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Introduction
 Motivation is derived from the word motive. Word motive

is derived from a Latin word ‘movere’. It means ‘to move’. Motive is defined as an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and directs (or channels) the behavior of individuals towards certain goals. Motivations represent an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by stating the need.

Meaning
 Motivation can be said to be the consequence of an

interaction between the individual and the situation. Motivation is not an individual trait. Every person differs in this basic motivational drive. People differ by nature, not only in their ability to perform a specific task but also in their will to do so.

 “Motivation is the result of process. that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. activates (or moves) and directs the behavior of individuals towards certain goals”. According to Fred Luthane Definition “Motivation is a process which begins with a physiological or psychological need or deficiency which triggers behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or an incentive.” . internal or external to the individual.”  “Inner state that energies.

Its second characteristic is persistence in the efforts. a higher is selected and efforts are exercised towards this higher goal. Effort: The amount of work put into the activity identifies the strength of the person’s work related behavior. Eg. Eg.Concept of Motivation The concept of motivation has 3 basic Characteristics 1. All the efforts are to be directed to the organizational goals. Hard work usually reflects high motivation. This would ensure that the persistent effort is actually resulting into accepted organizational. Top performer is the one who puts in lot of hard work and efforts. Motivation is continuously goal directed so that once a goal is achieved. 3. . Once a person is promoted to a post of supervisor then his / her next goal would be to achieve Manager’s level. outcomes. Persistence: Motivation is a permanent and an integral part of a human being. 2. Direction: Persistence hard work determines the quantity of effort while direction determines the quality of the anticipated output.

The standard of performance. Praise and credit for the work done. 4. Lead to good team spirit and pride.     . 2. Such motivation improves 1. A sense of cooperation. Delegation of authority and responsibility to the subordinates. And a feeling of belongingness and happiness Following are the some of the positive motivators. And appreciation of an employee contributes towards the organizational goal achievement. A sincere interest in the welfare of the subordinates. 3. Participation of subordinates in the decision making process.Sources of Motivation Positive motivation: Positive motivation involves proper recognition of employee efforts.

Does it change behavior? In context to organizational behavior. fear and threats. Fear of being fired from the job. It may result in poor performance. power. But does punishment and threat really works. no employee likes to be criticized or threatened with employment termination. . This may have a negative impact on the employee morale and may lead to bitterness and hostile state of mind. keeps the workers in line with the organizational rules and regulations . affecting negatively his / her social interaction as well as his / her sense of loyalty. The fear of punishment or unfavorable affects the behavioral changes. Eg. productivity and quality.Sources of Motivation  Negative or fear motivation: This motivation is based upon the use of force.

Money is the most important incentive for positive behavior. Extrinsic Motivation: This type of motivation is induced by Sources that are primarily financial in nature. stock options. paid vacation. It is of Motivation external factors based upon the assumption that the behavior that results in positive rewards tends to be repeated. . health and medical insurance. These include higher pay. However reward for the desired behavior needs to be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it induces the repetition of the assumed or desirable behavior. profit sharing schemes. fringe benefits such as retirement plans. Financial gains have been subject to debate if they really motivate the employees or simply move them to work and perform. sympathetic supervision and people oriented company policies.

responsibility. It is concerned with the state of self-actualization in which the satisfaction of accomplishing something worthwhile motivates the employee. recognition.Sources of Motivation  Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivations are the feelings of achievement and accomplishment. status. This motivation is self generated and is independent of financial rewards. E. Some of the intrinsic motivators are praise. Many Social Service Organization work for the under privileged and for the social concerns. Mother Teresa’s urge to serve poor and the destitute. power. .g. esteem. challenges and decision making responsibility.

Motivation converts potentiality into performance. Innovative and Creative Skills: Motivated employees explore alternative methods of performing a task and they select a better method than the existing method.Importance of Motivation  Identifies potentiality: Motivation identifies employees’     potentiality and also employees’ get to know about his/ own capability and potentiality. Motivation converts motivated employee into committed and loyal employee. High Quality : highly motivated employee has a positive attitude towards quality which in turn results in high quality in production. production and quality. . Employee user their creative and innovation skills and talents for creative ideas to the management. Motivated employee tries to implement new and creative methods to improve the process.

