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Present Perfect/Perfective Form
S + HAVE / HAS + V-en (past participle) I have received the parcel He has heard the news
1) Perfect/Perfective indicates, first of all, ANTERIOR TIME; - the time of the event is anterior to some time or reference / orientation
ET ← RT
Perfect/Perfective Meaning I have already met your sister The flight was cancelled after we had paid for the tickets If you had listened to me. we would have avoided mistakes By next week. they will have completed their contract I may have left the key at the office (last night) I am sorry to have missed the plan She regrets having abandoned the plan .
other elements of the sentence (adverbials expressing time) . RT.tense . is signalled by .Perfect/Perfective Meaning The time of orientation / of reference.context .
Perfect/Perfective Meaning The common factor of meaning brought by PERFECT/PERFECTIVE to all these examples is ANTERIORITY to a RT I have already met your sister RT = ST (now) Axis of present have met (the meeting happened before now) .
Perfect/Perfective Meaning The flight was cancelled after we had paid for the tickets ST (now) Axis of present RT = then (RT← ST) Axis of past had paid (then = the moment of cancelling) .
you would have avoided the mistakes RT = ST (now) Axis of the present if …had listened (hypothetical event) ( = If you had listened to me before now…) .Perfect/Perfective Meaning If you had listened to me.
they will have completed their contract ST (now) Axis of present RT = then Axis of future will have completed RT → ST . next week) .Perfect/Perfective Meaning By next week.
Perfect/Perfective Meaning I may have left the key at the office RT = ST = now Axis of present may have left may has a present time orientation .
Perfect/Perfective Meaning I am sorry to have missed the concert Axis of present RT = ST = now (am) to have missed .
Perfect/Perfective Meaning I was sorry to have missed the train ST (now) Axis of present Axis of past RT = then (= was) (RT ← ST) to have missed .
Perfect/Perfective Meaning She regrets having abandoned the plan RT = ST = now Axis of present (regrets) having abandoned .
The Present Perfect/Perfective Meaning • Present perfect/perfective and past tense share the same time “territory” • Present perfect/perfective differs from the simple past in relating a PAST event to a PRESENT reference time: RT = ST Where did you put my purse? (1) Where have you put my purse? (2) .
whereas in (2) (2)He SEEMS to concentrate on the purse’s present whereabouts (RT = ST) .The Present Perfect/Perfective Meaning Both utterances may have the purpose to find the purse. but: (1)The speaker SEEMS to ask the addressee to remember a past action (RT ←ST).
Present Perfect / Perfective -USES 1. Compare That house was empty for ages .the house is still empty. STATE leading up to the present That house has been empty for ages Have you known my sister for long? The state continues at least up to the present moment .you still know (meet/date) my sister .
.USES 2. Indefinite EVENTS leading up to the present Have you (ever) been to Florence? All our children have had measles.PP.
Habit in a period leading up to the present Mr Terry has sung in this choir ever since he was a boy The province has suffered from disastrous floods throughout its history .USES 3.PP.
Representation of meanings ST (now) (a) state meaning (b) (indefinite) event meaning (c) habitual meaning .
particularly in BrE.Connotations of a single event in an indefinite past (meaning 2) There are three implications/connotations. in reference to a single event that happened in an indefinite past: 1) The relevant time zone leads up to the present 2) The event is recent 3) The result of the action still obtains at ST .
at ST. the exhibition is finished] .Connotations of a single event in an indefinite past (meaning 2) 1) The speakers chooses present perfect / perfective (not past tense) if he has in mind an implicit time zone which has not yet finished Have you seen the Javanese Art Exhibition? [yet] (the exhibition is still open) Did you see the Javanese Art Exhibition? [when it was there – now.
The connotation of recency makes B’s response absurd in A: “Has the postman left any letters?” B: “Yes. he did six months ago” .Connotations of a single event in an indefinite past (meaning 2) 2) (recent events) PP is often used to report a piece of news Have you heard the news? / Did you hear the news? The president has resigned.
Connotations of a single event in an indefinite past (meaning 2) 3) The results of a past action still obtains at ST in the case of dynamic conclusive verbs (whose meaning implies the accomplishment of a change of state) The apples have all been eaten There are no apple left] My mother has recovered from her the illness [She is better now] .
g.Connotations of a single event in an indefinite past (meaning 2) Have any of the visitors arrived? [Are any of the visitors here?] These connotations are closely connected to each other (e. result with recency) .
Some other uses of Present Perfect/Perfective 1) In conditional sentences type I John will go home [if his wife has cooked dinner] 2) In an adverbial clause of time We’ll ring you as soon as he has come back from work Usual mistake *We’ll ring you as soon as he will come back .
Some other uses of Present Perfect/Perfective 3) the verb be can be used in the present tense form with a present perfect meaning when it expresses time It’s ages since I last went dancing It’s five years now since they moved out of the old house 4) When we ask about the origins of things we use past tense Who wrote this song? .
Adverbials associated with Present Perfect/Perfective just recently already yet since for up to now so far etc. .
.American English In AE. past tense is often preferred Did the children come home yet? I just came back You told me already I’m tired. I had a long day. for these variants of indefinite past (these connotations).
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE FORM HAVE/HAS BEEN + V-ing have been reading has been crying .
sit… . lie.1) Limited duration of a happening leading up to the present We’ve been living here for five years The difference between PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE USES We’ve been living here for five years and We’ve lived here for five years is not felt at all by some speakers Some other verbs: stand.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE USES 2) the continuation of a happening to the ST or recent past (it is the context that disambiguates the interpretation) It’s been snowing for a couple of days What have you been doing all day? .
this is no possible with present perfect *I’ve cleaned the windows. but I haven’t finished them yet. .PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE USES 3) to express a past recent happening which does not necessarily have a present result (it is not finished) I’ve been cleaning the windows. but they are not finished yet However.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE USES 4) a past recent happening which has visible effects at ST You’ve been fighting again [I can tell that from your black eye] It’s been snowing [I can see the white ground] Have you been crying? [your eyes are red] .
(Meaning: That's how I have spent my time. (Meaning: My homework is completed now.) • Present perfect Progressive Emphasis on duration (how somebody has spent his time) I have been doing my homework.1) • Present Perfect (Simple) Emphasis on completion (at ST. the action it is completed) I have done my homework.) Some comparative uses of Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive . It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.
) Present Perfect Progressive: unwanted side effects A: “Why are you so wet?” B : ”I have been washing the car.Some comparative uses of Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive 2) Present Perfect (Simple) : desired result I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean now.” (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.) .
only for 10 minutes.Some comparative uses of Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive 3) Present Perfect (Simple): since the last time I haven't played that game for years (Meaning: It's years ago that I last played that game. (Meaning: It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game. / I have been playing the game only for ten minutes / I began playing … ten minutes ago) .) Present Perfect Progr: since the beginning I haven't been playing that game for an hour.
(Meaning: This situation is only temporary.) .Some comparative uses of Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive 4) Present perfect (Simple): permanent James has lived in this town for 10 years (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of this town. Maybe he is an exchange student and only here for one or two years.) Present Perfect Progr: temporary James has been living here for a year.
Some comparative uses of Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive Signal words: 1) Present Perfect (Simple) how often how many (times) 2) Present Perfect Progressive how long since for .
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