# MODULE II

Topics
1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH TWO UNKNOWNS 2. SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIOS WITH THREE UNKNOWNS 3. QUADRATIC EQUATION AND SOLUTION 4. NATURE OF ROOTS IN QUADRATIC EQUATION 5. INEQUALITY WITH GRAPHS 6. INDICES

7.SURDS
8. LOGARITHM

Linear Equation
A linear equation with two unknowns is given by ax + by + c = 0. Where a,b,c are real numbers

Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns Pair of Linear Equations: a1 x  b1 y  c1  0 and a2 x  b2 y  c2  0 Ex: 2x+4y+6=0 And x+5y+8=0 .

Geometrical Forms Pair of Equations will: • Intersect • Parallel No Solution Unique Solution • Coincide Infinitely Many Solutions .

Methods to Solve Linear Equation Algebraically • Substitution Method • Elimination Method • Cross Multiplication Method .

Solve 7x – 15y = 2 x + 2y = 3 Step(i) We pick either of the equation and write one variable in terms of other.1) Substitution method: Eg:. Let us consider 2nd equation x + 2y = 3 therefore x = 3 – 2y .

7(3 – 2y) – 15y =2 21 – 14y -15 y = 2 29y =19 y = 19/29.Step (ii) Substitute the value of x in 1st equation. x = 49/29 . Step (iii) Substitute y = 19/29 in any of the equations we get.

Elimination Method This is done by making the coefficient of either x or y same. 9x-4y=2000 7x-3y=2000 (Ans: x=2000.2. y=4000) .

3) Cross multiplication method: If the two equations are : a1 x  b1 y  c1  0 a2 x  b2 y  c2  0 b1c2  b2 c1 Then. x  a1b2  a2b1 c1a2  c2 a1 and y  a1b2  a2b1 .

y=10) .Q) Solve by cross multiplication: 2x+3y-46=0 3x+5y-74=0 Ans:(x=8.

y=5.Questions(Substitution method) • Solve: (i) x + y = 14 and x – y = 4(Ans: x=9.y=4) (ii) s – t =3 and s/3 + t/2 = 6 (Ans: t=6.m=-1) .s=9) (iii) 3x/2 – 5y/3 = -2 and x/3 + y/2 =13/6 (x=2.y=3) (iv) Solve 2x + 3y = 11 and 2x – 4y = -24 and hence find the value of m for which y = mx + 3.(x=-2.

-1/7) (iii)3x – 5y – 4 = 0 and 9x = 2y + 7 (iv)x/2 + 2y/3 = -1 and x – y/3 = 3 .Questions(Elimination method) • Solve: (i)x + y = 5 and 2x – 3y = 4(Ans:19/5.6/5) (ii)3x + 4y = 2 and 2x – 2y =2 (Ans: 6/7.

Questions(Cross multiplication method) • Solve: (i)x – 3y – 3 = 0 and 3x – 9y – 2 = 0 (ii)2x + y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 8 (iii)3x – 5y = 20 and 6x – 10y = 40 (iv)x – 3y – 7 = 0 and 3x – 3y = 15 .

Find them. (Ans: 13.39) .Word Problems • Q) The difference between two numbers is 26 and one number is 3 times the other.

Find the cost of each ball and each bat. (Ans: Rs. 3800. 50) . 1750.• Q) The coach of a cricket team buys 7 bats and 6 balls for Rs. 500 and Rs. Later he buys 3 bats and 5 balls for Rs.

Q) A fraction becomes 9/11. If 3 is added to both the numerator and the denominator it becomes 5/6. Find the fraction. (Ans: 7/9) . if 2 is added to both the numerator and denominator.

Five years ago.Q) Five years hence. Jacob’s age was 7 times that of his son. the age of Jacob will be three times that of his son. What are their present ages? (Ans: 40 years and 10 years) .

x represents a variable and a. the linear coefficient and the constant term. c are called respectively the quadratic coefficient. b. b.Quadratic Equation • In mathematics a quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second degree. 2 . • The constants a. c represents constants with a≠0.The general form is ax  bx  c  0 where.

• The solution of the quadratic equation are called as ROOTS of the equation.Solution of Quadratic Equation • There are always two solutions for a quadratic equation. .

Methods • Two methods to solve a quadratic Equation: • By factoring (works sometimes) • By Quadratic Formula (always works) .

