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# The set of real numbers is all numbers that can be written on a

**number line. It consists of the set of rational numbers and the set
**

of irrational numbers.

Irrational numbers Rational numbers

Real Numbers

Integers

Whole

numbers

Recall that rational numbers can be written as the quotient of

two integers (a fraction) or as either terminating or repeating

decimals.

3 = 3.8

4

5

= 0.6

2

3

1.44 = 1.2

A repeating decimal may not appear to repeat on a

calculator, because calculators show a finite number

of digits.

Caution!

Irrational numbers can be written only as decimals that do

not terminate or repeat. They cannot be written as the ratio of

the pair of integers. If a whole number is not a perfect square,

then its square root is an irrational number. For example, 2 is

not a perfect square, so 2 is irrational.

Additional Example 1: Classifying Real Numbers

Write all classifications that apply to each number.

5 is a whole number that is not a

perfect square.

5

irrational, real

–12.75 is a terminating decimal. –12.75

rational, real

16

2

whole, integer, rational, real

= = 2

4

2

16

2

A.

B.

C.

Check It Out! Example 1

Write all classifications that apply to each number.

9

whole, integer, rational, real

–35.9 is a terminating decimal. –35.9

rational, real

81

3

whole, integer, rational, real

= = 3

9

3

81

3

A.

B.

C.

9 = 3

A fraction with a denominator of 0 is undefined because you

cannot divide by zero. So it is not a number at all.

Functions

A function is a relation in which each element

of the domain is paired with exactly one

element of the range. Another way of

saying it is that there is one and only one

output (y) with each input (x).

• (x values cannot be repeated).

f(x)

x

y

Function Notation

Output

Dependent

variable

Input

Independent

variable

Name of

Function

y = f x ( )

Domain: a set of first elements in a relation (all

of the x values). These are also called

the independent variable.

Range: The second elements in a relation

(all of the y values). These are also called

the dependent variable.

• A relation is a rule that produces one or more

• output numbers for every valid input number

• (x and y values may be repeated).

Function

X values are always located

on the right and y values are

on the left.

They can be represented by

words, symbols or numbers.

This represents a function as every input value (x)

has only been used once.

A Relation is a rule that produces one or more

output numbers for every valid input number

(x and y values may be repeated).

This represents only a relation

because the input value or

x-value of 2 was used twice.

Therefore this relation is not a

Function.

All functions are relations but not

all relations are functions!

Determine whether each relation

is a function.

1. {(2, 3), (3, 0), (5, 2), (4, 3)}

YES, every domain is different!

f(x)

2 3

f(x)

3 0

f(x)

5 2

f(x)

4 3

Determine whether the relation is

a function.

2. {(4, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (6, 6), (1, 9)}

f(x)

4 1

f(x)

5 2

f(x)

5 3

f(x)

6 6

f(x)

1 9

NO,

5 is paired with 2 numbers!

Is this relation a function?

{(1,3), (2,3), (3,3)}

1. Yes

2. No

Answer Now

Vertical Line Test (pencil test)

If any vertical line passes through more

than one point of the graph, then that

relation is not a function.

Are these functions?

FUNCTION! FUNCTION! NOPE!

Is this a graph of a function?

1. Yes

2. No

Answer Now

Given f(x) = 3x - 2, find:

1) f(3)

2) f(-2)

3(3)-2 3

7

3(-2)-2

-2 -8

= 7

= -8

Linear Function Definitions

Linear Function= a function that can be

represented by a linear equation.

Linear Equation= an equation that graphs into a

straight line.

Standard Form

Ax + By = C

A, B, and C have to be integers

Example 1

Determine whether the Data in the table

represents a linear function.

• Step 1

Check the rate of change in the time.

The rate of change is constant, every 10

minutes.

• Step 2

Check the rate of change in distance.

This rate of change is NOT constant.

• The ANSWER –

Since the rate of change is NOT constant

for both variables, the data does NOT

represent a linear function.

Use the table to find

the solution

Time

(min)

Distance

biked

(miles)

10 3

20 6

30 10

40 14

50 17

60 19

+10

+10

+10

+10

+10

+3

+4

+4

+3

+2

Review: Make a t-table

If f(x) = 2x + 4, complete a table

using the domain {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2}.

