Frequency Hopping In GSM Network

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Frequency Hopping In GSM Network

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Planning and Optimization of FH in Gsm
- Frequency Hopping
- Frequency Hopping
- Frequency Hopping - GSM
- LTE Capacity Monitoring_V2
- Passive Intermodulation
- Frequency Hopping
- Frequency Hopping
- Huawei Call Reestablishment in 3G
- Fresnel Zone
- Frequency Hopping
- Frequency Hopping
- Frequency Hopping
- Frequency Hopping
- frequency hopping
- Atoll 2.8.3 RF Technical Reference Guide E2
- Umts Cell Selection and Reselection
- Cross Layer Optimization
- 5 Intermodulation
- Intermodulation Measurements

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in

GSM Networks

Outlin e

Summary

Implementation Aspects

Implementation Aspects Key Differences Between Baseband and Synthesizer FH Baseband FH Synthesizer FH Logical Logical

Channel 1 2 3 4 RF1 RF2 RF3 RF4

Frame N 0 Frame N 1 Frame N 2 Frame N 3

Channel 1 2 3 4

Mobiles use Synthesizer Hopping only BS implementation: power down, synthesizer re-tuning and power up again within guard period 2 Synthesizers are implemented

TX Antenna RF1 RF2 RF3 BB1 BB2 BB3 TX Antenna RF1..n RF1..n BB1 BB2 Hybrid Combing

Filter Combining

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

RF1..n

RF1..n

BB3

BB4

RF4

BB4

Wide band Higher insertion losses (~3 dB/stage On-air combining possible (DUCOM)

Software Release: BR 3.7 or higher

Cell Synchronization:up to 2/2/2 BS 6x/2x up to 8/8/8 BS 24x No. of Hopping Frequencies: max. 16 per cell (BFH incl. BCCH) max. 15 per cell (SFH w/o BCCH) max. 64 per cell with BR 6.0

(BR 4.0)

Baseband hopping

Narrowband RFcombining sufficient One TRX per hopping frequency required!

Synthesizer hopping

BCCH TRX except for TS0 may hop BCCH TRX must not hop

Wideband Repeaters: Usable for SFH and BFH Careful implementation (amplification of signals in the whole frequency band)

Channel selective Repeaters: Usable for BFH Number of frequencies is limited Usually not usable in tight reuse scenarios

Focus on SFH planning and hopping TCH - carriers BCCH - carrier assignment: planning with tool is always recommended Planning must be adjusted to each individual network

Common Band

total operator bandwidth 8.6 MHz = 43 carriers

43 carriers for both BCCH and TCH

Dedicated Band

15 BCCH carriers 28 TCH carriers

90%@FER2% 5 hopping frequencies PC on, DTX on Dedicated Band 59.7% Common Band 54.3% MRP

[%]

71.8%

15 BCCH carriers

TCH 2 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 1 TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3

Tool

TCH 2 TCH 3

TCH 1

TCH 3

Fixed reuse scheme to all hopping cells possible reuses: 3/9, 2/6, 1/3, 1/1

BCCH 1 BCCH 4 BCCH 3 BCCH 2

Reliability

Neighbor Measurements BSIC Decoding BCCH Frequency active at all timeslots in the downlink

BCCH 13 BCCH 11

TCH A

TCH A

TCH A

2, 5, 8, 11, ...

TCH A

TCH B

TCH B

TCH C

3, 6, 9, 12, ...

TCH C TCH B

MAIO Sector 1

With a deliberately MAIO assignment and identical HSN assignment to sectors you can avoid adjacent-channel interference between the sectors within one site

Sector 2

Sector 3 Min # RF

1

0 6

3

2 12

5

4 18

...

...

TCH 2 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3

Each sector within a site uses a different Frequency Group No co-channel collisions between sectors of a site Synchronisation between the sectors and MAIO management avoid adjacent channel collisions

TCH 1

TCH 3

TCH uses each frequency only part of the time (e.g. 50%) 50% fractional load

All sectors same frequency group Identical HSN to sectors of one site MAIO assignment to avoid co- and adjacent channel

interference

MAIO Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Min # RF TRX1 0 2 4 6 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 6 8 10 12 12 14 16 18 18 20 22 24 ... ... ... ...

TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

Each sector within a site uses the same frequency group Synchronisation between the sectors and MAIO management required to avoid co-channel collisions

TCH

Homogeneous network:

MAI = (FN + MAIO) modulo N

MAI ... Mobile Allocation Index FN ... TDMA Frame Number 647) MAIO ... Mobile Allocation Index Offset N ... Number of allocated frequencies if HSN = 0 (cyclic hopping) (integer 1...N-1) (0... 26*51*2048-1 = 2 715 (0 ... N -1)

set of ARFCN numbers to be used in the hopping

sequence

MA = 1,4,7,10,13,16,19,21,24,27,30,33,36,39,41

1. burst FN = 0: 2. burst FN = 1: MAI = (0 + 0) mod 15 = 0 MAI = (1 + 0) mod 15 = 1 ARFCN = 1 ARFCN = 4 ARFCN = ARFCN = 1 ARFCN = 4

N=15

14. burst FN = 14: MAI = (14 + 0) mod 15 = 14 41 15. burst FN = 15: MAI = (15 + 0) mod 15 = 0 16. burst FN = 16: MAI = (16 + 0) mod 15 = 1 etc...

hopping)

with:

if HSN 0 (random

S = M S = (M + T) modulo N

M = M modulo [2^Integer(log2(N)+1)] T = T3 modulo [2^Integer(log2(N)+1)]

if M < N else

T1R, T2, T3 ... Different Time Parameter RNTABLE ... Table of 114 Integer numbers

Frequency Planning Example for MAIO Frequency group 1x1 reuse / Random Hopping (1, 2, 10, 7, . . . ) Management (I)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

BCCH

MAIO = 0 MAIO = 6 MAIO = 12

10

11

12

13 14 15

16

17

18

TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3

1 7 13

2 8 14

10 16 4

7 ... ...

...

BCCH TRX0 TRX0 BCCH

...

... ...

14

2 8

6

12 18

5

11 17

MAIO = 4

TRX1

TRX1 MAIO = 2

TRX2 MAIO = 8 TRX3 MAIO = 14

3

9 15

4

10 16

12

18 6

9

... ...

...

BCCH TRX0 TRX0 BCCH TRX1 MAIO = 2 TRX2 MAIO = 8 TRX3 MAIO = 14

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16

17

18

MAIO = 16 TRX3

min # RF = number of hopping TRX (example 9 frequencies) Avoid Adjacent - channel collision: only odd or even RF numbers on air at same time

Minimum total number of frequencies for hopping system with MAIO - Management = 2* number of hopping TRX of site

(18 frequencies in example)

Frequency group: A: 1 4 7 10 13 16 B: 2 5 8 11 14 17 C: 3 6 9 12 15 18

TRX0

TRX1 TRX2 TRX3

TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f A MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 2 BCCH BCCH f C MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 0 f C MAIO = 2 f A MAIO = 2 f A MAIO = 4 TRX0 BCCH TRX0 TRX1 HSN = 3 TRX2 TRX3 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 BCCH f B MAIO = 1 f B MAIO = 3 f B MAIO = 5 BCCH f C MAIO = 0 f C MAIO = 2 TRX0 TRX1 HSN = 2 TRX2 TRX2 f B MAIO = 3 TRX0 TRX1 BCCH f B MAIO = 1 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f A MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 2 TRX2 TRX1 HSN = 1 TRX2 f B MAIO = 3 TRX1 f B MAIO = 1 TRX0 TRX0 BCCH

Automatized Planning Routines Variety of Planning Algorithms Global / Local Parameter Settings

Minimisation of interference

Frequency Assignment

Evaluation of the assignments C/I and FER plots C/I and FER analysis on per carrier basis

Frequency Planning Tools The SIEMENS Advanced Automatic Frequency Planning Efficient algorithms for different optimization targets: Tool

Minimizing global interference ...

