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ERGONOMICS-WHAT IS IT?
The word derived from two Greek words: “Nomoi” meaning natural laws“Ergon” meaning work
Hence, ergonomic s Is the study human capabilities in relationship to work demands
INTRODUCTION TO ERGONOMICS The study of interaction between people and machine and the factors that affect the interaction .The purpose is to improve the human machine interaction .
WHY IS ERGONOMICS IMPORTANT? Industries increasingly require higher production rates and advances in technology to remain competitive and stay in business. and pushing or pulling loads without help from other workers or devices Increasing specialization that requires the worker to perform only one function or movement for a long period of time or day after day Working more than 8 hours a day Working at a quicker pace of work. As a result. jobs today can involve Frequent lifting. carrying. such as faster assembly line speeds and having tighter grips when using tools .
Change the way the work is organized to accommodate the people’s needs .The system can be improved by 1. Change the work environment to make it safe 3. Designing the user interface to make it more compactable with the task and the user this makes it easier to use and more resistant to errors 2. Change the task to make it more compactable with the user characteristics 4.
EXAMPLES The work environment can be seating. better ventilation or lighting improved by eliminating vibration and noise and providing better Work organization can be improved by enabling the workers to work at their own places .so as to reduce the psychological stress in an information processing task we must design the interface so as to reduce the load on the users memory .
physical stress and mental stress User difficulties Low morale and apathy .IMPLEMENTATION OF ERGONOMICS IN A SYSTEM By eliminating aspects of system functioning that are undesirable uncontrolled or unaccounted such as Inefficiency: when worker output produces sub optimal output Fatigue: in badly designed people tire unnecessarily Accidents injuries and errors: due to bad design .
FOCUS OF ERGONOMICS The focus of ergonomics is on the interaction between the person and the machine .
FOCUS OF ERGONOMICS .
DESCRIPTION OF HUMAN MACHINE SYSTEM For ergonomics human is the part of the system and must be fully integrated into the design stage so human requirements are system requirements .
HUMAN MACHINE SYSTEM Equipment that is usable and safe Task that are compatible with the peoples expectations limitations and training An environment that is comfortable and appropriate for the task A work organization that recognizes the people's social and economic needs .
COMPATIBILITY.MATCHING DEMANDS TO CAPABILITIES Ergonomic entropy: this is a disorder in the system functioning that occurs owing to a lack of compatibility in some or all of the interaction involving the human operator The incompatibility can occur due to Human requirements for optimum system functioning were never considered at the design stages In appropriate task design Lack of prototyping .
health hazards. ii) Management iii) Design .APPLICATION OF ERGONOMICS Applications are mostly in i) Occupational stress.
APPLICATION AREAS SPECIFIC TO OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY: Occupational risk management Work schedule & sustained performance Psychosocial approach occupational health Manual material handling Work related musculoskeletal disorders Warning and risk perception Safe design .
efficiency Productivity and human resource utilization Work study and time study Management of work/rest cycle Personnel deployment and Shift work Human cost of work and cost benefit effects for the modifications done Manual material handling Work ambient environment monitoring Human work and efficiency .APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENT Work process management.
The brain can be regarded as the information processing unit .HUMAN COMPONENTS Effort Sense Central processes Effort. the three primary effort are the hand.feet.and voice. more generally the musculoskeletal system and the body weights can be regarded as effort Sense: the sense are the means by which we are aware of our surroundings humans are said to have five senses Central process: to carry out activities we need energy which is provided by the physiological process providing energy to working muscles.
MACHINE COMPONENTS The machine component include 1. The immediate environment Work space The physical environment Work organization . 7. 6. 5. 2. 3. Controlled process Display Controls 4.
controls are also important source of feed back during the execution of control process The immediate environment: this is the place in which the work is carried out and consists of physical work space Work space: the 3D space in which the work is carried out. automatically sorting information Display: this is the action of the machine or its local environment. In hazardous systems the human operator has no direct access to the process and interact with the process through the displays Controls: human interact with the machine through controls .Controlled process: the basic operation of the machine e. Nuclear fission. In complex systems the work space is fixed . digging vegetable garden.g.
ergonomists are most interested in noise vibration lighting and climate contamination and pollution of the environment Work organization: work organization as its most basic level refers to immediate organization of human machine interaction. it refers to the organizational structure in which the work activity is embedded . The physical environment: many aspects of physical environment can affect the worker.
