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Frequency Hopping

in

GSM Networks

Outlin e
Summary

Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks

Implementation Aspects Frequency Assignment in FH Networks

Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks

Implementation Aspects

Implementation Aspects Key Differences Between Baseband and Synthesizer FH Baseband FH Synthesizer FH Logical Logical
Channel 1 2 3 4 RF1 RF2 RF3 RF4
Frame N 0 Frame N 1 Frame N 2 Frame N 3

Channel 1 2 3 4

BB1 BB2 BB3 BB4

RF1..n RF1..n RF1..n RF1..n

BB1 BB2 BB3 BB4

Mobiles use Synthesizer Hopping only BS implementation: power down, synthesizer re-tuning and power up again within guard period 2 Synthesizers are implemented

Implementation Aspects Combining Equipment in Synthesizer FH Baseband and Synthesizer FH Baseband FH


TX Antenna RF1 RF2 RF3 BB1 BB2 BB3 TX Antenna RF1..n RF1..n BB1 BB2 Hybrid Combing

Filter Combining

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

RF1..n
RF1..n

BB3
BB4

RF4

BB4

Narrow Band Low insertion loss (3-4 dB)

Wide band Higher insertion losses (~3 dB/stage On-air combining possible (DUCOM)

Implementation Aspects Hardware and Software for Synthesized Frequency Hopping


Software Release: BR 3.7 or higher
Cell Synchronization:up to 2/2/2 BS 6x/2x up to 8/8/8 BS 24x No. of Hopping Frequencies: max. 16 per cell (BFH incl. BCCH) max. 15 per cell (SFH w/o BCCH) max. 64 per cell with BR 6.0

BS11: SFH only

(BR 4.0)

Implementation Aspects Key Differences Between Baseband and Synthesizer FH


Baseband hopping
Narrowband RFcombining sufficient One TRX per hopping frequency required!

Synthesizer hopping

Wideband RF combining required

More hopping frequencies than TRXs feasible

No. of RF = No. of TRX No. of RF > No. of TRX

BCCH TRX except for TS0 may hop BCCH TRX must not hop

Wideband Repeaters: Usable for SFH and BFH Careful implementation (amplification of signals in the whole frequency band)

Implementation Aspects Hardware Requirements: Repeater

Channel selective Repeaters: Usable for BFH Number of frequencies is limited Usually not usable in tight reuse scenarios

Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks

Frequency Assignment in Hopping Networks

Frequency Planning Process Frequency Assignment


Guideline for RF-planners


Focus on SFH planning and hopping TCH - carriers BCCH - carrier assignment: planning with tool is always recommended Planning must be adjusted to each individual network

Frequency Planning Common Band - Dedicated Band Multiple Re-Use Patterns


Common Band
total operator bandwidth 8.6 MHz = 43 carriers

Achievable System Load


43 carriers for both BCCH and TCH

Dedicated Band
15 BCCH carriers 28 TCH carriers

90%@FER2% 5 hopping frequencies PC on, DTX on Dedicated Band 59.7% Common Band 54.3% MRP
[%]

71.8%

Multiple Re-use Patterns (MRP)

15 BCCH carriers

12 TCH + 9 TCH + 7 TCH carriers

Frequency Planning Frequency groups supported planning


TCH 2 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 1 TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3

Tool

TCH 2 TCH 3

TCH 1

TCH 3

Fixed reuse scheme to all hopping cells possible reuses: 3/9, 2/6, 1/3, 1/1

Tool supported frequency assignment based on interference matrix considering FH gains

Frequency Planning Planning of BCCH


BCCH 1 BCCH 4 BCCH 3 BCCH 2

Reliability
Neighbor Measurements BSIC Decoding BCCH Frequency active at all timeslots in the downlink

BCCH 7 BCCH 6 BCCH 5

BCCH 10 BCCH 9 BCCH 8

BCCH 13 BCCH 11

BCCH e.g. 4 x 12 Reuse

Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (I) Cluster 1/3


TCH A
TCH A

TCH A

Channel 1, 4, 7, 10, ...


2, 5, 8, 11, ...

TCH A TCH C TCH B TCH C TCH C TCH B TCH A

TCH A

TCH B

TCH B

TCH A TCH C TCH B TCH C TCH B

TCH C

3, 6, 9, 12, ...
TCH C TCH B

Co-channel interference is avoided by the frequency groups

MAIO Sector 1

TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 ... 0 2 4 ...

With a deliberately MAIO assignment and identical HSN assignment to sectors you can avoid adjacent-channel interference between the sectors within one site

Sector 2
Sector 3 Min # RF

1
0 6

3
2 12

5
4 18

...
...

Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (II)


TCH 2 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3

Each sector within a site uses a different Frequency Group No co-channel collisions between sectors of a site Synchronisation between the sectors and MAIO management avoid adjacent channel collisions

TCH 1

TCH 3

TCH uses each frequency only part of the time (e.g. 50%) 50% fractional load

Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (III) Cluster 1/1


All sectors same frequency group Identical HSN to sectors of one site MAIO assignment to avoid co- and adjacent channel
interference
MAIO Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Min # RF TRX1 0 2 4 6 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 6 8 10 12 12 14 16 18 18 20 22 24 ... ... ... ...

Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (IV)


TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

Each sector within a site uses the same frequency group Synchronisation between the sectors and MAIO management required to avoid co-channel collisions

TCH

Homogeneous network:

Frequency Planning Hopping Sequence Generation GSM 05.02. (I)


MAI = (FN + MAIO) modulo N
MAI ... Mobile Allocation Index FN ... TDMA Frame Number 647) MAIO ... Mobile Allocation Index Offset N ... Number of allocated frequencies if HSN = 0 (cyclic hopping) (integer 1...N-1) (0... 26*51*2048-1 = 2 715 (0 ... N -1)
set of ARFCN numbers to be used in the hopping

For example: (MAIO=0)

sequence

MA = 1,4,7,10,13,16,19,21,24,27,30,33,36,39,41
1. burst FN = 0: 2. burst FN = 1: MAI = (0 + 0) mod 15 = 0 MAI = (1 + 0) mod 15 = 1 ARFCN = 1 ARFCN = 4 ARFCN = ARFCN = 1 ARFCN = 4

N=15

14. burst FN = 14: MAI = (14 + 0) mod 15 = 14 41 15. burst FN = 15: MAI = (15 + 0) mod 15 = 0 16. burst FN = 16: MAI = (16 + 0) mod 15 = 1 etc...

MAI = (S + MAIO) modulo N


hopping)
with:

Frequency Planning Hopping Sequence Generation (II)


if HSN 0 (random

S = M S = (M + T) modulo N
M = M modulo [2^Integer(log2(N)+1)] T = T3 modulo [2^Integer(log2(N)+1)]

if M < N else

M = T2 + RNTABLE((HSN xor T1R)+T3)


T1R, T2, T3 ... Different Time Parameter RNTABLE ... Table of 114 Integer numbers

Frequency Planning Example for MAIO Frequency group 1x1 reuse / Random Hopping (1, 2, 10, 7, . . . ) Management (I)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
BCCH
MAIO = 0 MAIO = 6 MAIO = 12

10

11

12

13 14 15

16

17

18

Time (TDMA - frame)


TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3

1 7 13

2 8 14

10 16 4

7 ... ...

...

Time (TDMA frame)


BCCH TRX0 TRX0 BCCH

Time (TDMA - frame)

...
... ...

14
2 8

6
12 18

5
11 17

MAIO = 4

TRX1

TRX1 MAIO = 2
TRX2 MAIO = 8 TRX3 MAIO = 14

3
9 15

4
10 16

12
18 6

9
... ...

...

MAIO = 10 TRX2 MAIO = 16 TRX3

Frequency group 1x1 reuse / Random Hopping (1, 2, 10, 7, . . . )


BCCH TRX0 TRX0 BCCH TRX1 MAIO = 2 TRX2 MAIO = 8 TRX3 MAIO = 14

Frequency Planning Example for MAIO Management (II)


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3

BCCH MAIO = 0 MAIO = 6 MAIO = 12

16

17

18

MAIO = 4 TRX1 MAIO = 10 TRX2

Avoid Co - channel collision:

MAIO = 16 TRX3

min # RF = number of hopping TRX (example 9 frequencies) Avoid Adjacent - channel collision: only odd or even RF numbers on air at same time

Minimum total number of frequencies for hopping system with MAIO - Management = 2* number of hopping TRX of site
(18 frequencies in example)

Frequency group: A: 1 4 7 10 13 16 B: 2 5 8 11 14 17 C: 3 6 9 12 15 18
TRX0
TRX1 TRX2 TRX3

Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups and MAIO - Assignment


TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f A MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 2 BCCH BCCH f C MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 0 f C MAIO = 2 f A MAIO = 2 f A MAIO = 4 TRX0 BCCH TRX0 TRX1 HSN = 3 TRX2 TRX3 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 BCCH f B MAIO = 1 f B MAIO = 3 f B MAIO = 5 BCCH f C MAIO = 0 f C MAIO = 2 TRX0 TRX1 HSN = 2 TRX2 TRX2 f B MAIO = 3 TRX0 TRX1 BCCH f B MAIO = 1 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f A MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 2 TRX2 TRX1 HSN = 1 TRX2 f B MAIO = 3 TRX1 f B MAIO = 1 TRX0 TRX0 BCCH

f C MAIO = 0 f C MAIO = 2 f C MAIO = 4

Frequency Planning Tools The Automatic Frequency Planning Process


Automatized Planning Routines Variety of Planning Algorithms Global / Local Parameter Settings

Input data from radio network planning tool

Minimisation of interference

Frequency Assignment

Evaluation of the assignments C/I and FER plots C/I and FER analysis on per carrier basis

Consideration of FH, PC, DTX

Setting of planning constraints Common / Dedicated Band Planning

Frequency Planning Tools The SIEMENS Advanced Automatic Frequency Planning Efficient algorithms for different optimization targets: Tool
Minimizing global interference ...