For example: Solve 4 x 2  25 We can write the aboveeq n as (2 x) 2  (5) 2  0 (2 x  5) ( 2 x  5)  0 either ( 2 x  5)  0 or ( 2 x  5)  0 5  x 2 or 5 x 2 .Factoring • This method is used where quadratic equation can be easily resolved into linear factors.

Factoring Example 2) Solve: x2  6x  8  0 We can solvethe abovequadratic eq by splitting the middleterm.  x2  4x  2x  8  0 x( x  4)  2( x  4)  0 ( x  2) ( x  4)  0  x  2 or x  4 n .

Solve: (Ans: x=3/2.Questions 1.x=-3/2) 9x  2 4x2  7 6x 1  2  3 4x  3 2 . Solve: x b a b    b x b a (Ans: x=a.x=b²/a) 3.Solve: x  3x  4 2 2.

2.b.c ax  bx  c  0 2 The solution is given by:  b  b 2  4ac  b  b 2  4ac x and 2a 2a . By Quadratic Formula This method works all the time Put the equation in standard form: Determine the values of a.

Questions • Solve: x²+9x=-8 (Ans: x=-1 and x=-8) • Solve: 2x²-10x+5=0 (Ans: x=(5+√15)/2 and (5-√15)/2) .

QUESTIONS Solve the following equations: 1) 6 1 x7 4x  2   3 3 5 3 5 8 2)   x2 x6 x3 x 1 2( x  1) 3) 4 x   x 3 3 5 ax 2a  x 3a  x 4)   a 2a 3a .

Solve the following equations: 1) 25 x 2  16 x x3 2)  x2 5( x  11) 2( 45  2 x 2 ) 3( x 2  9) 3)  7 x2  9 x2  3 4) 3 x 2  14 x  11  0 5) x 2  ( p  q ) x  pq  0 x 3 10   3 x 3 x a a b 7)    a x b a 8) x 2  2 3 x  1  0 6) 9) x 2  ( 3  3) x  ( 3  2)  0 .

x=480 ..x=-2 4. x 1 x  1 x x 21 6 a 1 a 1 Ans: x=4/13 and x=9/13 2...Special Cases 1. 6  6  6  . x  12 a  x x  12 a  x  Ans: x=3a.x=-4a 3.  Ans: x=3. 2 x  1  3x  4  7 Ans: x=4.

Solve the following equations: 1) 1  5 x  1  3x  2 2) 3x  10  9 x  7  9 .

Roots of Quadratic Equations The general quadratic equation is : ax 2  bx  c  0 The two roots of the quadratic equation are givenby :  b  b 2  4ac  b  b 2  4ac x and 2a 2a where. So. the roots of the quadratic equation are : b D b D x and 2a 2a . the exp ression b 2  4ac is called discri min ant of the equation and is denoted by D.

then both the roots are complex and unequal. If D=0. If D<0. 2. b2  4ac 3. . If D>0. both the roots are unequal. both the roots are real and equal.Nature of the Roots Since the roots of the quadratic equation are given by:  b  b 2  4ac  b  b 2  4ac x and 2a 2a The nature of the roots depends on the numerical value of We obtain the following results: 1.

m=-2) .Questions • Find the nature of the roots: • i) x²+2x+3=0 • ii) Find what values of m will the equation (m+1)x²+2(m+3)x+(2m+3)=0 will have equal roots. (Ans: m=3.

Let  and  be the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2  bx  c  0. Sum of the roots are :  b  coefficien of x t     sum of the roots   a coefficien of x 2 t c cons tan t term   product of the roots   a coefficien of x 2 t .Sum and Product of the roots of quadratic equations: Let.

 1  1 . formthe quadratic equation whose roots are :   (i )   3. find the valuesof (i )  2   2 (ii)  3   3 (iii)  4   4 2) If  .3  2  (iii) .  are the roots of x 2  2 x  3  0.   3 (ii) 2  3 .  are the roots of 2 x 2  3 x  7  0. and    1  1 (iv) .Questions 1) If  .

Questions on nature of roots 1) Find k . (ii) one of the roots of equation x 2  4 x  k  0 is 2(1  3 ) (iii) one of the roots of equation x 2  6 x  k  0 is 3  i 2 (iv) one root of the equation x 2  6 x  k  0 is double the other. if (i ) the roots of 2 x 2  3 x  k  0 are equal. Ans:K=8 .