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Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications

Presented by Sanjay Shirke Muhammad Umer

The Hexapod - A Brief History of Design

1800s Mathematician Augustine Cauchy studies rigidity of polygons 1947 Dr. Eric Gough applies the parallel kinematic platform to a tire testing machine developed working under Dunlop. 1962 Klaus Cappel develops vibration equipment for Franklin Institute. 1965 Stewart platform developed for aircraft simulation. 1995 Frauhofer Institute in Stuttgart, Germany approaches Physik Instrumente to develop the surgical robot.

March 18, 2003

Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

Shirke/Umer

The Hexapod - A Brief History of Design

(a)

(b)

Fig.1. 1949-2000 (a)The original Dunlop tire testing machine invented by Eric Gough, (b) The modern tire testing machine.
March 18, 2003
Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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The Hexapod - A Brief History of Design


(a)

(b)
Fig.2. 1965 -1970 (a)The original Stewart Platform for aircraft simulation, (b)

later incorporating the design of an octahedral hexapod.


March 18, 2003
Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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The Hexapod - A Brief History of Design

Fig.3. 6 DOF motion achieved through 6 strut linear actuators. The resulting rapid,
submicron multi-axis translation and rotation makes the hexapod ideal for precision surgical applications.
March 18, 2003
Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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The Hexapod - A Brief History of Design


Universal Joints - offer 2 rotational DoF

Linear Hydraulic Actuators offer 2 DoF: 1 translation and 1 rotation

Source: Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers

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Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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Hexapods Engineering and Kinematic Principles


Mobility The Kutzbach Criterion: M 6(n 1) ci
i 1 j

n = 12 (struts) + 1(base) + 1(platform) = 14


Quantity 6 6 6 Occurrences Base: Yoke 1/ Yoke 2 Universal Joint Strut Lower end (Y2) / Strut upper end (Y3) Strut Upper end (Y3) / Platform Universal Joint (Y4) Constraints 4 4 4 # DoF 2 2 2 Description RR TR RR

c = 3 x 6 x 4 = 72

M = 6(14 1) 72 = 6 DoF
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Hexapods Engineering and Kinematic Principles


Range of Motion and Resolution
Models Travel X [mm] Travel Y [mm] Travel Z [mm] Travel ThetaX/Theta-Y [] Travel Theta-Z [] Actuator stroke [mm] Resolution X/Y [m] Resolution Z [m] M-800.11 35 35 14 M-800.12 64 59 26

8 25 13 1 0.5

20 45 25 2 1

Resolution ThetaX/ThetaY/Theta-Z [arcsec]

1.4

Fig 4. The Physik Instrumente M-800.11


March 18, 2003
Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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Hexapods Engineering and Kinematic Principles


Design Criteria Minimize mass and inertia for maximum speed and acceleration. Strut Operation linear hydraulic actuators Joint Design Universal or Ball and Socket Integrity tested with CAD, FEA, and laser vibrometery tools.
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Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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Is the Hexapod really worth it?


advantages Complete range of motion. High precision and accuracy Computer visualization tools High stiffness High load/weight ratio limitations Friction Length of struts Dynamic thermal growth Calibration

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Development of Surgical Applications


Hexapod vs. Nonapod

Extra legs contain redundant sensors Insures against failure of standard measuring system Reliability increase is of the essence

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The future of Parallel Kinematics


Minimize Friction, hysteresis, and backlash Improve material composition to limit thermal growth Actuators A future in the voice coil? Currently, applications are limited to endoscopy.

Incorporate use of scissors, forceps, balloon catheters and coagulation probes. Endorse the use of a cockpit to create a virtual surgery environment Expand to the fields of orthopedics, ear/nose/throat surgery, and ophthalmology.
Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

March 18, 2003

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Bibliography and References


Avallone, E.A., Baumeister III, T., Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers 10th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996 Hale, Layon C., Principles and Techniques for Designing Precsion Machines, UCRL-LR-133066, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1999. Smith, S.T., Chetwynd, D.G., Foundations of Ultraprecision Mechanism Design, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Switzerland, 1992. Low-Inertia Parallel-Kinematics Systems for Submicron Alignment and Handling (http://www.parallemic.org/Reviews/Review012.html) Why Hexapods and Parallel Kinematics? (http://www.hexapods.net/hexapod.htm)

March 18, 2003

Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

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Bibliography and References


Six DOF Hexapod: Challenge of Design and Innovation (http://biotsavart.tripod.com/hexapod.htm) Surgeon Navigates from Operating Cockpit (http://www.hoise.com/vmw/articles/LV-VM-05-98-17.html) History of the Universal Joint (http://www.driveshafts.com/ujoint.html) M-850 Hexapod 6-Axis Parallel Kinematics Robot (http://www.physikinstrumente.com/micropositioningsystems/8_4. html)

March 18, 2003

Hexapod Structures in Surgical Applications ME 250 - Precision Mechanism Design

Shirke/Umer