H P O H 1

VC4
1 Next page 9

140M

9 Mapping
1 260 125 s

125s

261

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 20

SDH Tributary Multiplexing (140M)


AUG-1 10 270 1 STM-1 270

RSOH Add AU-PTR


AU-PTR AU-4 1 Add SOH 9 Aligning Multiplexing AUG-N AU-PTR Info Payload

MSOH

1 STM-N

270X N

One STM-1 frame can load only one 140Mbit/s Signal

Add SOH 9

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 21

SDH Tributary Multiplexing (34M)


34 Mbit/s to STM-N
C3 1 VC3 1 L P O H 1 85 Next page 9 Mapping 125s

34M

Rate Adaptation

Add LPOH

9 1 84 125s

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 22

SDH Tributary Multiplexing (34M)


TU-3 1 H1 H2 H3 1st align 9 Aligning 86 1 1 1 H1 H2 H3 3 R 9 9 Multiplexing Same procedure as 140M TUG-3 86 1 P O R R H 1 VC-4 3 261

Fill gap

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 23

SDH Tributary Multiplexing (2M)


2 Mbit/s to STM-N
C12 1 4 1 VC12 1 LPOH 4 1 1 TU12 4 1 Next page

2M

Rate Adaptation

Add LPOH

Add TU-PTR

9
125s Mapping

9
Aligning

9
TU-PTR

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 24

SDH Tributary Multiplexing (2M)


TUG-2 1 TUG-3

12
1

86 1

R R

9 Same procedure as 34M

Multiplexing

Multiplexing

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 25

Questions

What are the main parts of SDH Frame structure? What is the transmission rate of STM-4?How to calculate?

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 26

Glossary
Mapping - A process used when tributaries are adapted into VCs by

adding POH information

Aligning - This process takes place when a pointer is included in a

Tributary Unit (TU) or an Administrative Unit (AU), to allow the 1st byte of the VC to be located

Multiplexing - This process is used when multiple low-order path signals

are adapted into a higher-order path signal, or when high-order path signals are adapted into a Multiplexing Section Back

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 27

Glossary
C = Container VC = Virtual Container TU = Tributary Unit AU = Administrative Unit

TUG = Tributary Unit Group


AUG = Administrative Unit Group STM = Synchronous Transfer Module POH = Path Overhead

Back
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 28

Chapter1 SDH Overview


Chapter2 Frame Structure & Multiplexing Methods Chapter3 Overhead & Pointers

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 29

Section Overheads
R S O H A1 B1 D1 A1 A1 A2 E1 D2 A2 A2 J0 F1 D3

AU-PTR
B2 M S O H D4 B2 B2 K1 D5 K2 D6

D7
D10 S1 STM-1

D8
D11 M1

D9
D12 E2

= Media dependent bytes


All rights reserved Page 30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

A1 and A2 Bytes

Framing Bytes Indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame A1 = f6H (11110110), A2 = 28H (00101000) In STM-N: (3XN) A1 bytes, (3XN) A2 bytes

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N

Finding frame head

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 31

A1 and A2 Bytes

Framing

Find A1,A2 Y

OOF over 3ms LOF

Next process
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 32

AIS

D1 ~ D12 Bytes
Data Communications Channels (DCC) Bytes

RS-DCC D1 ~ D3 192 kbit/s ( 3X64 kbit/s ) MS-DCC D4 ~ D12 576 kbit/s ( 9X64kbit/s )

NE

NE DCC channel

NE

NE

TMN

OAM Information: Operation, Administration and maintenance

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 33

E1 and E2 Bytes

Orderwire Bytes E1 RS Orderwire Byte RSOH orderwire message E2 MS Orderwire Byte MSOH orderwire message

NE

NE E1 and E2

NE

NE

Digital telephone channel E1-RS, E2-MS

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 34

B1 Byte
Bit interleaved Parity Code (BIP-8) Byte

A parity code (even parity), used to check the transmission errors over the RS B1 BBE is represented by RS-BBE( performance event)
B1 STM-N B1 STM-N