Over centuries. machines such as the spinning jenny (a machine that produced yarn to make cloth) and rolling mills (a method of flattening iron ore into flat sheets) were developed to improve work processes. With the Industrial Revolution. This is the same motivation behind much of ergonomics today .HISTORY OF ERGONOMICS In the work environment. the effectiveness of hammers. axes and plows improved. machines. the selection and creation of tools. and work processes continued.
Scientific Management. . a method that improved worker efficiency by improving the job process. became popular. the production of industry was still largely dependent on human power/motion and ergonomic concepts were developing to improve worker productivity. Wojciech Jastrzebowski created the word ergonomics in 1857 in a philosophical narrative. In the early 1900's. "based upon the truths drawn from the Science of Nature".
materials and the job process. coal or ore).5 allowing bricklayers to increase their pace of laying bricks from 120 to 350 bricks per hour . Taylor was a pioneer of this approach and evaluated jobs to determine the "One Best Way" they could be performed. Taylor dramatically increased worker production and wages in a shoveling task by matching the shovel with the type of material that was being moved (ashes. the number of motions in bricklaying was reduced from 18 to 4. By this approach. At Bethlehem Steel. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth made jobs more efficient and less fatiguing through time motion analysis and standardizing tools. Frederick W.
pushed or pulled . Compressive low back disk force when lifting. World War II prompted greater interest in humanmachine interaction as the efficiency of sophisticated military equipments like airplanes could be compromised by bad or confusing design. the focus of concern expanded to include worker safety as well as productivity. After World War II. Design concepts of fitting the machine to the size of the soldier and logical/understandable control buttons evolved.Perceived maximum load that can be carried. Cardiovascular response when performing heavy labor . Research began in a variety of areas like Muscle force required to perform manual tasks.
ATTEMPTS TO HUMANIZE WORK In the 1960s in Sweden the VOLVO motor car company which was suffering from high absenteeism tried to find new way of assembling cars in an attempt to have more stable and productive work force there the conventional line production was replaced by the unit production The British Quality of working life program in 1980 attempted to combine new approaches job design with technological change under the premise .
MODERN ERGONOMICS There are four domains of ergonomics namely. 1. 3. 4. Hardware Ergonomics Environmental Ergonomics Cognitive Ergonomics Macro ergonomics . 2.
.HARDWARE ERGONOMICS DEALS WITH. body supportive devices match along with context fit and workstation Range of body movement characteristics and thus limitations of man. Control design and location parameters and functional aspects for communication and easy operation Visual displays. codes. scales and markings Anatomical and anthropometric (static &dynamic) match establishment Working posture.
computer simulation Effect of psychological stressors on human performance.Environmental Ergonomics: Human environment interface concerning human capabilities and limitations with respect to the demands imposed by various environmental modalities and relevant Cognitive Ergonomics: Human perception and information processing to reduce error. functional reliability and safety (stereotype behavior) Users' behavioral demands in designing consumer products User-centered interface. and system mismatch to increase usability. etc .
MACRO ERGONOMICS It deals with specific aspects of Workstation design Work process design Work organization Shift work sitting .
Rapid development of usable system a priority in many organizations In developing countries there is still a need for basic ergonomic design of factories and offices The future of ergonomics will be strongly dependent on the ability of Ergonomists to integrate outside our profession with a range of stakeholders These include universities and external funding agencies that will support the education and research programs required to sustain vitality in the profession .FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF ERGONOMICS Technology push is the main factor influencing the directions and growth of ergonomics .
The future for ergonomists will require development of wide-based skills that include strong technical and research competencies This requires a holistic approach to ergonomics to achieve practical outcomes to the benefit of the stakeholders. .
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