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Developing Co-operative Universities

ICA Expo, Manchester, 1st November 2012

Dr Rory Ridley-Duff, Sheffield Business School (email Course Leader - MSc Co-operative and Social Enterprise Management Board Member Co-operatives Yorkshire & Humber

A Historical Context
The 1844 Rochdale Principles
1. Open membership. 5. Political / religious neutrality. 2. Democratic control (1 person 1 vote). 6. Cash trading (no credit). 3. Distribute profit in proportion to trade. 7. Promotion of education. 4. Pay limited interest on capital. The Rochdale Pioneers set aside 2.5% for education programmes. This money was paid out after expenses and interest, but before patronage refunds / dividends (Fairburn, 199?; Emmanuel and Cayo, 2007). Richard Bickle (Secretary of UK SCS) claims this would have been higher had the regulator of the day allowed it. Limited to 2.5% to prevent revolutionary education movement amongst workers. In its 1937 review of the Co-operative Principles, the ICA found most of its members continued to allocate funds for education, with such funding varying from 1 to 5 % of net revenue. Unfortunately, today many co-operatives do not allocate adequate resources towards member education. In addition, a number of those that do often limit such expenditures to the education of board members. (Emmanuel and Cayo, 2007, p. 219)

A Modern Context

1. Education central to co-operative principles at Mondragon (following Owen). 2. Spanish co-operative law requires 10% of net revenues to be invested in social / educational projects (Ridley-Duff and Bull, 2011).

Accidental Study
Not formally planned, reaction to events and a product of engaged interest by many stakeholders. Closest to naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) using participant observation (Hammersley and Atkinson, 2007). Notes made in-situ and disseminated in discussion documents to stimulate further dialogue.

Findings/theory based on collection and analysis of qualitative data:

E-mails, documents, notes taken at meetings / events.

Analysis / coding of discussions using NVivo (text analysis software).

Our Context
Internal drivers: Co-operation in the Age of Google (Murray, 2011).
Recommends a Co-operative Business School (top 10 priority)

External drivers: education reform white paper makes free universities more possible (Juby, 2011)
Movement members expect additional financial stresses on post1992 universities: increases conversion opportunities.

UK SCS meeting at Co-op Congress 2011 (Birmingham).

Further discussion / notes taken at Co-operative and Social Enterprise Summer School (Sheffield)

Cooperative Education at Cooperative College (Manchester).

Documents / presentations at UK SCS September 2011 (Cardiff). Many other (undocumented) meetings.

Emergent Issues
Initiatives (actions that can be taken)
Cooperative knowledge / research (books, articles and other reports)
Cooperative learning and teaching (co-operative andragogy / LTA) Cooperative curricula (cooperative learning goals / course content) Cooperative ownership / governance (institution design / management) Social inclusion (co-operative relations with stakeholders) Social networks (co-operative partners, members, supporters)

Orientations (goals that can be pursued)

Creation (new research centres, institutions, courses etc.) Transformation (take over institutions and transform them) Integration (embed initiatives in existing institutions)

Emergent Theory
More radical Action-Orientations
Knowledgebase Creation
Co-operative research centres New curricula and awards

More conservative
Critical / applied / action research Redesign curricula and assessment

Coop articles, books, cases, materials Update courses and content Existing pedagogies Democratise decision-making Existing knowledge transfer

Research Knowledge

Curricula & Awards

Learning & Teaching Coop Ownership and Governance

Develop co-operative andragogy / transformative learning strategies New co-operative business schools / universities Lifelong learning Open membership Convert to coop ownership / governance Paradigm shifting knowledge transfer projects

Social Capital

Social Inclusion

Support Networks

As context dictates

Group Activity
In Groups of 3 Using the framework on the previous slide, what could you do to advance cooperative values and principles in Higher Education: Give each person 10 minutes to identify and develop a contribution to embedding cooperative values and principles. Join Two Other Groups Give each person 2 minutes to summarise the contribution they can (or would like to) make.

Emmanuel, J. and Cayo, L. (2007) Effective Practices in Starting Co-ops, New Rochdale Press. Fairbairn, B. (undated) The Meaning of Rochdale: The Rochdale Pioneers and the Co-operative Principles, Center for the Study of Co-operatives, University of Saskatchew. Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (2007) Ethnography: Principles and Practice (3rd Edition), Abingdon: Tavistock Institute. Juby, P. (2011) A Co-operative University? Presentation to UK SCS Conference, Cardiff University, 3-5th September. Lincoln, Y. and Guba, E. (1985) Naturalistic Inquiry, London: Sage Publications. Murray, R. (2011) Co-operation in the Age of Google (Draft), Report Commissioned by Co-operatives UK. Ridley-Duff, R. J. and Bull, M. (2011) Understanding Social Enterprise: Theory and Practice, London: Sage Publications.

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