This leads to the development of human resources. knowledge and abilities. Committed employee would avoid wastage and in turn increase higher productivity. .  Human Resource Development: Motivation results in exploring potentialities. maintain sound relations. congenial superior-subordinate relations.Importance of Motivation  Increase in Production: Motivated employees exert all their energies towards their job. This would in turn result in employee efficiency and thereby productivity. This results in increased efficiency and productivity due to utilization of human resource where they are appropriately fit.  Cordial relations: Motivated employees behave positively. development of skills.  Proper utilization of human resource: Motivation identifies human potentialities and channelizes them towards organizational objectives.

. sound relations among colleagues. These in turn lead to unreserved cooperation and collaboration among members of the department and the organization. Human resources make use of all other resources like material. Motivation helps human resources utilize all the other resources to the optimum extent and maximizes productivity. This in turn leads to congenial industrial relations. assets and finance to produce products and services. leads group work and the team spirit.Importance of Motivation  Optimum utilization of other resources: All other resources without human resources can produce nothing.  Builds Congenial industrial relations: Motivation maintains discipline.  Basis for Cooperation: Motivation makes the people to understand each other completely.

. Hence motivation is also a continuous and unending process. motivation is reaction of the organs of the human body to the inducement/incentives offered. The level of satisfaction. attitudes.  Motivation is a Psychological Concept: Motivation is concerned with the psychological aspect of the human beings.Nature of Motivation  Motivation is a continuous process: As we have studied in economics. feelings and perceptions of the individuals. Thus. contentment etc by using the same reward/incentives vary from person to person. human wants are unlimited and even God cannot satisfy human wants. This is due to variations in aspirations.

The entire system of an individual reacts to the motivation.Nature of Motivation  The Entire Individual is motivated: As stated earlier. each individual is an integrated and comprehensive system. Further. motivation is a psychological concept interacting with the total organ of an individual. the entire individual is motivated  Frustrated Individual Fails to be Motivated: Some individuals are frustrated despite of the rewards due to the wide gap between his/her aspirations and rewards. Thus. Some of the frustrated persons become mentally ill and these individuals cannot be motivated. .

Goal achievement results in the satisfaction of want.  The Self-Concept as a unifying Force: Self concepts is the life position of a person that one formulates about ones during childhood.Naturetoof Motivation part of the  Goals Lead Motivation: Goals form a motivational process. And vice a versa is true in case of negative self concept. . Goal fulfillment meads to reduction of drives and fulfils deficiencies. He/she thinks oneself in the same way during his/her life time until and unless a major change takes place in the rest of the life time. Therefore. those who formulated a positive view about themselves during the childhood will be motivated by themselves in the rest of the life time. Thus goal achievement ends the motivation process.

sex and maternal concern. thirst. Primary motives are are unlearned and physiological oriented. The most common primary motives are hunger. Since human beings have a common physiological make-up.Types of Motives  Primary Motives Primary motives are those motives which are physiological or biological. sleep. we all end up having the same primary needs. . clothing.

General motives a significant role in organizational behavior than primary motives. These motives are unlearned but not physiologically based. Therefore. these needs are also called. General motives tent to encourage a person to increase the stimulation. manipulation.Types of Motives  General Motives The motives which can’t be classified as primary or as secondary motives are categorized into general motives. . ‘Stimulus motives’. activity motives and affection motive. General motives include Curiosity.

But secondary motives play pivotal role in organizational behavior. However. Secondary concepts are closely related to learning concepts. Important secondary motives are power. . achievement.Types of Motives  Secondary Motives General motives play a significant role in organizational behavior compared to primary motives. this is not true in case of developing countries like ours. Primary motives do not play significant role in the developed countries. security. affiliation. status.

