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Marines and the Korean War

SSgt Hackenberger

Post World War II


Development of Atomic Bomb = No need for larger military Cut back the Marines Identity Crisis National Security Act of 1947
Rejected Unification Created U.S. Air Force MAGTF within the Navy.

Post World War II The Cold War


Soviet Union and China Communist Nations Stalin, Mao Tse-Tung Stalin Communism and American Capitalism could not co-exist - War imminent Nuclear tension between Soviet Union and USA detection of radiation in atmosphere.

The Korean War


North Korea South Korea
Supported by Soviet Supported by Union / China UN/USA Communist Republic Divided by the 38th President Truman parallel worries that similar acts of aggression will Crossed the parallel occur in other parts of 25 June 1950 the world, needed to be stopped!

The Push South


25 June 1950 - War Starts 28 June - Seoul Falls 5 July Osan Falls 4 August All of South Korea is forced in to 10% of the country The Pusan Perimeter.

Pusan Perimeter
4 August 18 September North Korean forces capture Seoul and continue South First major battle of Korean War 6 Week Battle Repeated attempts by NK to overtake. Port used by UN to amass troops, supplies.

Landing at Inchon
September 15 - 19, 1950
Cut supply and logistics chain to Pusan Perimeter Rear Admiral Doyle (Navys Expert on Amphibious Landings) Many interlocking and interdependent details.

Risks of Inchon
Tides
Most dramatic range on planet Mudflats exposed 2x daily

Size of approach: size of ship


Very narrow

Seawalls / Gun Emplacements.

Battle of Inchon
Amphibious Assault 261 Naval Vessels, 75,000 troops Napalm Strikes cleared beach 5 days prior 3 different landings to effectively take over and supply troops for inland invasion.

Aftermath
September 17 Kimpo Airfield
Largest airfield in Korea Allowed supplies to enter from Japan

September 18 Pusan Perimeter Cleared September 22-25 2nd Battle of Seoul


Urban Warfare.

Frozen Chosin
After the push back to the 38th Parallel, plans changed Find the North Koreans Government China secretly reinforcing North Korea Surrounded the Marines.

Innovations/Advancements
M26 Pershing Heavy Tank 3.5 Super Bazooka Rocket Launcher Improved Body Armor Vertical Envelopment Urban Warfare.

M26 Pershing
Designed for WWII to take on German Panzers Added to Marines Arsenal day before Korean War started Tankers quickly adapted and became proficient Large part of winning Seoul, Inchon, and Pusan Perimeter.

Rocket Launcher, M20 "Super Bazooka"


Larger 3.5 in (90 mm) diameter warhead Could penetrate up to 11 inches (280 mm) of armor Extended range by about 150 m Originally a larger version of the M9A1, designated M20 in late 1944 Entered active service just before the start of the Korean War.

Body Armor
In the early 1950s, Marines realized that their current body armor was too heavy The Naval Medical Research Laboratory developed an armored vest made of heavy nylon cloth with a new plastic compound After a series of rigorous tests, 2,500 new vests were sent to the frontline units of the 1st Marine Division in Korea In the years since, Marines' body armor has been continually updated and advanced. Improvements like these illustrate the Marine Corps' ongoing commitment to the safety of each Marine.

Vertical Envelopment
After years of field tests, Operation Summit proved that delivering troops by helicopter could improve operations on enemy shores In just four hours, the HMR-161 helicopter squadron completed 65 flights while transporting a total of 224 Marines and 17,772 pounds of supplies to an outpost in Korea This was the first ground attack assisted by helicopter transport in military history Key to overcoming the battles throughout the Chosin Reservoir The overwhelming success of the mission proved the indispensable quality and power of helicopters, and this innovation became the center of strategic operations in subsequent conflicts.

Overview of USMC
Total Marines on 1 June 1950: 74,279 Total Marines on 1 June 1953: 249,219 Total Marines who served in the Corps during 1950-53: about 424,000 Total Marines who served in Korea during 1950-53: about 130,000 Peak strength serving in Korea: about 35,900 in April 1953.

U.S. Marine Corps


November 10th, 1775 Make Marines, Win Battles, Return a better citizen to the community Toys for Tots 1954 2 Components - Active and Reserve.

Initial Training
Recruit Training Parris Island, SC / San Diego, CA
13 Weeks

Marine Combat Training Jacksonville, NC


4 Weeks Every Marine a Rifleman

Job School
300+ jobs all require different training lengths/locations.

MARINE CORPS RESERVE


Serve your Country while serving your Community 1 weekend a month + 2 weeks a year Develop valuable Leadership & Technical Skills through military training Earn for College through the Reserve G.I. Bill. Same training opportunities & benefits of regular Marines. Split initial training opportunities. Ability to attend College full-time or hold another fulltime job. Platoon Leaders Course Fastest and most frequently used to commission in Marines.

