# The set of real numbers is all numbers that can be written on a

number line. It consists of the set of rational numbers and the set
of irrational numbers.
Irrational numbers Rational numbers
Real Numbers
Integers
Whole
numbers
Recall that rational numbers can be written as the quotient of
two integers (a fraction) or as either terminating or repeating
decimals.
3 = 3.8
4
5
= 0.6
2
3
1.44 = 1.2
A repeating decimal may not appear to repeat on a
calculator, because calculators show a finite number
of digits.
Caution!
Irrational numbers can be written only as decimals that do
not terminate or repeat. They cannot be written as the ratio of
the pair of integers. If a whole number is not a perfect square,
then its square root is an irrational number. For example, 2 is
not a perfect square, so 2 is irrational.
Additional Example 1: Classifying Real Numbers
Write all classifications that apply to each number.
5 is a whole number that is not a
perfect square.
5
irrational, real
–12.75 is a terminating decimal. –12.75
rational, real
16
2
whole, integer, rational, real
= = 2
4
2
16
2
A.
B.
C.
Check It Out! Example 1
Write all classifications that apply to each number.
9
whole, integer, rational, real
–35.9 is a terminating decimal. –35.9
rational, real
81
3
whole, integer, rational, real
= = 3
9
3
81
3
A.
B.
C.
9 = 3
A fraction with a denominator of 0 is undefined because you
cannot divide by zero. So it is not a number at all.
Functions
A function is a relation in which each element
of the domain is paired with exactly one
element of the range. Another way of
saying it is that there is one and only one
output (y) with each input (x).
• (x values cannot be repeated).

f(x)
x
y
Function Notation
Output
Dependent
variable
Input
Independent
variable
Name of
Function
y = f x ( )
Domain: a set of first elements in a relation (all
of the x values). These are also called
the independent variable.
Range: The second elements in a relation
(all of the y values). These are also called
the dependent variable.
• A relation is a rule that produces one or more
• output numbers for every valid input number
• (x and y values may be repeated).
Function

X values are always located
on the right and y values are
on the left.

They can be represented by
words, symbols or numbers.
This represents a function as every input value (x)
has only been used once.
A Relation is a rule that produces one or more
output numbers for every valid input number
(x and y values may be repeated).

This represents only a relation
because the input value or
x-value of 2 was used twice.
Therefore this relation is not a
Function.

All functions are relations but not
all relations are functions!
Determine whether each relation
is a function.
1. {(2, 3), (3, 0), (5, 2), (4, 3)}

YES, every domain is different!
f(x)
2 3
f(x)
3 0
f(x)
5 2
f(x)
4 3
Determine whether the relation is
a function.
2. {(4, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (6, 6), (1, 9)}
f(x)
4 1
f(x)
5 2
f(x)
5 3
f(x)
6 6
f(x)
1 9
NO,
5 is paired with 2 numbers!
Is this relation a function?
{(1,3), (2,3), (3,3)}
1. Yes
2. No
Vertical Line Test (pencil test)
If any vertical line passes through more
than one point of the graph, then that
relation is not a function.
Are these functions?
FUNCTION! FUNCTION! NOPE!
Is this a graph of a function?
1. Yes
2. No
Given f(x) = 3x - 2, find:
1) f(3)

2) f(-2)
3(3)-2 3
7
3(-2)-2
-2 -8
= 7
= -8
Linear Function Definitions
Linear Function= a function that can be
represented by a linear equation.
Linear Equation= an equation that graphs into a
straight line.
Standard Form
Ax + By = C
A, B, and C have to be integers
Example 1
Determine whether the Data in the table
represents a linear function.
• Step 1
Check the rate of change in the time.
The rate of change is constant, every 10
minutes.

• Step 2
Check the rate of change in distance.
This rate of change is NOT constant.

