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Communication Skills for Managers Communication Process

Dr. Ravi Shanker

Communication Process

Objectives
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Discuss the basic purpose of communication Describe a basic model for communication Explain the communication hierarchy Explain various barriers to communication and suggest ways to overcome them

Changes Affecting the Workplace


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Heightened global competition Flattened management hierarchies Expanded team-based management Innovative communication technologies New work environments Increasingly diverse workforce
Success in the new workplace requires excellent communication skills.

Communication Process
Encoding: process by which the sender translates the idea to be communicated into a message

Communication Process
Channel: vehicle through which a message is sent Examples: u Magazines u TV u Radio

Communication Process

Decoding: process where receiver interprets the message

The Communication Process


CLAUDE SHANNON MODEL-1948

1. Sender has idea

THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION STARTS IN THE MIND OF THE SENDER

The Communication Process

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

TO DO SO, HE TRANSLATES HIS THOUGHTS FROM RANDOM INPRESSIONS INTO MESSAGES/ WORDS THAT WILL ACCURATELY CONVEY HIS THOUGHTS.

The Communication Process


SINCE HUMANS ARE NOT TELEPATHIC, THE THOUGHTS OF THE SENDER REMAIN AS IMAGES/IDEAS IN HIS/HER MIND.
1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel

PERHAPS THE SENDER REALISES IF HE WANT HELP TO SOLVE A PROBLEM, HE MUST COMMUNICATE THESE THOUGHTS TO THE OTHER i.e. THE RECEIVER.

The Communication Process


THEN HE CHOOSES A CHANNEL TO TRANSMIT HIS THOUGHTS: VERBAL/WRITTEN, SIGN/ SYMBOLIC
1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

THE RECEIVER DECODES IT BASED ON KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCE. i.e. THE RECEIVER ASSIGN MEANING TO THE SOUND/SIGNS AND ARRIVES AT THE THOUGHT BEHIND THE WORDS

The Communication Process


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

THE RECEIVER ALSO RECOGNISES THAT HE/SHE IS BEING CALLED ON TO RESPOND.

The Communication Process


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

6. Possible additional feedback to receiver

IN SUM:
THE SENDER HAS AN IDEA THE IDEA BECOMES A MESSAGE THE MESSAGE IS TRANSMITTED

THE RECEIVER GETS THE MESSAGE


THE RECEIVER REACTS AND SENDS FEEDBACK TO THE SENDER.

Systems Approach to Communication


COMMUNICATION IS A MULTIVARIABLE, DYNAMIC INTERPLAY OF NUMEROUS ELEMENTS
Noise Noise

Source

Encoding

Message

Channel

Decoding

Receiver

Feedback

Systems Approach Suggests that Understanding is Shaped by:


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Communication climate Context and setting Background, experiences Knowledge, mood Values, beliefs, culture

A Simple Communication Model


Sender (S)

Message (M)

Receiver (R)

Stimulus (S)

Message (M)

Response (R)

Hierarchy of Effects

ILL ACCEPT IT!

Action Desire Interest Attention

Hierarchy of Communications Effects


Action Conviction

Preference
Liking Knowledge Awareness ignorance

MYTHS ABOUT COMMUNICATION


1. I CAN DECIDE WHEN TO COMMUNICATE AND WHEN NOT TO. 2. ITS A ONE WAY PROCESS. 3. WE COMMUNICATE PRIMARILY THROUGH WORDS. 4. THE MESSAGE WHICH ARE RECEIVES FROM WHAT YOU COMMUNICATE IS IDENTICAL. 5. BODY LANGUAGE IS A SILENT LANGUAGE. 6. YOU CANNOT LOAD TOO MUCH INFORMATION ON SOME ONE.

UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS

HOW SHARED EXPERIENCE AFFECT UNDERSTANDING

LITTLE SHARED EXPERIENCE MEANING DISSIMILAR MISUNDERSTAN DING

AVERAGE SHARED EXPERIENCE MEANING ABOUT SIMILAR AVG. UNDERSTANDING

LARGE SHARED EXPERIENCE MEANING IDENTICAL


HIGH UNDERSTANDING

MIS-COMMUNICATION IN COMMUNICATION

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management
Message Amount of message

written by board of directors

100%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management
Message Amount of message

written by board of directors


received by vice-president

100%
63%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management
Message Amount of message

written by board of directors


received by vice-president received by general supervisor

100%
63% 56%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management
Message Amount of message

written by board of directors


received by vice-president received by general supervisor

100%
63% 56%

received by plant manager

40%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management
Message written by board of directors received by vice-president received by general supervisor received by plant manager Amount of message 100% 63% 56% 40%

received by team leader

30%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management
Message written by board of directors received by vice-president received by general supervisor received by plant manager Amount of message 100% 63% 56% 40%

received by team leader


received by worker

30%
20%

Barriers to Communication
MEANING ORGANISATIONAL INTERPERSONAL INDIVIDUAL

ECO, GEO
MEDIA & CHANNEL TECHNOLOGICAL

EMOTIONAL
LANGUAGE

Barriers to Communication
TENDENCY TO BE JUDGEMENTAL & TO TAKE MENTAL EXCURSIONS LACK OF INTEREST BIAS, PREJUDICE APPEARANCE & PERSONALITY

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
KNOWLEDGE PERCEPTION

CULTURE
NOISE & DISTRACTIONS

A Classic Case of Miscommunication


In Center Harbor, Maine, local legend recalls the day when Walter Cronkite steered his boat into port. The avid sailor was amused to see in the distance a small crowd on shore waving their arms to greet him. He could barely make out their excited shouts of "Hello Walter, Hello Walter."

