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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

UNIT - I : PERCEPTIVE IN HRM
Evolution of HRM – The importance of the human factor – objectives of HRM – Inclusive growth and affirmative action – Role of human resource manager. Human resource polices – computer applications in human resource management – Human resource accounting & audit.

DEFINITION
According to Edwin.B.Flipps

“ HRM is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individuals, organizational and social objectives are accomplished ”.

HRM can be defined as a process of procuring. developing and maintaining competent human resource in the organization so that the goals of an organization are achieved in an effective and efficient manner. .

HRM is an art of managing people at work is such a manner that they give their best to the organization for achieving its set goals. .

OBJECTIVES .

 To utilize the available human resources effectively. . To help the organization to attain its goals effectively and efficiently by providing competent and motivated employees.

 To increase to the fullest the employees job satisfaction and self actualization. .  To develop and maintains quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment in the organization a desirable personal and social situation.

 To reconcile individual / group goals with organizational goals. To help in maintain ethical policies and behavior inside and outside the organization.  To establish and maintain cordial relations between employees and management. .

HR Planning Employee relation Selection Training & development Appraisal Placement Assessment . Training & development Compensation Assessment Organizational Objective Functional Objectives.HRM Objective & Supporting Function Social Objective Legal Compliance Benefits Union_Mgt relations Individual / Personal Objectives.

2. In this process the manager has to see that the economic satisfaction for a resonable livelyhood. moulding & developing the human behaviour and attitude towards job & orgn requirement. A close observation of employees reveals its complex nature dealing with economic physiological. HR manager involves himself in administering a social system. HRM is a Social System. HRM is a Complex Dynamics.Nature and Scope Of HRM 1. sociological & ethical beings. dealing with human relationship. psychological. social satisfaction of working together as members of a group & individual job satisfaction of a worker and attained . Management tasks.

HRM is a Challenging Task: The HR manager plays a crucial role in understanding the changing needs of the organization and society.3. organizational and social objective with the available resources. commerce management. engineering & technology & laws. . HR manager should equip himself with good knowledge of disciplines economics. psychology. Further he faces some challenging tasks in attaining the employee. sociology.

Scope Of HRM Control Acquisition Human resource audit HR Accounting HR Information System. HR Planning Recruitment Selection Placement HRM Maintenance Remuneration Motivation Health & Safety Social Security Industrial relation Performance approvals Development Training Career development Org. Development Internal Mobility .

remuneration. 3. production etc. recreation facilities etc. Accordingly.The scope of HRM is indeed very vast & wide. training and development. recruitment. 1. health and safety. selection. The National Institute of Personal Management – Calcutta has specified the Scope of HRM as follows. placement. the scope of HRM consist of acquisition. lay-off and retrenchment. Industrial Relations Aspects : This covers union – management relations joint consultation. crèches rest and lunch room. transfer. housing. It includes all activities staring from manpower planning till employees leaves the organization. settlements of disputes etc . transport. incentives. collective bargaining. education. development. The Labour (or) Personnel Aspect : This is concerned with manpower planning. 2. medical assistance. maintenance retention & control of human resources in the organization. Welfare Aspect : It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteen. promotion. grievance and disciplinary actions.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATION OF EMPLOYEES DISCIPLINE HEALTH SAFETY SOCIAL SECURITY WELFARE SCHEMES PERSONNEL RECORDS PERSONNEL RESEARCH PERSONNEL AUDIT .FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MANAGERIAL FUNCTION PROCUREMENT DEVELOPMENT OPERATIVE FUNCTION COMPENSATION INTERGISTION MAINTANCE PLANING ORGANISING STAFFING DIRECTING CONTROLLING JOB ANALYSIS HR PLANNING RECUIRIMENT SELECTION PLACEMENT INDUCTION TRANSFER PROMOTION SEPERATION PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL TRANNING EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT CAREER PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT JOB EVALUVATION WAGES & SALARY ADMINISTRATION BONOUS & INCENTIVES PAYROLL MOTIVATION JOB SATISFACTION GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL.

is a process of activating group efforts to achieve the desired goals. Controlling : . It is a process of determining the organization goals and formulation of policies & programs for achieving them. promote & retire their subordinates.is one of the elements of planning process.is a predetermined course of actions.is the process of setting standards for performance. Forecasting:. Organizing : . Staffing : .is a process by which the structure & allocation of jobs are determined. checking to see how actual performance compares with these set standards. 1. Directing & Heading : .The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into 1) Managerial functions and 2) Operative function.is a process by which mangers select. and taking corrective actions as needed . Managerial function : Planning : . train.

It involves procuring the right kind of people in appropriate number to be placed in the organization.function involves determination of wages & salaries matching with contribution made by employees to organizational goals Maintenance: . Operative function : . aptitudes & values of employees so as to enable them to perform their jobs in a better manner in future. . skills.also called service functions are those which are relevant to specific department. Procurement : .It is concerned with protecting & promoting employees while at work. Compensation : . Development:.This function involves activities meant to improve the knowledge.2.

ROLE OF HRM ROLE :The behavioural paterns expected by a manager within an organisation or a unit. .

