Using English as a Second Language in Japan

Mitsuaki Hayase

December 18, 2005 Mie Branch, Chubu English Language Education Society

Outline of the talk: 4 parts

I. Getting ready to be a user of English as a second language in Japan
--ESL in Japan-What does it mean? --Bilingualism --Code-switching --English as an additional language (EAL) --The idea of 1+2
2 are we using English? 3 . On “Use” --Importance of “use” --Condition of learning --Communication continuum --Four areas of “use” --Check it out!...

What do we need to do now? 4 . Demonstration --Information (getting) on the Internet --Multi-listening IV.III.

Getting ready to be a user of English as a second language in Japan English as a Second Language ---What does it mean? According to LDLTAL (2002): (1) Narrow sense…When English is necessary for everyday life (2) Loose sense…When English is learned after L1 is learned 5 .I.

2000) 6 .English as a second language? ---What does Hayase mean? --Loose sense…When English is learned after L1 is learned --”English as a second working language” ( Japan’s Goals in the 21st Century.

22) 7 . cited in Ichida 2003. p.Bilingualism and Code-switching What is a bilingual? --What is your image of a bilingual? Bilingual: A person who uses at least two languages with some degree of fluency (LDLTAL) “About half the world population is bilingual.” (Grosjean 1982.

” A junior high school student with 1.Hayase would say. 000 words……a full-fledged bilingual Code-switching (言語切り替え) English as an additional language (EAL) The idea of “1 + 2” 8 . “We are all bilinguals in one way or another.

…Rather. not how to use one in isolation.” (p.Cook (2001) says: “Teachers should be clear in their minds that they are usually teaching people how to use two languages.179) 9 . the aim is people who can stand between two viewpoints and between two cultures. a multi-competent speaker who can do more than any monolingual.

a new way of thinking. feeling.” 10 . 1) Brown says: “Your whole person is affected as you struggle to reach beyond the confines of your first language and into a new language.” ( Brown 1994 . p. a new culture.“Becoming bilingual is a way of life. and acting.

1978) Skill-getting. 1981: 1st edition 1968) (2) Usage vs use (Widdowson. usage…knowledge of the language Skill-using. On “Use” Importance of “use” (1)Skill-getting vs skill-using (Rivers.II. use…actual use of the language 11 .

use. p. 11) says: Essential: exposure. motivation Desirable: Instruction 12 .” Wills (1996. p.Conditions for language learning Harmer (2001. 70) says: “…all that anybody needs to learn a new language are those three elements: exposure. motivation. and opportunities for use.


families 14 . . (ex) How many~? Interview game about ● communicative activities with information gap but with specific practice point communicative end ● authentic tasks using all and any language at your disposal to achieve a communicative purpose (ex) What’s in the card/Ten differences in a picture .Communication Continuum (Based on Harmer. 2001) use in real life non-communicative end communication continuum ● grammar/vocabulary practice ● pattern practice ● reading aloud (音読) ●Dialogue practice .

15 .Four Areas of Use Communication Information (getting) Entertainment Intellectualization *These four areas are not mutually exclusive.

1st Area of Use: Communication --Writing emails and letters --Talking with ALTs and native speaker colleagues --Talking with foreign students --Keeping a diary: intra-personal communication --Posting messages on BBSs --Joining in on-line chatting 16 .

books. pamphlets in paper as well as on the Internet --Listening to news on the radio and on the Internet --Watching news. magazines.2nd Area of Use: Information (getting) --Reading newspapers. documentaries. travelogues on TV and on the Internet 17 .

3rd Area of Use: Entertainment --Watching movies on TV. in theaters. and on the Internet --Reading jokes in books and on the Internet --Reading literature in books and on the Internet --Singing songs 18 .

4th Area of Use: Intellectualization --Preparing English classes --Conducting classes in English --Co-teaching classes with ALTs --Doing research for writing papers --Using English to improve ourselves 19 .

Let’s Us Check Our Use of English! Please use the handout on Using English as Second Language in Japan 20 .

) CBS NEWS (USA) VOA (USA) THE WHITE HOUSE President’s Weekly Radio Address to the Nation 21 .III. Demonstration Information (getting) on the Internet BBC (U. K.

.m.. Oct 8 7:00 a..m.m. BBC 10:00 a.m. ABC (NHK) 9:00 a..Multi-listening—A Case Study Bomb Blasts in Egypt on Oct 7. BBC 22 .m.m.. NHK 1st Video 12:00 a. CNN (NHK) 2nd Video 3rd Video 17:25 a. Oct 7 Japan 5:00 a. Oct 9.. 2004! Time line Egypt 10:00 p.m. no news on NHK 8:00 a.m..

Reading newspapers while listening…. 2004 BBC News October 8. 2004 Using “Roboword” 23 . 2004 BBC News in Spanish October 8.. The New York Times October 7.

三重大 教育学部 英語科 早瀬HP 24

IV. Action Plan to Cultivate “Japanese with English Abilities” (「英語が使える日本人」の育成のため の行動計画」 March 31. senior high schools and universities --University graduates should be able to use English in their work (Summary by Hayase) 25 . What do we need to do now? 1. 2003 --The entire public should be able to conduct daily conversation and exchange information in English based on basic and practical communication abilities acquired at different levels of English education in junior high schools.

Enrich our Japanese 26 . Interest to use English outside class 3.2. Finding situations where English can be used in our lives Situations for: primary school children Junior high school students Senior high school students College students Adults 4.

M. Harlow. Englewood Cliffs. G. J. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Rivers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cambridge: CUP Grosjean. Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Biligualism. (2001). 3rd Edition. Harmar. 27 .References Books and papers Brown. (2003). Teaching Language as Communication. (1996). The Practice of English Language Teaching. J. (1994). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Harvard University Press. H. D. Willis. F. (2001). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. (1981). Cook. 3rd ed. English as a Global Language. 2nd ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Second language learning and language teaching. V. (1978). A Framework for Task-Based Learning. 2nd ed. NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Harlow. W. Teaching Foreign-Language Skills. London: Arnold. (1982). Crystal. Widdowson. H. D.

J. 8.2000. 市田泰弘. 『外国語上達』 岩波書店. 32. 3rd ed. 「ろう者のバイリングアリズム」『言語』Vol. 白井恭弘. 2004.. C.kantei.『あえて英語公用語論』 文藝春秋社 Websites: Developing a strategic plan to cultivate "Japanese With English Abilities" (2002) (http://www. 107. 2000. 28 .jp/english/topics/03072801. R. (2002)(Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. No.html) Regarding the Establishment of an Action Plan to Cultivate “Japanese with English Abilities” (2003) (http://www. & Schmidt. 2233.池谷裕二.htm) Japan's Goals in the 21st Century (2000) (http://www.go. 船橋洋一.mext. Pearson Education Limited.mext.htm) Dictionary: LDLTAL Richards. 20-21.go. pp. 『記憶力を強くする』講談社. 「日本の弁護士と英語」、『英語展望』No. 2001.go. 千野栄一1986. 『外国語学習に成功する人、しない人』岩波書店. 長島安治.

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