Frequency hopping

Power Control

C/I FER

Discontinuous transmission

Very good results in European research program COST 259 benchmarks in quality of result at short execution times (typically seconds to minutes) High performance proved in live networks with different customers

Frequency Planning Tools Consideration of Radio Link Control Optionsgains and Automatic consideration of hopping

interference reduction due to PC and DTX on cell basis during

interference matrix calculation optimum assignment of frequencies by using highly efficient optimisation algorithms

on FER

FH Gains as determined via Real Network Simulations

50%

NH 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 8 Ch

Frequency Assignment Frequency Reuse & C/I values (Non Required no. of frequencies Hopping)

Cluster size / Reuse distance: q = SQRT(3*N) C/I rule of thump: C/I abs 1,5 * N2

N 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 18 20 Anzahl f 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 36 45 54 60 q 2,45 3,00 3,46 3,87 4,24 4,58 4,90 5,20 5,48 6,00 6,71 7,35 7,75 C/I [dB] 7,78 11,30 13,80 15,74 17,32 18,66 19,82 20,85 21,76 23,34 25,28 26,87 27,78

Graphical FER analysis of an SFH network

FER in %

3%

FER in %

3%

Network Example:

3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4

11 Sites 33 Cells

6 cells 2 TRX 12 cells 3 TRX 15 cells 4 TRX 33 TRX BCCH 75 TRX TCH

4 4 4

4

3

4

3

4 3 3

4

4 4 2

3 3

2 3 2

4

2

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Network Example: Planned Reuse channels (II) 11 Sites Given Spectrum: 42

33 Cells

6 cells 2 TRX 12 cells 3 TRX 15 cells 4 TRX

12 frequencies for BCCH - TRX 30 frequencies for TCH - TRX (hopping) 4 5 30/4 = 7.5 frequencies per cell in 30/5 = 6 frequencies per cell in

6

average

30/6 = 5

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Network Example: Planned Reuse (III) 11 Sites

33 Cells

6 cells 2 TRX 12 cells 3 TRX 15 cells 4 TRX

2/3

No. of TRX

6/4 4/6

4/6 3/4 4/ 3

1 Hopping TRX 3 4/6 6/4 frequencies 2 Hopping TRX 4 frequencies Frequency Reuse Factor: 3 Hopping TRX 6 156 / 33 = 4.7 frequ. / cell in average frequencies 30 frequ. / 4.7 frequ. per cell = 6.3

3/4

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Separations Planned Reuse (IV) for hopping TCH:

Intra cell separation: Intra site separation: Neighbour separation: 3 1 1

Interference Matrix for hopping TCH: co-channel: C/I curve 7 dB (50% probability) adjacent channel: C/I curve -6 dB (50% probability)

MAIO and HSN: HSN = 0 for all cells (cyclic hopping) MAIO = 0 for TRX1 (TRX0 = BCCH) MAIO = 1 for TRX2 MAIO = 2 for TRX3 etc.

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Example for a site Planned Reuse (IV)

Sector TRX BCCH 1 0 2 1 1 2 0 4 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 0 9 3 1 3 2 1 0 12 1 1 1 2 2 0 8 2 1 f1 19 13 13 13 15 15 22 22 16 f2 36 18 18 18 23 23 26 26 19 f3 41 21 21 21 27 27 34 34 28 25 25 25 32 32 40 40 30 30 30 42 42 42 f4 f5 f6 MAIO 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 HSN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0002

etc....

Frequency Planning Strategies Cyclic Hopping Principle of Cyclic Hopping Random Hopping

Cyclic hopping sequence {... f4, f0, f1, f2, f3, f4, f0, f1, f2, f3 ...}, MAIO 0 Cyclic hopping sequence {... f1, f2, f3, f4, f0, f1, f2, f3, f4, f5 ...}, MAIO 2

TDMA frame F r e q u e n c y f0 f1 f2 f3 f4

Optimum frequency Diversity Sufficient Interference diversity by avoiding frequency groups No Interference diversity using frequency groups

Random hopping sequence {... f1, f4, f2, f0, f0, f3, f0, f1, f2, f4, ...}, MAIO 0 Random hopping sequence {... f3, f1, f4, f2, f2, f1, f2, f3, f4, f1, ...}, MAIO 2

TDMA frame F r e q u e n c y

f0

f1 f2 f3 f4

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