Thus nature of needs establishes the nature of motivation that results in a specific behavior aimed at reaching the goal of satisfying such needs.The Content Theories of Motivation  The content theories have been developed to explain the nature of motivation in terms of types of need that people experience. . People have certain fundamental needs. both physiological and psychological in nature and accordingly they are motivated to engage in activities that would satisfy these needs. They attempt to focus on factors within a person that initiate and direct a certain type of behavior or check certain other type of behavior.

Douglas McGregor proposed two altogether different views of human beings. . He was a professor of industrial n\management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One View is a negative aspect of human beings called Theory X and the other is basically appositive aspect of human being called as Theory Y.The Content Theories of Motivation  McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor developed a theory X and theory Y.

An average person is lazy. . has little ambition and is only concerned with his own security. They are unwilling to accept the responsibility. 4. prefers to ne directed. 2.The Content Theories of Motivation  McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions of Theory X 1. controlled and threatened with punishment in order to move them to work and achieve organizational goals. They need to be directed. Most people avoid leading and want to be led and supervised. 3. shuns responsibility. Most people or typical people dislikes work and avoid it whenever possible.

The Content Theories of Motivation
 McGregor believed that managers who hold theory X

assumptions are likely to treat workers accordingly. These managers practice an autocratic management style and may use the threat of punishment to induce employee productivity. The communication is primarily directed down wards and the environment is characterized by minimal manager-employee interaction.

The Content Theories of Motivation
Assumption of Theory Y
1. Work is natural to most people and they enjoy the physical and
mental effort involved in working, similar to rest or play. 2. Commitment to goals and objectives of the organization is also natural state of behavior for most individuals. 3. They will exercise self direction and self control in pursuit and achievement of organizational goals. 4. Commitment to goals and objectives is a function of rewards available, especially the rewards of appreciation and recognition. 5. Most people have capacity for innovation and creativity for solving organizational problems. 6. Many individual seek leadership roles in preference to the security of being led.

The Content Theories of Motivation
 Managers who hold Theory Y assumptions threat their

workers as responsible persons and give them more latitude in performing their tasks. Communication is multidimensional and managers interact frequently with employees. These managers encourage innovation and creativity; minimize the use of supervision and controls. Managers redesign the work to make it more interesting and satisfying with regard to higher level needs of workers such as self-esteem and self-actualization. They integrate individual goals and organizational goals so that commitment and dedication, both goals are achieved at the same time.

starting at the bottom with the physiological needs and ascending to the highest needs of self-actualization. According to Maslow. He says when one set of needs are satisfied. they no longer work as motivators as a man seeks to satisfy the next higher level needs.The Content Theories of Motivation B. Maslow’s Model The most popular and important content theories of motivation are the Maslow’s Theory. . Abraham Maslow developed this model of human motivation in 1943. human needs form a hierarchy.

Human beings have many needs that are different in nature ranging from the biological needs at the lower level that is the level of survival. a. to psychological needs at the upper extreme that is the level of growth. Secondly these needs occur in an order of hierarchy so that lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs arise or become motivator. His theory is based upon two assumptions. Bases upon his clinical experience and formulated his theory of hierarchy needs by asking the same question “What is it that makes people behave the way they do?” and made a list of answers from which he developed a pattern. .The Content Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Model Assumption: Abraham Maslow suggested that people have a complex set of exceptional strong needs and the behavior of individuals at a particular moment is usually determined by their strongest needs. b.

The Content Theories of Motivation  Maslow’s Model Needs for SelfActualization Esteem Needs Affiliation or Acceptance Needs Security or saftey Needs Physiologiical Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs .

these needs include basic needs like pay. shelter. severance pay etc. allowance. man does not aim for the satisfaction of the next higher level needs. Maslow says that until these are satisfied to the required level. incentives and benefits. It also involves a sense of protection against threats and danger of losing the job in future. these are basic necessities of human life like food. Security needs spring up the moment he/she makes an effort in the direction of providing himself/herself the source of continuity of physiological needs. Human starts thinking of the way by which he/she can continue to satisfy these physiological needs. Physiological Needs: The physiological needs form the foundation of the hierarchy and tend to have the highest strength in terms of motivation These are primary needs arising out of physiological or biological tension. warmth. plans.The Content Theories of Motivation The need of Hierarchy 1. These needs as far as work organization is concerned include: conformity. sleep and sexual satisfaction. membership in unions. security.  Security/ Safety Needs: Once the physiological needs are gratified. the safety and security needs become predominant. As far as work organization is concerned. . These refer to the need to be free of physical danger or the feeling of loss of food. water. This is exactly the reason why attitude towards security is an important consideration in choosing the job. job or shelter.