Minimizing worst interfering cell relations

Features for advanced network planning strategies


Frequency hopping

Power Control

Graphical evaluation of frequency assignments based on


C/I FER

Discontinuous transmission

Very good results in European research program COST 259 benchmarks in quality of result at short execution times (typically seconds to minutes) High performance proved in live networks with different customers

Frequency Planning Tools Consideration of Radio Link Control Optionsgains and Automatic consideration of hopping
interference reduction due to PC and DTX on cell basis during

interference matrix calculation optimum assignment of frequencies by using highly efficient optimisation algorithms

Graphical evaluation of the assignment results based

on FER

Frequency Planning Tools Required C/I in FH-GSM (TU3), Cyclic Hopping


FH Gains as determined via Real Network Simulations
50%
NH 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 8 Ch

Shift: 6.5 dB 13.5 dB Gain: up to 7 dB

Frequency Assignment Frequency Reuse & C/I values (Non Required no. of frequencies Hopping)
Cluster size / Reuse distance: q = SQRT(3*N) C/I rule of thump: C/I abs 1,5 * N2
N 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 18 20 Anzahl f 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 36 45 54 60 q 2,45 3,00 3,46 3,87 4,24 4,58 4,90 5,20 5,48 6,00 6,71 7,35 7,75 C/I [dB] 7,78 11,30 13,80 15,74 17,32 18,66 19,82 20,85 21,76 23,34 25,28 26,87 27,78

Frequency Planning Tools Analyses of FER


Graphical FER analysis of an SFH network
FER in %
3%

FER in %
3%

<3% <2% < 1%

<3% <2% < 1%

1x3 reuse, 0,3 fractional load

1x3 reuse, 0,6 fractional load

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported PlannedofReuse (I) No. TRX


Network Example:

3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4

11 Sites 33 Cells
6 cells 2 TRX 12 cells 3 TRX 15 cells 4 TRX 33 TRX BCCH 75 TRX TCH

4 4 4

4
3

4
3

4 3 3

4
4 4 2

3 3
2 3 2

4
2

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Network Example: Planned Reuse channels (II) 11 Sites Given Spectrum: 42
33 Cells
6 cells 2 TRX 12 cells 3 TRX 15 cells 4 TRX

12 frequencies for BCCH - TRX 30 frequencies for TCH - TRX (hopping) 4 5 30/4 = 7.5 frequencies per cell in 30/5 = 6 frequencies per cell in

Reuse of: average average

6
average

30/6 = 5

frequencies per cell in

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Network Example: Planned Reuse (III) 11 Sites
33 Cells
6 cells 2 TRX 12 cells 3 TRX 15 cells 4 TRX

No. of assigned frequencie s for FH

2/3

No. of TRX

6/4 4/6

4/6 3/4 4/ 3

Planning Rule: (example)

1 Hopping TRX 3 4/6 6/4 frequencies 2 Hopping TRX 4 frequencies Frequency Reuse Factor: 3 Hopping TRX 6 156 / 33 = 4.7 frequ. / cell in average frequencies 30 frequ. / 4.7 frequ. per cell = 6.3

3/4

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Separations Planned Reuse (IV) for hopping TCH:
Intra cell separation: Intra site separation: Neighbour separation: 3 1 1

Interference Matrix for hopping TCH: co-channel: C/I curve 7 dB (50% probability) adjacent channel: C/I curve -6 dB (50% probability)

MAIO and HSN: HSN = 0 for all cells (cyclic hopping) MAIO = 0 for TRX1 (TRX0 = BCCH) MAIO = 1 for TRX2 MAIO = 2 for TRX3 etc.

list: Site Id 0001

Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Example for a site Planned Reuse (IV)
Sector TRX BCCH 1 0 2 1 1 2 0 4 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 0 9 3 1 3 2 1 0 12 1 1 1 2 2 0 8 2 1 f1 19 13 13 13 15 15 22 22 16 f2 36 18 18 18 23 23 26 26 19 f3 41 21 21 21 27 27 34 34 28 25 25 25 32 32 40 40 30 30 30 42 42 42 f4 f5 f6 MAIO 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 HSN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0002

etc....

Frequency Planning Strategies Cyclic Hopping Principle of Cyclic Hopping Random Hopping
Cyclic hopping sequence {... f4, f0, f1, f2, f3, f4, f0, f1, f2, f3 ...}, MAIO 0 Cyclic hopping sequence {... f1, f2, f3, f4, f0, f1, f2, f3, f4, f5 ...}, MAIO 2
TDMA frame F r e q u e n c y f0 f1 f2 f3 f4

Optimum frequency Diversity Sufficient Interference diversity by avoiding frequency groups No Interference diversity using frequency groups

Principle of Random Hopping


Random hopping sequence {... f1, f4, f2, f0, f0, f3, f0, f1, f2, f4, ...}, MAIO 0 Random hopping sequence {... f3, f1, f4, f2, f2, f1, f2, f3, f4, f1, ...}, MAIO 2
TDMA frame F r e q u e n c y

f0
f1 f2 f3 f4

Optimum interference diversity

Less frequency diversity