Tx A1 A2 A3 A4 00110011 11001100 10101010 00001111

Rx

BIP-8

1#STM-N 2#STM-N

Calculate BIP-8= A B1=A Calculate

2#STM-N

B 01011010

1#STM-N BIP-8=A1 Verify A1&AB1 BBE

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 35

B2 Byte
Bit interleaved Parity Code (MS BIP-24) Byte

BIP-24 is used to check the bit errors over the MS B2 BBE is represented by MS-BBE( performance event) The mechanism of B2 is same as B1

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 36

M1 Byte
Multiplexing Section Remote Error Indication Byte

A return message from Rx to Tx ,when Rx find B2 bit errors

A count of BIP-24xN (B2) bit errors


Tx generate corresponding performance event MS-FEBBE Traffic

Tx

Rx

Generate MS-FEBBE MS-REI


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

Return M1

Find B2 bit errors Generate MS-BBE


Page 37

K1 and K2 (b1-b5)

Automatic Protection Switching (APS) bytes

Transmitting APS protocol

Used for network multiplexing protection switch function

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 38

K2 (b6 ~ b8)
Rx detects K2 (b6-

Start

b8)="111" generate MSAIS alarm

Rx detects K2 (b6b8)="110" generate MSRDI alarm

Detect K2 (b6-b8) 111 Generate MS-AIS

110

Return MS-RDI

Generate MS-RDI

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 39

S1 Byte
Synchronization Status Message Byte (SSMB): S1

(b5~ b8) Value indicates the sync. level

bit 5 ~ 8
0000

Description
Quality unknown (existing sync. Network)

0010 0100
1000 1011 1111

G.811 PRC SSU-A (G.812 transit)


SSU-B (G.812 local) G.813 (Sync. Equipment Timing Clock) Do not use for sync (DNU).

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 40

Path Overheads
1

2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9

10
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3

VC-n Path Trace Byte


Path BIP-8 Path Signal Label Path Status Path User Channel TU Multiframe Indi

Path User Channel AP Switching


Network Operator

K3 N1

Higher Order Path Overhead


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 41

Path trace byte: J1


> The first byte of VC-4 > User-programmable > The received J1 should

Detect J1

match with the expected J1

Match

HP-TIM

Next process

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 42

B3 Byte
Path bit parity code byte (even parity code) Used to detect bit errors Mechanism is same as B1and B2

Verify B3

correct

HP-BBE

Next process

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 43

Signal label byte: C2


Detect C2
> Specifies the mapping type in

the VC-n
> 00 H Unequipped

N Y N

00H

02 H TUG structure 13 H ATM mapping The received C2 should match with the expected C2
Next process HP-SLM Match

HP-UNEQ

Insert AIS downward


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 44

Path Overheads
Low Order Path Overhead

1
1 V5

4
J2 N2 K4

VC-12

VC-12

VC-12

VC-12

9 500s VC-12 multiframe


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 45

Path Overhead Bytes


V5 > First byte of the multiframe > Indicated by TU-PTR Functions: Error checking, Signal Label and Path Status of VC-12

b1- b2
b3 b4 b5 ~ b7 b8

Error Performance Monitoring (BIP-2)


Return Error detected in VC-12 (LP-REI) Return Failure declared in VC-12 (LP-RFI) Signal Label for VC-12 Indicate Defect in VC-12 path (LP-RDI)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 46

Pointers

Pointers

AU-PTR

TU-PTR

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 47

AU-PTR
1 RSOH
Negative justification Positive justification

H1YYH2FF H3H3H3 MSOH

------ 86

9 1

RSOH

435 436 ------ 521 522 523 -----608 696 697 ------782

125us

H1YYH2FFH3H3H3 MSOH

------ 86

9 1
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

9
All rights reserved Page 48

250us 270

TU-PTR
1 4

VC-12

VC-12

VC-12

VC-12

V1

V2 500s VC-12 multiframe TU POINTERS

V3

V4

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 49

Questions
Which byte is used to report the MS-AIS and MS-RDI? What is the mechanism for R-LOF generation?

Which byte implements the RS(MS/HP) error monitoring?

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 50

Summary

SDH Overview
SDH Frame Structure & Multiplexing

Methods
Overhead & Pointers

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

All rights reserved

Page 51

Thank You
www.huawei.com