Love Needs): When the physiological and security needs are satisfied. These needs for employees include status symbols.The Content Theories of Motivation The need of Hierarchy 4. reputations. We look for an environment where we are understood. Employee would begin to feel that they are useful and have some positive effect on their surrounding environment. We look for association of other human beings and strives hard to be accepted by its group. . friendship. 5. love. a sense of belonging and acceptance becomes prominent in motivating behavior. status and self confidence. prestige. Esteem Needs: The need for esteem is to attain recognition from others that would induce a feeling of self worth and self confidence. promotions.Social Needs (Affiliation or Acceptance. affection. awards. These needs make people aim high and make them achieve something great. respected and wanted. These needs are power. title etc. These needs include the needs for social interaction.

) This is the highest level of need in Maslow’s hierarchy and is activated as motivator. independent. when all the other needs have been reasonably fulfilled. At this level. whatever these capacities and potentialities may be.The Content Theories of Motivation The need of Hierarchy 6. Such persons constantly strive to realize his/her full potential. . (This refers to the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. and spontaneous and has good perception of reality. Self-actualization Needs: This is the highest need in the hierarchy . content.This last need is the need to develop fully and to realize one’s capacities and potentialities to the fullest extent possible. A self-actualized person is creative. the person seeks challenging work assignments that allow for creativity and opportunity for personal growth and advancement.

It also depend on the cultural values and personality of the individuals and their environment. .The Content Theories of Motivation Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Theory In Maslow’s theory the first question arises is “Do needs follow hierarchy?” Studies and survey conducted by experts reveal that needs do follow hierarchy to some extend. But it cannot be generalized in the sense that needs do not necessarily follow the same hierarchy among all people at all times.

Alderfer identifies three groups of needs. 1. . ERG Theory is a refinement of Maslow’s needs Hierarchy. Relatedness. Growth and that is why this Theory is called as ERG Theory. 3. 2.The Content Theories of Motivation c. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer also feels that needs should be categorized and that there is basic distinction between lower orders needs and higher order needs. Existence. Instead of Maslow’s five needs. ERG theory condenses these five needs into three needs.

These needs are roughly comparable to the physiological and safety needs.The Content Theories of Motivation c. . Alderfer’s ERG Theory 1. These needs include sustenance. Relatedness Needs: The relatedness needs talk about the importance of interpersonal and social relationship. shelter and physical and psychological safety from threats to people’s existence and well being. Relatedness needs correspond to social and esteem needs of Maslow’s hierarchy. 2. It involves open communication and honest exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. Existence Needs: The existence needs are concerned with the survival or physiological well being.

Growth Needs: The growth needs are the concerned with the individual’s intrinsic desire for personal development. These are the needs to develop and grow and reach the full potential that a person is capable of reaching.The Content Theories of Motivation c. They are similar to Maslow’s self-actualization needs. Alderfer’s ERG Theory 3. .

Maslow proposes that in the hierarchy of needs. ERG Theory suggests that if a person is frustrated in satisfying his needs at a given level. . he will move back to the lower level needs.Difference between Maslow’s Theory and ERG Theory  ERG Theory differs from Maslow’s theory in proposing that people may be motivated by more than one kind of needs at the same time. a person will satisfy the lower level needs before he/she moves up to the next level of needs and will stay at these until they are satisfied.

Herzberg investigated the question “What do people want from their jobs?” And a survey was conducted by him and his associates. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory Fredrick Herzberg and his associates developed the two factor theory in the late 1950s and early 1960s.The Content Theories of Motivation d. . This theory is also called as motivation-hygiene theory.

