VAN DE GRAaFF GENERATOR CAPACITORS DIELECTRICS

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 Van de graaff generator  Capacitors  dielectrics

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Principle of VAN DE GRAAFF GEN CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING O

PRINCIPLE OF VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR
It is based on the following two electrostatic phenomena : 1. The electric discharge takes place in air or gases readily at pointed conductors. 2. If a hollow conductor is in contact with an other conductor, then as charge is supplied to the conductor, the hollow conductor accepting the charge irrespective of the fact, howsoever large

Van De Graaff Generator consists of a large hollow metallic sphere S mounted on two insulating columns CC’ as shown in the diagram. An endless belt of an insulating material is made to run on two pulleys P1 and P2 with the help of an electric motor.

VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR

belt. When the spray comb is maintained at high positive potential with the help of E.H.T. source(≈10 4 V ), it produces ions in the vicinity. The positive ions get sprayed on the belt due to the repulsive action of comb C1 , which are carried upward by the moving belt. A comb C2 , called collecting comb is positioned near the upper end of the belt, such that the pointed ends touch belt and the other end is in contact with the inner surface of the metallic sphere S. The comb C2 collects the positive ions and transfers them to the metallic sphere. The charge

on taking place continuously and its potential rises considerably with the increase of charge on the sphere, its leakage due to ionisation of surroundings air also becomes faster. The maximum potential to which the sphere can be raised is reached, when the rate of loss of charge due to leakage becomes equal to the rate at which charge is transferred to the sphere. To prevent the leakage of the charge from the sphere, the generator is completely enclosed inside an earth connected steel tank, which is filled

deutrons, etc. are generated in the discharge tube D. With lower end earthed and upper end inside the hollow sphere, they get accelerated in downward direction along the length of the tube. At the other end, they come to heat the target with large kinetic energy and bring about nuclear disintegration. This machine can generate high energy beams in the range of 10 MeV or so.

Click the topic which you want to see. Definition and advantage of capacito

Principle of capacitors TYPES OF CAPACITORS Grouping or combination of capacitor capacito Energy stored in a charged capacitor

CAPACITORS: A capacitor is a
device for storing a large quantity of electric charge.

Advantage of capacitors over conductors:
A conductor can store a small amount of charge and hence it possesses a small

charge, two (or more) conductors are arranged to form a capacitor. Thus, a capacitor possesses a large capacitance to store charge and that too in a small space.

To understand the principle of a capacitor, consider an insulated plate A. Suppose that it is given positive charge ,till its potential becomes maximum. The metal plate will not

A SYSTEM OF CONDUCTORS FORMS A CAPACITOR

plate A, it will leak to the surroundings. Now, place other metallic plate B near plate A. Due to induction, negative charge will induced on the nearer face of plate B and positive charges on its farther face as shown in diagram. The potential of plate A gets lowered due to induced negative charge on plate B and a bit raised due to the induced of positive charge. Since some metal plates have finite thickness, induced negative charge is nearer to plate A then the induced positive charge on plate B is. Therefore, on the whole,

be given to plate A. It indicates that the capacitance of a conductor increases by a small amount, when another uncharged conductor is placed near it. Now, connect the metal plate B to the earth as shown in diagram. The induced positive charge on plate B will immediately flow to the earth as it is repelled by positive charge on plate A. However, the induced CAPACITOR

negative charge on plate B will stay on it. It does not flow to earth as it is attracted by positive charge on plate A. Thus, the metal plate B will have only negative charge after being connected to earth. Due to the induced negative charge on plate B, the potential of A will get lowered by a large amount. In order to raise the metal plate A again to the same potential, a large amount of charge has to be given to it. Thus, it follows that the capacitance of a conductor gets increased greatly when an earth

conductor is placed near it. It forms the capacitor an such a arrangement of two metal plates is called a capacitor. An arrangement of two metallic conductors, so that when one conductor is connected to the earth; the other conductor has the ability to store a large amount of charge on it, is called a capacitor.

TYPES OF CAPACITORS

 PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR  SPHERICAL CAPACITOR  CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR (Click which you want to see)

 In a parallel plate capacitor, the

fringing of electric field takes place near the edges of the two plates. In

PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR

 Electric field between two coatings of a spherical capacitor is not uniform.  The smaller the difference between the radii of the

SPHERICAL CAPACITOR

A cylindrical capacitor consists of two coaxial cylindrical shells, such that one shell is earthed and another shell is used to store charge on it. The two cylindrical

CYLINDRICAL CAPACITOR

CAPACITORS CAPACITORS

IN IN

SERIES PARALLEL

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In series combination of capacitors,
Charge on each capacitor is same. Potential difference across a capacitor is

Capacitor in series

The reciprocal of the resultant (equivalent) capacitance of the series combination of a number of capacitors is equal to the sum of reciprocal capacitances of individual capacitors. 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 ( where, C = resultant capacitance and C1,C2,C3 = capacitance

In parallel combination of capacitors,
 Potential difference across each capacitor is same.  Charge on a capacitor is proportional to its capacitance.  The equivalent capacitance is greater

Capacitor in parallel

The resultant (equivalent) capacitance of the parallel combination of a number of capacitors is equal to the sum of capacitances of individual capacitors.

C = C1 + C2 + C3
( where, C = resultant capacitance and C1,C2,C3 = capacitance of individual capacitors)

 The work done in charging a capacitor is stored in the capacitor in the form of electric energy.  The energy stored in a charged capacitor resides inside it in the form of electric field.  When two charged capacitors are connected to each other, they share charges till they acquire a common potential. On sharing charges, there is always some loss of energy . However, total charge of system remains conserved.

Energy stored in a charged capacitor is given by

U = ½ qV
capacitor,

( where, U = energy stored in the

q = charge on the plate of capacitor and V = potential of capacitor )

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Definition of dielectrics Types of dielectrics Polarisation Dielectric constant Dielectric strength

DIELECTRICS: The insulators

which do not conduct electricity but on applying electric field, induced charges are produced on its faces. Such an insulator is called dielectric. The valence electrons in atoms of a dielectric are tightly bound to their nuclei and ordinarily cannot detach themselves.

Types of dielectrics
 Non - polar dielectrics  Polar dielectrics
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A dielectric, in the atoms or molecules of which, the centers of gravity of positive or negative charge coincide, is called a non – polar dielectric.

NON–POLAR DIELECTRIC

A dielectric, in the atoms or molecules of which, the centers of gravity of positive or negative charge do not coincide, is called a polar dielectric.

DIELECTRIC

POLAR

The stretching of dielectric atoms due to displacement of charges in the atoms under the action of applied electric field is called poarisation.

POLARISATIO N

The ratio of the strength of the applied electric field to the strength of the reduced value of the electric field on placing the dielectric between the plates of the capacitor is called the dielectric constant of the dielectric medium. It is also known as relative or specific induced capacity and is denoted by K or Er. Therefore, dielectric medium constant of a dielectric medium is given by K = E0/E (K>1)

The dielectric strength of a dielectric is defined as the maximum value of electric field ( or potential gradient ) that can be applied to the dielectric without its electric break down. The unit of dielectric strength is same as that of electric field i.e. Vm-1. However the practical unit of dielectric strength is kVmm-1.