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Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond, Third Edition Security

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Standards and Protocols

Chapter 7
© 2012

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond, Third Edition Security+

Objectives
• Identify the standards involved in establishing an interoperable Internet PKI. • Explain interoperability issues with PKI standards. • Describe how the common Internet protocols implement the PKI standards.

© 2012

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond, Third Edition Security+

Key Terms
• Certificate • • Certificate Authority (CA) • • Certificate Revocation List (CRL) • • Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) • • IPsec
© 2012

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Public key infrastructure (PKI) Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond, Third Edition Security+

Key Terms (continued)
• • • • • Transport Layer Security (TLS) Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) X.509

© 2012

• Public key infrastructures (PKI) are implemented to secure transactions online. Third Edition Security+ Standards and Protocols • Commercial use of the Internet has been one of the biggest growth industries since the 1990s.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. • Three categories of standards associated with PKI: – Standards that define the PKI – Standards that define the interface between applications and the underlying PKI – Other standards © 2012 .

Third Edition Security+ Relationships Between PKI Standards and Protocols © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Third Edition Security+ PKIX Standard and PKCS • Two main standards for implementing PKI. certificate authority (CA). registration authority (RA). • PKIX produced by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.509 standard. and the certificate revocation list (CRLs) • PKCS produced by RSA security. • Both based on X. interactions and operations have four component types: – The user. © 2012 .

Third Edition Security+ The PKIX Model © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

defining the protocols for certificate handling 5. Provides certificate management message formats and protocols. management messages. Includes time-stamping and data certification and validation services © 2012 .509 v3 and the format of version 2.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. defining the data structures. Specifies operational protocols. and management functions for PKIs 3. establishing the relationship between policies and CPSs 4. Outlines certificate extensions and content not covered by X. Outlines certificate policies and certification practices statements (CPSs). Third Edition Security+ PKIX Standard • PKIX working group addresses five major areas: 1.

Third Edition Security+ Attribute Certificates and Qualified Certificates • Attribute Certificate (AC) is used to grant permissions using rule-based. © 2012 . role-based. and rankbased access controls. • Qualified Certificate (QC) is based on European Commission term used to identify certificates with specific legislative uses. – The PKIX QC profile indicates a certificate used to identify a specific individual with a high level of assurance in a nonrepudiation service. – ACs are used to implement a privilege management infrastructure (PMI).Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Third Edition Security+ The PKIX PMI Model © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

© 2012 . • PKCS is composed of 13 active standards and 2 discontinued standards. Third Edition Security+ Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) • Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) fills gaps in standards that existed for implementing PKI.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Third Edition Security+ 15 Public Key Cryptography Standards Standard Title and Description PKCS #1 PKCS #2 PKCS #3 PKCS #4 PKCS #5 PKCS #6 RSA Cryptography Standard: Definition of the RSA encryption standard Incorporated into PKCS #1.509 v3 © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. no longer active Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Standard: Definition of the DiffieHellman key-agreement protocol Incorporated into PKCS #1. no longer active Password-Based Cryptography Standard: Definition of a passwordbased encryption (PBE) method for generating a secret key Extended-Certificate Syntax Standard: Definition of an extended certificate syntax that was made obsolete by X.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. regardless of encryption algorithm Private-Key Information Syntax Standard: Definition of a private key information format. used to store private key information Selected Attribute Types: Definition of attribute types used in other PKCS standards PKCS #8 PKCS #9 PKCS #10 PKCS #11 Certification Request Syntax Standard: Definition of a syntax for certification requests Cryptographic Token Interface Standard: Definition of a technologyindependent programming interface for cryptographic devices © 2012 . Third Edition Security+ 15 Public Key Cryptography Standards (continued) Standard PKCS #7 Title and Description Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard: Definition of the cryptographic message standard for encoded messages.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. certificates. Third Edition Security+ 15 Public Key Cryptography Standards (continued) Standard PKCS #12 Title and Description Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard: Definition of a format for storage and transport of user privates keys. and other personal information Elliptic Curve Cryptography Standard: Description of methods for encrypting and signing messages using elliptic curve cryptography Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard: Definition of the cryptographic message standard for encoded messages. regardless of encryption algorithm Cryptographic Token Information Format Standard: Definition of a format for storing cryptographic information in cryptographic tokens PKCS #13 PKCS #14 PKCS #15 © 2012 .

certificate revocation lists.509 • X.509 standard. Third Edition Security+ X. and Attribute Certificates.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. • Version 3 is the current version of the X. • X.500 standard that addresses the structure of certificates used for authentication. © 2012 .509 specifies standard formats for public key certificates.509 is the portion of the X.

Version 3 = 2 A nonnegative integer assigned by the certificate issuer that must be unique to the certificate. Identification for the entity that signed and issued the certificate. Version 2 = 1. The algorithm identifier for the algorithm used by the CA to sign the certificate.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.509 version used for this certificate: Version 1 = 0. The optional Parameters field is used to provide the cryptographic algorithm parameters used in generating the signature. © 2012 .509 Certificate Components Field Name Certificate Signature Serial Number Signature Algorithm Algorithm Parameters (optional) Issuer Field Description X. This must be a distinguished name within the hierarchy of CAs. Third Edition Security+ X.

Third Edition Security+ X. © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Subject The name for the certificate owner. Optional for versions 2 and 3—a unique bit-string identifier for the subject of the certificate. using a ―not valid before‖ time and a ―not valid after‖ Not valid after time time (expressed in UTC or in a generalized time). Issuer Unique ID Subject Unique ID Optional for versions 2 and 3—a unique bit-string identifier for the CA that issued the certificate. Subject Public Key Info This field consists of an encryption algorithm identifier followed by a bit string for the public key.509 Certificate Components (continued) Validity Validity specifies a period of time during which the certificate Not valid before time is valid.

509 Certificate Components (continued) Extension ID Critical Extension Value Optional for version 3—the extension area consists of a sequence of extension fields containing an extension identifier. a Boolean field indicating whether the extension is critical. and an octet string representing the value of the extension. Extensions can be defined in standards or defined and registered by organizations or communities. Third Edition Security+ X. © 2012 . This field must match the algorithm identified in the Signature Algorithm field. binding the public key to the subject. The signature certifies the contents of the certificate.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Thumbprint Algorithm Parameters (optional) Thumbprint This field identifies the algorithm used by the CA to sign this certificate. The signature is the bit-string hash value obtained when the CA signed the certificate.

© 2012 . Third Edition Security+ Certificates Authorities (CA) • The root CA issues its own certificate. • Certificates can be traced through a path to the root CA.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. • CAs determine what identifier is unique. • Each entity that is issued a certificate must be uniquely identifiable.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) • Provide secure connections between the client and server for exchanging information • Provide authentication and confidentiality of information transfers • Provide data integrity and security over networks by encrypting network connections at the transport layer © 2012 .

• TLS is composed of two parts. – TLS Record Protocol – TLS Handshake Protocol © 2012 . • TLS is superior to SSL since SSL’s use of hashing forces a reliance on MD5 rather than SHA1. Third Edition Security+ SSL/TLS • TLS & SSL are not interchangeable. TLS is the more modern of the two.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

decompressed. Third Edition Security+ TLS Record Protocol • TLS Record protocol send data by: – – – – – Fragmenting message data into manageable blocks Optionally compressing the data Applying a message authentication code (MAC) to the data Encrypting the data Transmitting the results • Received data is decrypted. verified. © 2012 . and reassembled and sent on to the higher-level client.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ TLS Handshake Protocol © 2012 .

establish.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) • Provides a method for implementing a key exchange protocol and for negotiating a security policy • Defines procedures and packet formats to negotiate. modify. and delete security associates © 2012 .

Third Edition Security+ ISAKMP (continued) • ISAKMP supports SAs at all layers of the network stack. • A Security Association (SA) is a relationship in which two or more entities define how they will communicate securely through a two step process: – Entities agree on how to secure messages – Entities determine the SAs for protocols to be used for remainder of communications © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ ISAKMP Header Format © 2012 .

Third Edition Security+ Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) • A protocol to obtain X.509 certificates in a PKI. or web operations. e-mail. © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. including creation of the initial CRL and export of the public key for the CA – Certification of an end-entity • CMP also defines mechanisms for performing these operations. tokens. • Provides the following certificate operations: – CA establishment. either online or offline using files.

registered. Third Edition Security+ The XML Key Management Specification XKMS • Defines services to manage PKI operations within XML • Used for authentication and verification of electronic signatures • Allows certificates to be managed. or revoked • Services accessible via XML protocol. which is often easier to interface with than PKI © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

© 2012 . provides a means for retrieving key information by embedding references to the key within the XML signature. XKMS is actively involved in verifying the relation between the PKI information and the document containing the XML signature. – Tier 2 is called the validate service. XKMS serves as a relay between the client and the PKI. Third Edition Security+ The XML Key Management Specification XKMS (continued) • Functions on three tiers of service: – Tier 0 is the retrieval method.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. – Tier 1 is called the locate service.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ XKMS Tier 0 Retrieval © 2012 .