. Cordial relations with all will prevent frustration and dissatisfaction. The job security may be in the form of tenure or it could be supported by a strong union. supervisors and subordinates. Salary and other types of employee benefits. All the hygiene factors are designed to avoid damage to efficiency or morale & these are not expected to stimulate positive growth.  Interpersonal relations with peers. the subordinates would not be dissatisfied in this respect. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory  Wages.  Supervisor’s technical competence as well as the quality of his supervision.  Working conditions and job security. If the supervisor is knowledgeable about the work and is patient with the subordinates & guides them well.The Content Theories of Motivation d.  Company policies and administration rules that govern the working environment.

Their morale is high as evidenced by lack of absenteeism and tardiness.The Content Theories of Motivation d. efficiency and higher productivity. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory Motivational Factors These factors are related to the nature of work (job content) and are intrinsic to the job itself. 2. It gives the workers a feeling of worth and self esteem. Thus such recognition is highly motivational. people must like and enjoy their jobs. Some of these factors are: 1. It is human nature to be happy when appreciated. The Job itself: To be motivated. . satisfaction. These factors have a positive influence on morale. They become highly committed to goal achievement and do not mind working till late hours in order to do what is to be done. Recognition: Proper recognition of an employee’s contribution by the management is highly morale boosting.

the more responsible the worker would feel and more motivated he would be. higher responsibilities. It is good feeling to know that you are considered a person of integrity and intelligence to be given a higher responsibility. The goal must be challenging. It is a motivational factor that helps growth. The higher the level of these duties. Job promotion. 5. Growth and Advancement: These factors are inter-related and are positively related to motivation. participation in central decision-making and executive benefits is all signs of growth and advancement and adds to dedication and commitment of employee. requiring initiative and creativity. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory 3. Achievement: A goal achievement gives a great feeling of accomplishment.The Content Theories of Motivation d. 4. . Responsibility: It is an obligation on the part of the employee to carry out the assigned duties satisfactorily.

The Content Theories of Motivation Criticism Fredrick Herzberg’s Two –Factor theory suffers from the following criticisms  This theory is primarily based on the responses of white collar workers (Accountants and Engineers) and do not necessarily reflect blue collar workers opinion who may consider hygiene factors as motivational factors.  This procedure is limited by its methodology.  The conclusion of this theory is related to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.  Some studies have found that the effects of hygiene factors are motivational factors as they are highly motivated by financial rewards. .  This theory does not take into consideration individual differences in values and outlook as well as the individual’s age and organizational level. therefore it is not a theory on motivation.

The Content Theories of Motivation McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory The Achievement Motivation Theory provides a final content theory of motivation. which he believes to be rooted in culture. The theory has been advocated by David C. In late 1940’s they began to study three needs that motivate human behavior that is Power. Affiliation and achievement. David McClelland’s theory is also a content model of motivation. McClelland believes that each person has a need for all the three (as well as for others) but that people differ in the degree to which the various needs motivate their behavior. McClelland and his associates. .

They are also interested in providing status rewards to their followers. McClelland’s study led him accept the fact that individuals with strong affiliation motive end to establish and maintain intimate personal relationships. For this purpose they compete to reach or achieve a certain standard of excellence or make a unique contribution which will speak of their achievement.  Affiliation Motive: Human beings being a social animal like to interact with other people and experience the feeling of belongingness and togetherness. experience the feeling of intimacy and understanding and also lend their hand to others in trouble.The Content Theories of Motivation McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory  Achievement Motive: McClelland research led him to believe that human beings distinctly posses the need or desire to achieve something. McClelland found that persons with high power needs display a great concern for exercising influence and control. .  Power Motive: The ability to induce or influence other’s behavior is called power.