ACTIVE DUTY
4 or 5 year contract. Normal Job hours. Salary paid. 30 Days paid vacation / year. Free Medical / Dental benefits. Educational Benefits. Duty Stations Worldwide.

OCCUPATIONAL FIELDS
More than 300 Different Occupational Fields!
Military Police - Communications Finance & Accounting - Electronics Warfare Intelligence - Logistics & Supply Infantry - Tanks Field Artillery - Engineering, Construction Printing and Reproduction - Aviation (Jet & Helo) Public Affairs - Musician Nuclear, Biological & Chemical - Data Systems

TUITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM


100% College Tuition While on Active Duty. Night & Weekend College Classes on/near bases. Successfully completed classes count towards Promotion and Enhanced career options.

POST 9/11 G.I. BILL


36 MONTHS 100% PAID TUITION TO THE HIGHEST STATE COLLEGE. Housing Allowance $1,000 Stipend for books and materials.

NAVAL RESERVE
Officer Training Corps ( NROTC )
FOUR YEAR SCHOLARSHIP MARINE OPTION PROGRAM

NROTC MISSION
To educate and train highly qualified young men and women for careers as commissioned officers in the United States Marine Corps Reserve (USMCR)

THE BENEFITS
$180,000 SCHOLARSHIP
Full tuition, lab fees, books, and uniforms! Provides leadership opportunities

Structured academic environment


$250 (Freshman) $400 (Senior) stipend per month Some universities will help or cover with room and board

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
U.S. Citizen 17-23 years of age Physically qualified by USMC standards No moral disqualifications High school graduate or an equivalency certificate (GED) Minimum 1000 SAT combined score (Math & Verbal only) or 45 ACT Admission to a participating NROTC college or university

PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS
100+ colleges and universities Large and well known Harvard MIT Notre Dame (NY) Fordham, Maritime, Brockport University of Southern California Penn State Cornell Schools all over the US

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS
Select almost any undergraduate major Carry regular (full) course load Attend Naval science course (One per semester) Maintain good academic standing (Must not drop below 2.0 average) Academic Assistance Tutors, Study halls, Midshipmen peer group

NROTC ACTIVITIES
Drill Team Sailing Club Aviation Club Shooting Club Anchor And Chain Society

SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
Marine Corps Birthday Ball Formals

Unit Socials
Intramural Sports

OBLIGATION
Upon graduation you will be commissioned as a 2ndLt in the USMCR Required to fulfill a 4-year active duty tour followed by 4-year IRR. Flight training contracts require additional obligation

SUMMER TRAINING
First Summer Quartramid cruise

SUMMER TRAINING
Second Summer MWTC Mojave Viper

SUMMER TRAINING
Third Summer OCS (SIX-WEEK COURSE) MCB, Quantico, VA 3 Areas of Candidate Evaluations Leadership Ability Physical Challenge Academics

HOW TO APPLY
Go to https://www.nrotc.navy.mil and complete the online application Take the SAT or ACT and release your scores to Code 0656 Apply to any of the eligible NROTC colleges or universities

HOW TO APPLY (continued)


Complete Application Package Transcripts Student activities form Three teacher evaluations (Guidance, English and Coach/or other) Two Marine officer interviews Physical Fitness Test results

HOW TO APPLY (continued)


Q: Who is responsible for completing and submitting the application? A: YOU ARE! https://www.nrotc.navy.mil

SCHOLARSHIP FINALIST AVERAGES


SAT/ACT PFT GPA Varsity Athletics Boy/Girl State Boy/Girl Scouts JROTC 1220/52 223 3.51 91% 14% 26% 28%

GRADUATION

OFFICER OPPORTUNITIES
Q: What other opportunities are out there for officer selection? A: A large % of Marine Officers enlist in the reserves or active duty first, then pursue Platoon Leaders Course (PLC) or ECP Pay Tuition Assistance & GI Bill Mustang Marine

SUMMARY
Open to HS Seniors and Grads with <30 College Credits (usually 1 year) Attend an NROTC affiliated college or university. Scholarship pays for tuition, textbooks, instructional fees and meal allowances. Midshipmen will complete basic officer training at OCS during one summer break. Upon graduation, midshipmen will receive a commission as a second lieutenant.

QUESTIONS?
More information can be found at: https://www.nrotc.navy.mil

Summary
Marine Corps roles and innovations in Korea Opportunities and benefits in the Marines NROTC Scholarship.

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS


QUESTIONS?

SOME PEOPLE WONDER ALL THEIR LIVES IF THEYVE MADE A DIFFERENCE. THE MARINES DONT HAVE THAT PROBLEM.
RONALD REAGAN