Developing Co-operative Universities

ICA Expo, Manchester, 1st November 2012

Dr Rory Ridley-Duff, Sheffield Business School (email Course Leader - MSc Co-operative and Social Enterprise Management Board Member Co-operatives Yorkshire & Humber

A Historical Context
The 1844 Rochdale Principles
1. Open membership. 5. Political / religious neutrality. 2. Democratic control (1 person 1 vote). 6. Cash trading (no credit). 3. Distribute profit in proportion to trade. 7. Promotion of education. 4. Pay limited interest on capital. The Rochdale Pioneers set aside 2.5% for education programmes. This money was paid out after expenses and interest, but before patronage refunds / dividends (Fairburn, 199?; Emmanuel and Cayo, 2007). Richard Bickle (Secretary of UK SCS) claims this would have been higher had the regulator of the day allowed it. Limited to 2.5% to prevent ‘revolutionary education’ movement amongst workers. “In its 1937 review of the Co-operative Principles, the ICA found most of its members continued to allocate funds for education, with such funding varying from 1 to 5 % of net revenue. Unfortunately, today many co-operatives do not allocate adequate resources towards member education. In addition, a number of those that do often limit such expenditures to the education of board members.” (Emmanuel and Cayo, 2007, p. 219)

A Modern Context

1. Education central to co-operative principles at Mondragon (following Owen). 2. Spanish co-operative law requires 10% of net revenues to be invested in social / educational projects (Ridley-Duff and Bull, 2011).

• ‘Accidental’ Study
• Not formally planned, reaction to events and a product of engaged interest by many stakeholders. • Closest to ‘naturalistic inquiry’ (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) using participant observation (Hammersley and Atkinson, 2007). • Notes made ‘in-situ’ and disseminated in discussion documents to stimulate further dialogue.

• Findings/theory based on collection and analysis of qualitative data:
• E-mails, documents, notes taken at meetings / events.

• Analysis / coding of discussions using NVivo (text analysis software).

Our Context
• Internal drivers: Co-operation in the Age of Google (Murray, 2011).
• Recommends a Co-operative Business School (top 10 priority)

• External drivers: education reform white paper makes ‘free universities’ more possible (Juby, 2011)
• Movement members expect additional financial stresses on post1992 universities: increases conversion opportunities.

• UK SCS meeting at Co-op Congress 2011 (Birmingham).
• Further discussion / notes taken at Co-operative and Social Enterprise Summer School (Sheffield)

• Cooperative Education at Cooperative College (Manchester).
• Documents / presentations at UK SCS September 2011 (Cardiff). • Many other (undocumented) meetings.

Emergent Issues
• Initiatives (actions that can be taken)
• Cooperative knowledge / research (books, articles and other reports)
• Cooperative learning and teaching (co-operative andragogy / LTA) • Cooperative curricula (cooperative learning goals / course content) • Cooperative ownership / governance (institution design / management) • Social inclusion (co-operative relations with stakeholders) • Social networks (co-operative partners, members, supporters)

• Orientations (goals that can be pursued)
• Creation (new research centres, institutions, courses etc.) • Transformation (take over institutions and transform them) • Integration (embed initiatives in existing institutions)

Emergent Theory
More radical Action-Orientations
Knowledgebase Creation
• Co-operative research centres New curricula and awards •

More conservative
Critical / applied / action research Redesign curricula and assessment •

Coop articles, books, cases, materials Update courses and content Existing pedagogies Democratise decision-making Existing knowledge transfer

Research Knowledge

Curricula & Awards

Learning & Teaching Coop Ownership and Governance

Develop co-operative andragogy / transformative learning strategies New co-operative business schools / universities Lifelong learning Open membership • Convert to coop ownership / governance Paradigm shifting knowledge transfer projects

Social Capital

Social Inclusion

• •

Support Networks

As context dictates

Group Activity
In Groups of 3 Using the framework on the previous slide, what could you do to advance cooperative values and principles in Higher Education: • Give each person 10 minutes to identify and develop a contribution to embedding cooperative values and principles. Join Two Other Groups • Give each person 2 minutes to summarise the contribution they can (or would like to) make.

Emmanuel, J. and Cayo, L. (2007) Effective Practices in Starting Co-ops, New Rochdale Press. Fairbairn, B. (undated) The Meaning of Rochdale: The Rochdale Pioneers and the Co-operative Principles, Center for the Study of Co-operatives, University of Saskatchew. Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (2007) Ethnography: Principles and Practice (3rd Edition), Abingdon: Tavistock Institute. Juby, P. (2011) A Co-operative University? Presentation to UK SCS Conference, Cardiff University, 3-5th September. Lincoln, Y. and Guba, E. (1985) Naturalistic Inquiry, London: Sage Publications. Murray, R. (2011) Co-operation in the Age of Google (Draft), Report Commissioned by Co-operatives UK. Ridley-Duff, R. J. and Bull, M. (2011) Understanding Social Enterprise: Theory and Practice, London: Sage Publications.