This will provide information that will enable them to modify or correct their performance.Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)  McClelland and his associates used Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)to measure the strength of a person’s achievement motivation. This test recommends following steps to be followed.  Give employee periodic feedback on performance.  Let it be known that managers who have been successful are those who are higher in power motives rather than affiliation motives.  Provide good role models for achievement. Help employees to modify their self images and seek job challenges and responsibilities accordingly.  Arrange tasks so that employees call pursue moderate challenges and responsibilities.  AS much as possible. They should be trained. employees should be able to control their own destiny and imagination. to think realistically and positively about how they will accomplish goals. Avoid tasks that are either extremely difficult or extremely easy. The Content Theories of Motivation . Employees who are “heroes” should be available for others to emulate. however. Help employees to set realistic goals aspired by them and also help them to attain it.

A Combination of the Content Theories Maslow Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Relatedness Hygiene Factors Need for Affiliation Alderfer Herzberg McClelland Growth Motivators Need for Achievement .

Such as why people have different needs at different times. whereas the process theories are more concerned with the cognitive aspects which go into motivation and how they are related one another. Content theories explain the dynamics of employee’s needs. by identifying employees needs we can discover what motivates that person. .PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Content Theories of motivation attempted at identifying what motivates people at the work. Process Theories describe and try to analyze how personal factors (within the individual) interact and influence each other to produce certain kinds of behavior.

. In more practical terms. motivation of any individual. and that reward will satisfy the employees’ personal goals. depends on the desired goal and the strength of his expectation of achieving the goal. a salary increase.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom felt that content models were inadequate explanations of the complex process of work motivation and he developed a relatively new theory of motivation. Assumption According to Vroom’ theory. expectancy theory says that employees will be motivated to exert a high level of efforts when they believe that efforts will be motivated to a good performance appraisal. or a promotion. that good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as bonus.

(e. amount of absenteeism). Vroom has referred to the result of behavior associated with doing the job itself as first level outcomes. level of performance. Instrumentality and expectancy. Vroom built this theory based on three concepts – Valence. 2. Therefore this approach is also called the VIE Theory.g.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 1. The second level outcomes are said to be the rewards (either positive or negative) the first level out comes are likely to produce. . quality of work. Rewards-personal goals relationships: The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards to the individual. Effort-performance relationship: The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. 3. Performance-reward relationship: The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.  This theory focuses on three relationships.

. Outcomes having a negative valence are things that are wants to avoid. or being discharged for drunken behavior at work place. An outcome is positive when it is preferred and negative when it is not preferred or to be avoided. such as being laid off. performing meaningful work. Valence can have values ranging from negative to positive. being passed over for promotion. Outcomes having positive valence include being respected by friends and co-workers. An outcome has a valence of 0 when an individual is indifferent about it. having job security and earning enough money to support self and his/her family.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Valence Vroom says that valence is the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome.

Meenal will not be accepted by her work group. and has values ranging from -1 to +1. For instance Meenal wants to be accepted as a member of her work group. when there is no relationship between the individual’s performance on a test and either passing or failing the course. for which a certain acceptable level of performance is to be met. So Meenal will ensure that her performance will not violate the group’s norms. the instrumentality would be ‘0’. . A value of ‘-1’ implies that the attainment of a second level outcome is inversely related to the achievement of the first level outcome. the chance of him achieving the second level outcome (Clearing the exams with distinction) approaches ‘+1’. When a student receives a A+ grade in the final exams.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Instrumentality This refers to the relationship between first level outcome and second level outcomes. Similarly. A value of ‘+1’ indicates that the first level outcome is positively related to the second level outcome. If the norm is not adhered to.

. Expectancy can be restated as follows: Effort-to-Performance (E P). 3. Expectancy is a probability (ranging from 0 to 1) or strength of a belief that a particular action or effort will leave a particular first level outcome. Rewards-personal goals relationship: The degree to which organization rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individuals. 2.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Expectancy The belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance is called expectancy. Effort-performance relationship: The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. 1. Performance-reward relationship: The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.

