Its a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, andMozambique to the south. The country's eastern border lies on the Indian Ocean. The country is the 31st largest country in the world and its more than twice the state of California in the USA. Tanzania is a state composed of 26 regions including those of the semi-autonomous region of Zanzibar. The head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma, where Parliament and some government offices are located.

The name Tanzania derives from the names of the two states Tanganyika and Zanzibar that united in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later the same year was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania. The official language is Swahili which originates from the Arabic word Sahel meaning the people of the coast.

There are 120 tribes in Tanzania whereby the dominant tribes are the Haya, Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, Hehe and Nyakyusa. They have an estimate of about 1 million people.
Most of the people are the youth who make up about 53.1% of the population. The dominant religion is Christianity which is 45%. Other religions include Islam which is 40%, Buddhism, Hindu and Local African religion.

The Literacy rate is 78.2% whereby 85.9% of males and 70.7% of the females people in the country can read and write.
The percentage of HIV infected adults is about 5.7% and 1.4 million people out of 40 million people live with AIDS. About 45,000 people live abroad and among those people 32000 live in the UK and the rest live in USA, Canada, Australia and the European countries.

with overlordship and inland as far as Zimbabwe. the son of the Shah of Shiraz. Trade was mainly in gold and iron from Zimbabwe.porcelain. The first external contact has been dated back to around 8 AD whereas Arabs using the Monsoon winds came to trade with the East Africans. Ali bin Al-Hassan Shirazi founded the city and later Kilwa Sultanate. Kilwa grew to be a major city and trading center along the coast. . The earliest contacts with Tanzania are believed to be with the Bantu speaking people who migrated to this area after the intensification of competition of resources in the Congo basin. and spices from Asia. gives details of a mission to reconvert Kilwa to Ibadism.  In the 11th century. jewelry. as it had recently been affected by the Ghurabiyya Shia doctrine from southern Iraq. his mother was Abyssinian.The original ethnic groups in Tanzania are the Hadzabe and Tindiga who are still living a nomadic type of life. the island of Kilwa Kisiwani was sold to Ali bin Al-Hassan Shirazi. ivory from Tanzania.  The places that where affected by this contact was manly Kilwa as a document written around AD 1200 called al-Maqamal Kilwiyya discovered in Oman. Over the next few centuries. and textiles.

After Vasco Da Gama sent reports about the wealth in Kilwa whereby he described it as the city of Gold due to its large flow of Gold trade and its magnificent architecture. Francisco de Almeida who took control of the island in (1505) after besieging it. The city regained some of its earlier prosperity. The first person to un cover Kilwa was Vasco da Gama who decided to extort tribute from the wealthy Islamic state.During the period of Mercantile capitalism where by the Portuguese where finding an altenatice route to India. It was later part of the colony of German East Africa from 1886 to 1918. After the Omani conquest. when an Arab mercenary captured Kilwa and expelled the Portuguese. the French built and manned a fort at the northern tip of the island. . It remained in Portuguese hands until 1512. the Portuguese sent a force commanded by D. but in 1784 it came under the rule of the Omani rulers of Zanzibar. but the city itself was abandoned in the 1840s. one of their voyages came across Kilwa .

The German colonial rule faced stiff resistance from almost all ethnic tribes. The German domination was made easy by Karl Peters who signed a lot of treaties with the local chiefs. The boundaries where made after a series of agreements at first between the British. .Tanzania mainland was colonized by the Germans from 1884 to 1918 after it had lost the World War I. However the most remarkable ones are the ones led by the Nyamwezi under chief Mirambo and by the Hehe under Mkwawa. Germans and the Sultan of Zanzibar in making the boundaries. But the last agreement the Sultan was eliminated in the list as a colonial power hence Zanzibar was ruled by British while Tanganyika (Tanzania) mainland was ruled by the Germans. Mkwawa was a chief who killed one of the German commanders Emil Von Zelewisky an act which made the Germans put a price of 5000 rupees for Mkwawa’s head. He attempted suicide when he was almost defeated by the Germans just like most of the tribal chiefs who didn’t want to get caught.

. The resistance. Germans where really fast in suppressing it as they could have been defeated if stronger tribes like Hehe and Nyamwezi could have joined the resistance. This began in 1992 when a movement against forced labour for a cotton scheme rejected by the local population started along the Rufiji River. The tension reached a breaking point and in July that year the Matumbi of Nandete led by Kinjikitile Ngwale revolted against the local administrators (akida) and suddenly the revolt grew wider from Dar Es Salaam down to the eastern shores of Lake Nyasa. Although at some point the colonial rule under the Germans was really brutal but they provided the Tanganyika’s with the best quality education compared to any country in Africa at that time and they played a significant role in improving Swahili laguage. which temporarily united a number of southern tribes ended only after an estimated 120.Another resistance the Germans faced was the Maji Maji resistance which started from 1905 to 1907.000 Africans had died from fighting or starvation.