Since the rate of change is NOT constant
for both variables, the data does NOT
represent a linear function.
Use the table to find
the solution
Time
(min)
Distance
biked
(miles)
10 3
20 6
30 10
40 14
50 17
60 19
+10
+10
+10
+10
+10
+3
+4
+4
+3
+2
Review: Make a t-table
If f(x) = 2x + 4, complete a table
using the domain {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2}.
2(-2) + 4 = 0 (-2, 0)
2(-1) + 4 = 2 (-1, 2)
2(0) + 4 = 4 (0, 4)
2(1) + 4 = 6 (1, 6)
2(2) + 4 = 8 (2, 8)
x f(x)
-2
-1
0
1
2
ordered pair
Given the domain {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2},
graph 3x + y = 6
-3(-2) + 6 = 12 (-2, 12)
-3(-1) + 6 = 9 (-1, 9)
-3(0) + 6 = 6 (0, 6)
-3(1) + 6 = 3 (1, 3)
-3(2) + 6 = 0 (2, 0)
x -3x + 6
ordered pair
1. Solve for y: 3x + y = 6
Subtract 3x
- 3x - 3x
y = -3x + 6
2. Make a table
-2
-1
0
1
2
Bonus questions!
What is the x-intercept?
(2, 0)
What is the y-intercept?
(0, 6)
Does the line increase or decrease?
Decrease
5) Given the domain {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2},
graph 3x + y = 6
3. Plot the points
(-2,12), (-1,9), (0,6), (1,3),
(2,0)
4. Connect the points.
3-2 The Slope of a Line
Finding the slope of a line given two points
on the line:
The slope of the line through two distinct points
(x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) is:

Note: Be careful to subtract the y-values and the x-values in the
same order.
Incorrect

1
2 1
2 1
2
( x )

x

y y rise change in y
slope m
run change in x x
x
÷
= =
÷
= = =
2 1 1 2
1 2 2 1

y y y y
or
x x x x
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
3-2 The Slope of a Line
Finding the slope of a line given two points on
the line:
• Example 1) Find the slope of the line through the points
(2,-1) and (-5,3)

2 1
2 1
3 ( 1) 4 4
=
( 5) 2 7 7
y y rise
slope m
run x x
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2) 2x
2
- y = 7
Can you write it in standard form?
NO - it has an exponent!
Not linear
3) x = 12
x + 0y = 12
A = 1, B = 0, C = 12
Linear
Determine whether each equation is
a linear equation.
Here’s the cheat sheet! An equation that is
linear does NOT contain the following:
1. Variables in the denominator

2. Variables with exponents

3. Variables multiplied with other
variables.
xy = 12
3
2 y
x
= ÷
2
3 y x = ÷
Let’s examine exponential functions. They are
different than any of the other types of functions we’ve
studied because the independent variable is in the
exponent.
( )
x
x f 2 =
Let’s look at the graph of
this function by plotting
some points.
x 2
x

3 8
2 4
1 2
0 1
-1 1/2
-2 1/4
-3 1/8
2 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 5 7 3 0 4 6 8

7
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
( )
2
1
2 1
1
= = ÷
÷
f
Recall what a
negative exponent
means:
BASE
( )
x
x f 2 =
( )
x
x f 3 =
Compare the graphs 2
x
, 3
x
, and 4
x
Graph of an Exponential
Function where a > 1 ( )
x
a x f =
What is the
domain of an
exponential
function?
1. Domain is all real numbers
( )
x
x f 4 =
What is the range
of an exponential
function?

2. Range is positive real numbers
What is the x
intercept of these
exponential
functions?

3. There are no x intercepts because
there is no x value that you can put
in the function to make it = 0
What is the y
intercept of these
exponential
functions?

4. The y intercept is always (0,1)
because a
0
= 1
5. The graph is always increasing
Are these
exponential
functions
increasing or
decreasing?

6. The x-axis (where y = 0) is a
horizontal asymptote for x ÷ - ·
Can you see the
horizontal
asymptote for
these functions?

All of the transformations that you
learned apply to all functions, so what
would the graph of
look like?
x
y 2 =
3 2 + =
x
y
up 3
x
y 2 1÷ =
up 1
Reflected over
x axis
1 2
2
÷ =
÷ x
y
down 1 right 2
30
PROPERTIES
? 0
1
0
1
0
=
=
=
a a
a
31
PROPERTIES
a
n
· a
m

a
n+m

a
m
: a
n
≡ a
m-n

(a
m
)
n
≡ a
m·n

n m
n
m
n
n
a a
a
a
=
=
÷
1
Indicate if every raltionship is true or false:
1. 5
3
= 15 T F
2. 2
4
= 16 T F
3. T F
4. (5
3
)
7
= 5
21
T F
5. 0
0
=1 T F
6. 8
3
: 8
3
= 0 T F
7. (7
3
: 7
2
)
0
= 1 T F
8. (14
2
: 7
2
) = (14 : 7)
2
T F
9. (15
3
: 3
3
) = 125 T F
10. (2
4
)
3
: (2
4
)
2
= 16 T F
11. (3
4
)
2
3 = 3
9
T F
12. 2
3
2
5
: 2
2
: 2
8
= 2
-2
T F

20 5 4
5 5 5 = ·
·
·