.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The Porter-Lawler Theory (or Model) Lyman W. But there is complex relationship between motivation. Lawler made an attempt to refine and extend Vroom’s model to try to understand the relationship between satisfaction and performance. Porter and Edward E. satisfaction and performance. They opined that motivation is not equal to satisfaction or performance.

The individual will exert greater effort if he perceives that there a greater probability that his effort will lead to the reward. he must be motivated.  An employee must have an accurate knowledge of the requirement of the job. Following are the key-variables in this model 1 Effort: Effort does not directly lead to specific levels of performance. .  If an employee wants to perform. So motivation is seen as force on the employee to expect effort.  Motivation alone does not ensure performance and hence a person must have the necessary abilities and skills as well.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The Porter-Lawler Theory (or Model)  According to them performance is a function of three important factors. Effort is only the amount of energy of the attractiveness of the reward and how he perceives a relationship between effort and pay-off.

Performance: Effort alone is not enough. organization etc. motivation and achievement result in satisfaction or dissatisfaction of an employee about the job. promotions and status are offered by the organization. 3. . Intrinsic reward will be a feeling of accomplishment. If an individual feels that he should have received more for what he had done. Thus. Extrinsic rewards like pay. 4. as performance results only when the effort is continued with the ability.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 2. it results in dissatisfaction and vice versa. Satisfaction: Satisfaction depends on the perceived rewards and the actual rewards. Reward: A person gets intrinsic reward himself by performing a task well. Effort and performance cannot be taken to be the same.

PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The Porter-Lawler Theory (or Model) Evaluation This approach has made a significant contribution which has led to better understanding of work motivation and the relationship between performance and satisfaction. Because of its complexity. . In spite of this. this approach has proved to be difficult approach in helping management to arrive at a more relevant and practical approach. there are certain limitations. this theory is very complex. Though more application oriented.

This theory argues that major input into job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity (or inequity) that people perceive in their work situation. Like any other theory. the equity theory is also known as the “Social Comparison” theory and “inequity” theory .PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Adam’s Equity Theory of Work Motivation Credit of developing this theory goes to J. Stacy Adams. Inequity occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his or her outcomes to inputs and the ratio of other’s relevant outcome to inputs are unequal.

 Individuals tend to compare their situations to those of others to determine the equity of an exchange.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Adam’s Equity Theory of Work Motivation  Assumption  Adam’s equity theory focuses on an individual’s feelings on how fairly he or she is treated in comparison with others. It works on two assumptions  People evaluate their interpersonal relationships just as exchange process in which they (the individual) make contributions and expect certain results. .

Comparison other is also called relevant other. .  Outcomes: Pay.  Comparison other: Any group or individual used by a person as a referent regarding inputs and outcomes.  Inputs: Characteristics which individuals bring with them to the job: Education. promotions and fringe benefits received from a job. This cognition may not be similar to someone else’s observation of the ratio’s or the same as the actual situation. experience and like. The ratio is based upon the how a person perceives what he is giving (inputs) and what he is receiving (inputs) versus the ratio of what the relevant other is giving (inputs) and receiving (outcomes). These are subjectively perceived by the person. These are also subjectively perceived by the person.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Adam’s Equity Theory of Work Motivation  Four terms are important in the theory :  Person: The individual for whom equity or inequity exists. skills.

People may mentally distort their own inputs and outputs to achieve a more favorable balance.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Inequity Reduction According to the equity theory. Then in order to reduce a perceived inequity. People may either leave or shift to another department in the hope to find favorable balance     . Individuals may either increase or decrease their inputs to what they consider to be an equitable level. they may act in the one or more of the following ways. People may change their outcomes to restore equity. when employees perceive inequity it results in causing tension within an individual and among individuals.

People may attempt to distort the inputs or outcomes of the others. Person may perceive inequity He/she may experience tension She/he seeks to reduce the tensions being experienced Individual finally acts in a way to reduce the tension . He/She seeks to reduce the tensions being experienced He/she may experience tension Individual finally acts in a way to reduce the tension Person may perceive inequity.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Inequity Reduction  People may move to a new reference group so as to reduce the      source of the inequity.

PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION .

PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION .