PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE

INTRODUCTION
 PTS must be, in our minds, associated with ST
 RT = ST; ET = RT (as a fact, or as a possibility) – the

event is valid at ST
I understand the situation (the event of understanding is simultaneous with ST/now)

I smoke cigars (the event of smoking is only possible at ST, it is not a fact - I am not smoking cigars now, but I could)

FORM  There are two forms the verb can take to express PTS: 1) V (the base form – taken from the dictionary) for I. you. we. they I sing you sing we sing they sing .

for all the other persons.FORM 2) V-s: for he. either singular or plural. she. the PTS is marked by a single inflection for the 3rd person singular (-S). it he singS she singS it rainS Conclusion: in English. the base form (V) is used .

INTERROGATIVE I know who you are >>> You know who I am >>> He knowS who she is … Do I know who you are? Do you know who I am? DoES he knowØ who she is? DoES she knowØ Russian? DoES it snowØ every week in this town? .DO SUPPORT  To negate and ask questions in the SP. DO SUPPORT is needed.

DO SUPPORT Where do you come from? What doES he studyØ? [The priest] comes here every Sunday >>> [Who] comes here every Sunday? *Who does come here … .

DO SUPPORT NEGATIVE I do not / don’t smoke You do not / don’t believe me He / She does not / doesn’t smoke cigars It does not / doesn’t rain heavily in autumn .

DO SUPPORT NEGATIVE-INTERROGATIVE Don’t I speak German well? Don’t you eat fruit? Doesn’t he sing beautifully? .

fills.a voiced consonant: b.k.PRONUNCIATION OF –S INFLECTION /Z/ when -S is preceded by .p. ∫.g. mixes /S/ /IZ/ . pushes. dreams .a voiceless consonant: f.v robs. passes.r. kicks. manages.t laughs.m.d. claps when –S is preceded by a sibilant: s. z. sees when –S is preceded by .l. dз loses. t∫.a vowel: goes.n. lets. begs.

SPELLING OF V-s FORM 1) V + (-es) -o -s -x . goes misses mixes catches pushes .sh : when the verb ends in does.ch .

SPELLING OF V-s FORM 2) Y → ie when y is preceded by a consonant cry → cries try → tries dry → dries but play → plays say → says .

this existence/state of affairs is allowed to stretch into the past and into the future My house stands on that hill . .it is a ‘present’ state of affairs. even though the house has been standing (past)on that hill for many years and will stand (future) there for an indefinite period in the future.something/a state of affairs has existence at ST .USES General meaning .

USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 1) STATE PRESENT with stative senses there is no reference to a specific time a) General timeless statements / ‘eternal truths (proverbs. definitions.) The sun sets in the west Honesty is the best policy Five and four make nine b) Geographical statements The Danube is longest river in Romania His land lies along the coast - . or mathematical statements etc. scientific .

USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 1) STATE PRESENT c) states whose time span is to a greater or lesser degree restricted Bill is tall Everybody likes music He knows Russian I do not believe in hard work She lives in New York .

(like states) a timeless interpretation .USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 2) HABITUAL PRESENT Activity/Process/Dynamic verbs used with the simple present imply: . ST included . repeated over a period of time (mentioned or implied).(usually) the presence of a frequency adverbial (to specify the frequency) .reference to a whole sequence of events.

USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 2) HABITUAL PRESENT Examples Peter goes to Moscow every two weeks She usually drinks coffee I smoke cigars NOTE Jimmy goes to the seaside is incomplete because there is no adverb to express the frequency of the event .

occasionally. regularly. generally. every …. sometimes … . usually. weekly. often. frequently. monthly. yearly.USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 2) HABITUAL PRESENT Adverbs of frequency daily. commonly. repeatedly. normally. seldom.

USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 3) INSTANTENEOUS PRESENT . dip it into the batter. passes to Borcea… who shoots and it’s a goal! b) Demonstrations. and lower it into hot fat .a single action which happens in a moment at ST (the action begins and ends at ST.it has no duration >>> nondurative verbs) a) Sport commentaries Danciulescu receives the ball. instructions (and other self-commentaries) I pick up the fruit with a skewer. explanations.used with activity/process/dynamic verbs .

USES – MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT TENSE WITH REFERENCE TO PRESENT TIME 3) INSTANTENEOUS PRESENT c) In special exclamatory sentences (with initial adverb) Here comes the bus! There speaks another clever guy! d) Performatives (the event described by the simple present verb is performed during the speech event) I apologize I advise you not to go I resign I name this ship Queen Victoria I deny your charge .

present .REPRESENTATION OF THE THREE CENTRAL USES OF SP WITH RESPECT TO ST ST [now] X X X X state present habitual pres instant.

it describes the past as if it is happening now .it conveys dramatic immediacy of an eye-witness account . up comes Ben and slaps me on the back as if we’re life-long friends…” .it is used in popular narrative style .SPECIAL NONPRESENT USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE 1) PAST REFERENCE  a) The Historic Present “I couldn’t believe it! Just as we arrived.

understand.SPECIAL NONPRESENT USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE 1) PAST REFERENCE b) With verbs of communication: tell. and learn Eight o’clock news says it’s going to be cold John tells me you’re getting a new car I hear your sister had an accident It is also possible to say I’ve heard your sister…. say. I heard your sister… . hear.

Dostoevsky draws/drew his characters from sources deep in the Russian soil Brahms is/was the last great representative of German classicism . it still ‘speaks’ to us at ST .the meaning conveyed is that the past can remain alive in the present. and their works In The Brothers Karamazov. etc. artists.SPECIAL NONPRESENT USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE 1) PAST REFERENCE The Book of Genesis speaks of the terrible fate of Sodom and Gomorrah The suggestion is that although the book was written thousands of years ago. this explains the possibility to use SP in sentences referring to writers.

SPECIAL NONPRESENT USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE 1) PAST REFERENCE c) In newspaper headlines .to report recent events Perry loses the presidential plot Berlusconi resigns Ship sinks in midnight collision Milton defends the liberty of the press .

to suggest that: the event is seen as an assured fact the event is unalterably fixed in advance Next Christmas falls on Monday Tomorrow is Sunday The plane leaves for London at four o’clock tonight b) In dependent/subordinate clauses Conditional clauses (type I) You’ll have the money back if you accept my offer - .SPECIAL NONPRESENT USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE 2) FUTURE REFERENCE a) In Main Clauses. with time-position adverbials.

in temporal clauses I’ll sign it when you come back I’ll let you know as soon as I hear from her .SPECIAL NONPRESENT USES OF THE PRESENT TENSE 2) FUTURE REFERENCE .

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