Third Edition Security+ XKMS Tier 1 Retrieval © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Third Edition Security+ XKMS Tier 2 Locate Service © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

most recent completed in 2004 by IETF and requires: – Requires the use of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) • Frequent changes have made the standard difficult to implement. Third Edition Security+ Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) • Provides a way to send and receive encrypted and signed mime data. • Undergone several revisions. © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ IETF S/MIME v3 Specifications • Includes specifications for all the following: – – – – Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) S/MIME v3 message specification S/MIME v3 certificate-handling specification Enhanced security services (ESS) for S/MIME © 2012 .

– The recipients private key is used to decrypt the message.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) • Program used to encrypt and decrypt e-mails and files • Provides the ability to digitally sign a message • How PGP works – Creator uses encryption program to create a key pair. © 2012 . • Public key designed to give freely to others • Private key designed to be known only be the creator – Messages encrypted by the sender using the recipients public key.

– The algorithm is designed such that only the private key can decrypt the message. – The other key is called the private key and is designed to be known only by the creator. so only the creator will be able to decrypt it.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. – Individuals who want to send a private message to the creator encrypt the message using the creator’s public key. © 2012 . – One key is known as the public key and is designed to be given freely to others. – An individual (here called the creator) uses the encryption program to create a pair of keys. Third Edition Security+ How PGP Works • PGP uses a variation of the standard public key encryption process.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ HTTPS • Uses SSL to secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) communications • Uses TCP port 443 • Supports 40-bit RC4 encryption algorithm and 128-bit encryption © 2012 .

required in IPv6 • Two types of security service: – Transport mode can be used to ensure authentication and confidentiality for data alone. Third Edition Security+ IPsec • Collection of IP security features designed to introduce security at the network layer • Optional in IPv4.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. – Tunnel mode can be used to ensure authentication and confidentiality for both data and header. © 2012 .

and revocation using existing technologies – Uses PKCS #7 and PKCS #10 to define common message syntax © 2012 . distribution.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ Certificate Enrollment Protocol (CEP) • Designed to support certificate issuance.

Third Edition Security+ • Describes various standards for data communication issues. • Issued through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).S. government must comply to relevant FIPS standards.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. © 2012 . • Three main categories of FIPS publications: – Hardware and software standards/guidelines – Data standards/guidelines – Computer security standards/guidelines Federal Information Processing Standards Publications (FIPS) • Products sold to U.

Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ • Provides security for Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) • Implemented due to the limited memory and processing of WAP-enabled phones • Implemented in one of three classes: – Class 1: anonymous authentication – Class 2: server authentication – Class 3: server and client authentication Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) • Class 3 the strongest form of WTLS © 2012 .

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ • It allows the encapsulation of one packet inside another to hide the original packet. • Its use is widespread and it’s easy to configure.

Third Edition Security+ Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) • Used to protect wireless communications from being intercepted • Used to prevent unauthorized access to the wireless network • Part of the original 802.11 standard • WEP 1 supported 64 bit encryption. WEP 2 supports 128 bit encryption • Both WEP 1 and WEP 2 vulnerable to various attack vectors © 2012 .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

– At modern networks speeds it does not take long for initialization vectors to repeat. – The secret key is only 40 bits.11 is common.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. • Some provides use 128-bit WEP but is almost equally vulnerable. and is also quickly breakable. • WEP is an optional security protocol with significant issues: – It uses a 24-bit initialization vector as a seed. © 2012 . – This allows for more than 16 million vectors. Third Edition Security+ WEP Security Issues • Wireless networking with 802.

Third Edition Security+ ISO/IEC 27002 .Determine the impact of risks – Security policy .Formerly ISO 17799 • Standard designed for creating and implementing security policies • Contains material on 12 subject areas: – Risk assessment . change.Policies and procedures addressing security for employees including hire.Inventory and classification of assets – Human resources security .Structure to implement security policy – Asset management . departure © 2012 .Guidance and policy provided by management – Organization of information security Governance .Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.

and maintenance – Information security incident management – Business continuity management – Compliance © 2012 . development.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond.Formerly ISO 17799 (continued) – – – – Physical and environmental security Communications and operations management Access control Information systems acquisition. Third Edition Security+ ISO/IEC 27002 .

• Describe how the common Internet protocols implement the PKI standards. © 2012 . • Explain interoperability issues with PKI standards.Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+® and Beyond. Third Edition Security+ Chapter Summary • Identify the standards involved in establishing an interoperable Internet PKI.