On 29 March 1961 Britain agreed that Tanganyika would become an independent state on 28 December 1961. Subsequent years witnessed Tanganyika moving gradually toward self-government and independence. . Julius Nyerere.After the first world war Tanganyika and Zanzibar where both under British rule although Tanganyika was a mandate territory. organized a political party— the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Tanganyika became a UN territory under British control. who was then a school teacher and one of only two Tanganyikans (another one was called Tentemente Sanga) educated abroad at the university level. The Independence process in Tanzania was swift since there was only plantation economy hence few Europeans. After World War II. the future leader of Tanzania. In 1954.

Julius Nyerere. After World War II. Tanganyika became a UN territory under British control. .After the first world war Tanganyika and Zanzibar where both under British rule although Tanganyika was a mandate territory. The Independence process in Tanzania was swift since there was only plantation economy hence few Europeans. who was then a school teacher and one of only two Tanganyikans (another one was called Tentemente Sanga) educated abroad at the university level. On 29 March 1961 Britain agreed that Tanganyika would become an independent state on 28 December 1961. the future leader of Tanzania. organized a political party— the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). In 1954. Subsequent years witnessed Tanganyika moving gradually toward self-government and independence.

as President of Zanzibar andChairman of the Revolutionary Council. between 5. Within a few weeks. On January 12. .Zanzibar received its independence from the United Kingdom on December 19. 1964. Several months were spent with Commandos touring the country disarming military outposts. In the first few days.000 Arabs and Asians were murdered. a fifth of the population had died or fled. as a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan. the African majority revolted against the sultan and a new government was formed with the ASP leader. When the successful operation ended. the Royal Marines left to be replaced by Canadian troops.000 and 15. Abeid Karume. 1963. Royal Marines Commandos were sent by air from England via Nairobi and 40 Commando came ashore from the aircraft carrier HMS Bulwark. women were raped and their homes burned. It was at this time that the Tanganyika army revolted and Britain was asked by Julius Nyerere to send in troops.

He also asked Nyerere to merge Zanzibar with Tanganyika and the president of Zanzibar should be the vice president as a way to seek protection against the Arabs whereby there where speculations that they invade Zanzibar after the brutal attacks. Although Abeid Karume was assasinated in the union continued ever since although there have been a lot of problems associated with it that the Zanzibar people want to become totally independent from Tanzania mainland. .After the revolution which was organised by Field Marshall John Okello from Uganda. Abeid Karume became the first Zanzibar president and he gave Okello a 24 hour ultimatum to leave Zanzibar.

he worked as a teacher. in 1962. Chief of the Zanaki. After he returned to Tanganyika.Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian politician who served as the first President of Tanzania and previouslyTanganyika. In 1954. and following independence. his profession prior to politics. from the country's founding in 1961 until his retirement in 1985. Nyerere was elected Tanganyika's first Prime Minister. Born in Tanganyika to Nyerere Burito (1860–1942).[1] Nyerere was known by the Swahili name Mwalimu or 'teacher'.[3] Nyerere received his higher education at Makerere University inKampala and the University of Edinburgh.[2] He was also referred to as Baba wa Taifa (Father of the Nation). Tanganyika became politically united with Zanzibar and was renamed to Tanzania. he helped form the Tanganyika African National Union. In 1961. . the country's first President. In 1964.

and unavailability of goods. a one-party election returned Nyerere to power. During the first years Nyerere created a single-party system and used "preventive detention" to eliminate trade unions and opposition. The campaign pushed the nation to the brink ofstarvation and made it dependent on foreign food aid. systematic corruption.. after more than two decades in power. because of opposition from villagers. . He died of leukemia in London in 1999. In 1985. often burned villages down. Nyerere he issued the Arusha Declaration. he relinquished power to his handpicked successor. which outlined his socialist vision of ujamaa that came to dominate his policies.In 1965. In the early 1970s Nyerere ordered his security forces to forcibly transfer much of the population to collective farms and. The policies led to a collapsing economy.

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ni ckel. chrome. though. iron. The nation has many natural resources including minerals. and employs approximately 75% of the workforce. diamonds.The economy is mostly based on agriculture. provides 75% (approximately) of exports. natural gas. tin. platinum. Tanzania has vast amounts of minerals including gold. It is the third-largest producer of gold in Africa after South Africa and Ghana . and others. uranium. coltan. Extraction of natural gas began in the 2000s. and tourism. which accounts for more than half of the GDP. Gas is drawn into the commercial capital. niobium. Topography and climate. Dar Es Salaam and exported to various markets overseas. limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. coal.

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. These are as follows.We have a lot of sights for tourism.

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Mv Spice Islander .

Mv Bukoba .

Train accident .

Military ammunition station explosion .

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