As his boat sailed closer, the crowd grew larger, still yelling, "Hello Walter, Hello Walter." Pleased at the reception, Cronkite tipped his white captain's hat, waved back, even took a bow. But before reaching dockside, Cronkite's boat abruptly jammed aground. The crowd stood silent. The veteran news anchor suddenly realized what they'd been shouting: "Low water, low water."

Analysis of Communication Process

Analysis of Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater

Analysis of Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater Sender encodes message Low water!

Analysis of Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater Sender encodes message Low water! Channel carries message Message distorted

Analysis of Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater Sender encodes message Low water! Channel carries message Message distorted Receiver decodes message Hello Walter!

What barriers helped create the miscommunication here?


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Frame of reference Language skills Listening skills Emotional interference

Physical barriers

Receiver accustomed to acclaim and appreciative crowds. Maine accent makes "water" and "Walter" sound similar. Receiver more accustomed to speaking than to listening. Ego prompted receiver to believe crowd was responding to his celebrity status. Noise from boat, distance between senders and receivers.

Which of these barriers could be overcome through improved

communication skills?

Additional Communication Barriers


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Fear of reprisal for honest communication Differing frames of reference among communicators Lack of communication skills Ego involvement Turf wars

Barriers to Interpersonal Communication


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Bypassing Limited frame of reference Lack of language skills Lack of listening skills Emotional interference Physical distractions

Barriers That Block the Flow of Information in Organizations


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Closed communication climate Top-heavy organizational structure Long Lines of communication Lack of trust between management and employees Competition for power, status, rewards

Overcoming Communication Barriers


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Realize that communication is imperfect. Adapt the message to the receiver. Improve your language and listening skills. Question your preconceptions. Plan for feedback.

Organizational Communication
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Functions: internal and external Form: oral and written Form: channel selection dependent on
v v v v v

Message content Need for immediate response Audience size and distance Audience reaction Need to show empathy, friendliness, formality

Flow:
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Formal: down, up, horizontal Informal: grapevine

Surmounting Organizational Barriers


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Encourage open environment for interaction and feedback. Flatten the organizational structure. Promote horizontal communication. Provide hotline for anonymous feedback. Provide sufficient information through formal channels.

Forms of Communication Flowing Through Formal Channels

Written Executive memos, letters Annual report Company newsletter Bulletin board postings Orientation manual

Oral Telephone Face-to-face conversation Company meetings Team meetings

Electronic E-mail Voicemail Intranet Videotape Videoconferencing

Communication Flowing Through Formal Channels

Downward Management directives Job plans, policies Company goals Mission statements

Horizontal Task coordination Information sharing Problem solving Conflict resolution

Upward Employee feedback Progress reports Reports of customer interaction, feedback Suggestions for improvement Anonymous hotline

UPWARD CHANNELS: (TYPES OF INFORMATION)


WHAT THE EMPLYEE HAS DONE WHAT THOSE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE HAVE DONE

WHAT THE EMPPLOYEES PEERS HAVE DONE


WHAT THE EMPLOYEES PROBLEMS ARE, AND THAT OF HIS DEPARTMENT

WHAT HE THINKS NEEDS TO BE DONE


HIS PERCEPTIONS OF JOB PERFORMANCE WHAT ORGANISATIONAL POLICIES & PRACTICES NEEDS ADJUSTING

DOWNWORDC CHANNELS: (TYPES OF COMMUNICATION)

JOB INSTRUCTIONS JOB RATIONALE POLICY & PROCEDURES FEED BACK INDOCTRINATION

SOURCE: KATZ & KAHN,


THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF ORGANISATIONS

HORIZONTAL CHANNELS: (MAJOR PURPOSES)


TASK COORDINATION

PROBLEM SOLVING
SHARING INFORMATION CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Tools for Doing the Right Thing


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Is the action you are considering legal? How would you see the problem if you were on the other side? What alternate solutions are available? Can you discuss the problem with someone you trust? How would you feel if your family, friends, employer, or co-workers learned of your action?

Five Common Ethical Traps


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The false-necessity trap


(convincing yourself that no other choice exists)

The doctrine-of-relative-filth trap


(comparing your unethical behavior with someone elses even more unethical behavior)

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The rationalization trap


(justifying unethical actions with excuses)

The self-deception trap


(persuading yourself, for example, that a lie is not really a lie)

The ends-justify-the-means trap


(using unethical methods to accomplish a desirable goal)

REVIEW
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Discuss the basic purpose of communication Describe a basic model for communication Explain the communication hierarchy Explain various barriers to communication and suggest ways to overcome them