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**BUSINESS MATHEMATICS & STATISTICS
**

BBA (M&S and FBM)

Amity School of Business

Module I

Amity School of Business

INTRODUCTION

Mathematics is an important subject and knowledge of it enhances a person's reasoning, problem-solving skills, and in general, the ability to think. Hence it is important for understanding almost every subject whether science and technology, medicine, the economy, or business and finance. Mathematical tools such as the theory of chaos are used to mapping market trends and forecasting of the same.

and many accountancy companies prefer graduates with joint degrees with mathematics rather than just an accountancy qualification. . Mathematics also form an important part of accounting.Amity School of Business Statistics and probability which are branches of mathematics are used in everyday business and economics.

Amity School of Business Financial Mathematics and Business Mathematics form two important branches of mathematics in today's world and these are direct application of mathematics to business and economics. Examples of applied math's such as probability theory and management science. timeseries analysis. such as queuing theory. . linear programming all are vital math's for business.

Amity School of Business COORDINATE GEOMETRY IS Branch of geometry in which two real numbers called coordinates are used to indicate the position of a point in a plane .

g.: (3.4) • The first number is always x and the second point is always y . e.Amity School of Business COORDINATES • An ordered pair of numbers that give the location of a point on the plane.

In the coordinate plane.Amity School of Business COORDINATE PLANE • It describes a two-dimensional plane in terms of two perpendicular axes: x and y • The x-axis indicates the horizontal direction while the y-axis indicates the vertical direction of the plane. points are indicated by their positions along the x and yaxes .

g. y) .Amity School of Business COORDINATE POINT The first number is always the x and second number is always the y e. ( x.

Amity School of Business .

.6) in the same plane.Amity School of Business QUESTIONS • Plot coordinates: (3. (0. (2.0).-5) in different coordinate planes • Plot coordinates (1.3).4) and (5.

Amity School of Business DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS .

Amity School of Business • In the coordinate plane. • The distance between the two points (x1. we can use the pythagorean theorem to find the distance between two points.y1) and (x2.y2) is : d ( x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 ) 2 2 .

Amity School of Business QUESTIONS Find the distance between the following pair of points: (i) (0. (-2.10) (iii) (2/3.2at1 . at2 2 . -1) . -1/2) . (p. -1/2 ) (iv) at12 . 0) . q) (ii) (9. ( -1/3.2at2 .

find a? (vi) What will be the value of x if the distance between (x. -4) and (-8. 2) be 10? . a) .Amity School of Business (v) If the point (a.3) is at a distance of √5 unit from (2.

1) and (-√3. . a) is 13.Amity School of Business ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS (i) If the distance between the points (a.-5) and (2. find a? (ii) Show that the points (1. (-1. -√3) are the vertices of equilateral triangle.-1) .

Amity School of Business STRAIGHT LINE “The shortest distance between two points is a straight line” .

slope=1/2 The slope is calculated from knowing any two distinct points on the line. y1) and (x2.. there is a rise of ½ in y. for a unit change in x.SLOPE (GRADIENT) Amity School of Business The slope of the line is the number that measures its steepness usually denoted by the letter m. It is the change in y for a unit change in x.g. In the given figure . So. (x1. y2) y 2 – y1 x 2 – x1 . e.

Amity School of Business .

-1) • (-2 . 2) and (-7 . 6) • (5 . 2) . 4) and (-2 .Amity School of Business Example : Find the slope of a line passing through the points • (2 . 3) and (0 .

g. In the above diagram. the line intercepts the yaxis at (0.intercept is where the line intercepts (meets) the y-axis. e.Amity School of Business Y.. And so Its y-intercept is equals to –1.–1).INTERCEPT The y. .

Amity School of Business EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE A. Slope-Intercept Form B. General Form . Slope-Point Form C. Two-Point Form D.

Amity School of Business SPECIAL EQUATIONS (1) Equation of X-Axis is Y=0 (2) Equation of Y-Axis is X=0 (3) Equation of a line parallel to X-Axis is Y=k ( Here k is a constant) (4) Equation of a line parallel to Y-Axis is X=k (Here also k is a constant) .

m is the slope of the line and c is the intercept or This tells us that the slope of the line is m and the y. y) are coordinate of any point on the line.intercept of the line is c .Amity School of Business SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM Equation of straight line in slope intercept form is given by y = mx + c (x.

g.Amity School of Business e. The line y = 2x + 4 has slope m = 2 and y-intercept c = 4 Q Find the equation of a straight line making an angle of 120 degree with the x-axis and cutting the y-axis at a distance 3 below the origin.. .

Amity School of Business Q Find the equation of a straight line passing through the origin and making with the x-axis an angle of : (i) 45 degree (ii) 60 degree (iii) 90 degree Q Find the equation of a straight line cutting of an intercept 2 from the positive direction of the axis of y and inclined at 45 degree to the x-axis. .

Amity School of Business SLOPE-POINT FORM The equation of a straight line having a slope m and passing through the point (x1. y1 ) is. y-y1 = m ( x – x1) .

and y1 = –6 plug these values into the point-slope form. –6) Solution: m = 4. and solve for y .Amity School of Business Example. x1 = –1. Find the equation of the straight line that has slope m = 4 and passes through the point (–1.

Amity School of Business y – y1 = m (x – x1) y – (–6) = (4)(x – (–1)) y + 6 = 4(x + 1) y + 6 = 4x + 4 y = 4x + 4 – 6 y = 4x – 2 .

Amity School of Business QUESTIONS 1. 3) and having slope m = -1 2. Find the Equation of a line passing through the point A( 2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis and passing through (i) (-3. -2) (ii) (-8. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis and at a distance of (i) 5 units to the right (ii) 6 units to the left 3. 5) .

y1 ) and ( x2 . .Amity School of Business TWO-POINT FORM The equation of a straight line passing through two points ( x1. y2 ) is given by.

2at1 ) and (at2 . Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (0 . Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (2 . Find the equation of the straight line passing through the points (a . b) and (a+b . a-b) 4. 0) and (3 . Find the equation of the straight line passing 2 2 through the points (at1 . 3) 2.Amity School of Business QUESTIONS 1.2at2 ) . -1) and (3 . 5) 3.

B and C are constants with A and B not both zero This equation is known as the General Form of a straight line.Amity School of Business GENERAL FORM It should be noted that all the different standard forms of the equation of a straight line can be reduced to the form Ax+By+C = 0 (Its slope = -(A/B)) where A. .

Amity School of Business THANK YOU .

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