2(-2) + 4 = 0 (-2, 0)

2(-1) + 4 = 2 (-1, 2)

2(0) + 4 = 4 (0, 4)

2(1) + 4 = 6 (1, 6)

2(2) + 4 = 8 (2, 8)

x f(x)

-2

-1

0

1

2

ordered pair

Given the domain {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2},

graph 3x + y = 6

-3(-2) + 6 = 12 (-2, 12)

-3(-1) + 6 = 9 (-1, 9)

-3(0) + 6 = 6 (0, 6)

-3(1) + 6 = 3 (1, 3)

-3(2) + 6 = 0 (2, 0)

x -3x + 6

ordered pair

1. Solve for y: 3x + y = 6

Subtract 3x

- 3x - 3x

y = -3x + 6

2. Make a table

-2

-1

0

1

2

Bonus questions!

What is the x-intercept?

(2, 0)

What is the y-intercept?

(0, 6)

Does the line increase or decrease?

Decrease

5) Given the domain {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2},

graph 3x + y = 6

3. Plot the points

(-2,12), (-1,9), (0,6), (1,3),

(2,0)

4. Connect the points.

3-2 The Slope of a Line

Finding the slope of a line given two points

on the line:

The slope of the line through two distinct points

(x

1

, y

1

) and (x

2

, y

2

) is:

Note: Be careful to subtract the y-values and the x-values in the

same order.

Incorrect

1

2 1

2 1

2

( x )

x

y y rise change in y

slope m

run change in x x

x

÷

= =

÷

= = =

2 1 1 2

1 2 2 1

y y y y

or

x x x x

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

3-2 The Slope of a Line

Finding the slope of a line given two points on

the line:

• Example 1) Find the slope of the line through the points

(2,-1) and (-5,3)

2 1

2 1

3 ( 1) 4 4

=

( 5) 2 7 7

y y rise

slope m

run x x

÷ ÷ ÷

= = = = = ÷

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

2) 2x

2

- y = 7

Can you write it in standard form?

NO - it has an exponent!

Not linear

3) x = 12

x + 0y = 12

A = 1, B = 0, C = 12

Linear

Determine whether each equation is

a linear equation.

Here’s the cheat sheet! An equation that is

linear does NOT contain the following:

1. Variables in the denominator

2. Variables with exponents

3. Variables multiplied with other

variables.

xy = 12

3

2 y

x

= ÷

2

3 y x = ÷

Let’s examine exponential functions. They are

different than any of the other types of functions we’ve

studied because the independent variable is in the

exponent.

( )

x

x f 2 =

Let’s look at the graph of

this function by plotting

some points.

x 2

x

3 8

2 4

1 2

0 1

-1 1/2

-2 1/4

-3 1/8

2 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 5 7 3 0 4 6 8

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

( )

2

1

2 1

1

= = ÷

÷

f

Recall what a

negative exponent

means:

BASE

( )

x

x f 2 =

( )

x

x f 3 =

Compare the graphs 2

x

, 3

x

, and 4

x

Characteristics about the

Graph of an Exponential

Function where a > 1 ( )

x

a x f =

What is the

domain of an

exponential

function?

1. Domain is all real numbers

( )

x

x f 4 =

What is the range

of an exponential

function?

2. Range is positive real numbers

What is the x

intercept of these

exponential

functions?

3. There are no x intercepts because

there is no x value that you can put

in the function to make it = 0

What is the y

intercept of these

exponential

functions?

4. The y intercept is always (0,1)

because a

0

= 1

5. The graph is always increasing

Are these

exponential

functions

increasing or

decreasing?

6. The x-axis (where y = 0) is a

horizontal asymptote for x ÷ - ·

Can you see the

horizontal

asymptote for

these functions?

All of the transformations that you

learned apply to all functions, so what

would the graph of

look like?

x

y 2 =

3 2 + =

x

y

up 3

x

y 2 1÷ =

up 1

Reflected over

x axis

1 2

2

÷ =

÷ x

y

down 1 right 2

30

PROPERTIES

? 0

1

0

1

0

=

=

=

a a

a

31

PROPERTIES

a

n

· a

m

≡

a

n+m

a

m

: a

n

≡ a

m-n

(a

m

)

n

≡ a

m·n

n m

n

m

n

n

a a

a

a

=

=

÷

1

Indicate if every raltionship is true or false:

1. 5

3

= 15 T F

2. 2

4

= 16 T F

3. T F

4. (5

3

)

7

= 5

21

T F

5. 0

0

=1 T F

6. 8

3

: 8

3

= 0 T F

7. (7

3

: 7

2

)

0

= 1 T F

8. (14

2

: 7

2

) = (14 : 7)

2

T F

9. (15

3

: 3

3

) = 125 T F

10. (2

4

)

3

: (2

4

)

2

= 16 T F

11. (3

4

)

2

3 = 3

9

T F

12. 2

3

2

5

: 2

2

: 2

8

= 2

-2

T F

20 5 4

5 5 5 = ·

·

·