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2.

8 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE


2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Plasticisers and superplasticisers 2.8.3 Air entrainment 2.8.4 Retarders 2.8.5 Accelerators 2.8.6 Other admixtures

Demonstration
500 g Cement 150 ml Water 5 ml Superplasticiser

Fosroc Literature

Primary admixture properties


PLASTICISERS Dispersion of cement particles increases fluidity Water reduction increases strength Water reduction reduces permeability, increases durability Cement reduction reduces cost AIR ENTRAINERS Increase cohesion, Reduce bleed and segregation Easier to pump Impart freeze thaw resistance RETARDERS Prolong period over which concrete may be placed Reduce problems with cold joints ACCELERATORS Reduce the time to reach initial set Increase the early age strength of the concrete

2.8 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE


2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Plasticisers and superplasticisers 2.8.3 Air entrainment 2.8.4 Retarders 2.8.5 Accelerators 2.8.6 Other admixtures

Effects of water reducers

Cement

250kg

Increasing strength

Plasticiser and superplasticiser

Examples of superplasticiser use

Reducing temperature rise with sp

Methods of addition

(lack of) effect on strength

Effect of water reducer on heat evolution

Effect of plasticiser on rheology

Slump vs flow table

Self compacting concrete

Self Compacting Concrete

Self Compacting Concrete

2.8 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE


2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Plasticisers and superplasticisers 2.8.3 Air entrainment 2.8.4 Retarders 2.8.5 Accelerators 2.8.6 Other admixtures

Air entrainers

Effect of pozzolans on air entraining

Effect of fine aggregate on air

These cracks in dolos sea defence unit prevented with air entrained concrete

2.8 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE


2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Plasticisers and superplasticisers 2.8.3 Air entrainment 2.8.4 Retarders 2.8.5 Accelerators 2.8.6 Other admixtures

Workability loss

Retarders

The retarder therefore helps to: Hold the workability of initially high workability superplasticised concrete at a medium workability by delaying the onset of hydration. Assist with the removal of the casing after introduction of concrete into deep piles by holding some workability in the mix. Give monolithic concrete between batches placed with a time interval between them. Reduce the incidence and intensity of surface lift marks, surface blemishes and colour changes due to poor intermixing between pours. Reduce the incidence of cold joints between pours.

2.8 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE


2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Plasticisers and superplasticisers 2.8.3 Air entrainment 2.8.4 Retarders 2.8.5 Accelerators 2.8.6 Other admixtures

Accelerator

Superplasticiser for strength gain

2.8 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE


2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Plasticisers and superplasticisers 2.8.3 Air entrainment 2.8.4 Retarders 2.8.5 Accelerators 2.8.6 Other admixtures

Other Admixtures
Viscosity modifiers for use with superplasticisers when making self compacting concrete Foaming agents "Foamed concrete" is a nonstructural void filler which can be dug out with excavators. Shrinkage compensators. Corrosion Inhibitors. Calcium Nitrite is used as an anode inhibitor. Other admixtures can inhibit the cathode. Alkali Aggregate Reaction Inhibitors. Lithium based compounds are used to reduce AAR.

Corrosion Inhibitors

Other Admixtures
Viscosity modifiers for use with superplasticisers when making self compacting concrete Foaming agents "Foamed concrete" is a non-structural void filler which can be dug out with excavators. Shrinkage compensators. Corrosion Inhibitors. Calcium Nitrite is used as an anode inhibitor. Other admixtures can inhibit the cathode. Alkali Aggregate Reaction Inhibitors. Lithium based compounds are used to reduce AAR.

When using more than one admixture


Never pre-mix admixtures before adding them to the concrete The order and timing of admixture addition can be critical