3. The Spokesman. The Conscience role. 4.THE ROLE OF THE PERSONNEL MANAGER MAIN ROLE 1. 6. The Problem Solver. 2. 5. The Change Agent. The Mediator. . The Counselor.

HR ROLE WELFARE ROLE CLERICAL ROLE LEGAL ROLL  ADVISERY ADVISING MANAGEMENT OF EFFECTIVE USE OF HR RESOURCES. SALARY & 2. MEASUREMENT OF ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL & GROUP BEHAVIOUR 2. 3. RESEARCH IN PERSONNEL 1. 4. MANAGING SERVIES. GRIEVANCE HANDLING  MANPOWER PLANNING 2. RERUITMENT CANTEENS. MAINTANCE OF RECORD. GROUP DYNAMICS DEVELPOMENT OF LINE GROUP COUNSELLING. DISPUTES ADMINISTARTION INCENTIVES. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING. 5. 1. HUMAN ENGINEERING – MAN-MACHINE RELATIONSHIP. LEADERSHIP. MOTIVATION. JOINT . & ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS. GRAIN SHOP. SETTLEMENTS OF WAGES. 1. TRAINING & 3. 3.   4. HANDLING DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS. MAN COMMUNICATION etc. TRANSPORT COOPERTIVES SELECTION ETC. TIME KEEPING.

Self-confidence.Training 3. .Leadership 5.Human relations attitude 9.Intelligence 4.Maturity 7.Qualities of a Manager : In order to succeed in Managing .Education 2.a Manager should possess the following qualities: 1.Technical knowledge 8.Foresight 6.

 Executing Skills.  Intelligence. Personal Attributes.1. QUALITIES OF A HR MANAGER  Discriminating Skills –b/w wrong / merit/ demerit.  Experience & Training. .  Educational Skills.

MA CIIR& PM . Every manager is concerned with 1. PGDPM. Professional Attitudes.MHRM. -Planning phase of management -creativity and innovation.Management of ideas .2. -distinct and scientific process.implies use of conceptual skills. . 3. Qualifications: .

3.Management of things( non. allocation and conversion of physical resources to achieve certain goals.Management of people : -is concerned with the procurement . maintenance and integration of human resources in the organisation.human resources): -Deals with the design of production system and acquisition.2. . development.

Conceptual skills are used for abstract thinking and concept development involved in planning and strategy formulation .• Conceptual skills. Ability to see the organisation as a whole to recognise inter-relationships among different functions of the business and external force to guide.

. Technical skill: Ability to use the procedure . techniques and knowledge of specialised field.Human skill: Ability to work with . understand and motivate other persons.

Careers in HRM: Supervisors / Officer Level Junior Management Level Jobs. Middle Management Level Jobs. General Management Level / CEO /President Of The Company . Senior Management Level.

1. Scientific Management Era. 3. 5. 6. Social Responsibility Era. 4. Behavioral Science Era. . Human Relation Era. Trade Union Movement Era. Systems Approach Era. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT 2.

HRM MODELS The Fomburn.Tichy and Devanna Model The Harvard Model:Beer. Etal. The Guest Model The Warwick Model .

THE FOMBRUN MODEL OF HRM Human Resource Development Selection Appraisal Organisational Effectiveness Rewards .

THE HARVARD MODEL OF HRM Stakeholder Interests •Shareholders •Management •Employee groups •Government •Community •unions Situational factors •Workforce characteristics •Business strategy&philosophy •Labour market •Unions •Task technology •Laws and societal values HRM policy choices •Employee influence •Human resource flow •Reward system •Work systems Human resource outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long term consequenc e •Individual well being •Organisatio -nal effectivenes •Societal well being .

THE GUEST MODEL OF HRM Performanc e outcomes •Positive •Productivity •Innovation •Quality •Negative •Low Productivity •Absenteeis -m •turnover HRM Strategies HRM practices •Hiring •Training •Appraisal •Compensati -on •relation HR outcomes •Commitment •Quality •flexibility Behavioural outcomes •Motivatio -n •Cooperati -on •Organisational citizenship Financial outcomes •Profits •ROI .

THE WARWICK MODEL OF HRM Outer context Socio economic Technical Political-legal competitive Inner context Culture Structure Politics/leadership Task technology Business outputs HRM context Role Definition Organisation HR outputs HRM content HRflows Work system Reward systems Employee relations Business strategy content Objectives Product market Strategy&tactis .

training experience and commitment” Stephen Knauf .Human Resource Accounting “Human resource accounting is the measurement of cost and value of the people for the organisation.” Flamholtz “Human resource accounting is the measurement and quantification of human organisational inputs such as recruiting.

4. . Investments made in HR are recorded.Features of HR Accounting: 1. 6. System of identification of HR 2. HRA is a part of MIS. Measurement of cost and value of HR. 3. Information generated about HR is communicated through financial statements to the parties. Records the changes occurring in HR. 5.

OBJECTIVES: 1. 4.To aid in the development of Mgt principles by classifying the financial consequences of various practices. .To test the valuation of HR varies in proportion with their contribution to the organisation.To develop methods of measuring HR cost and value. 5.To furnish cost value information for making management decision and maintaining human resources in order to attain cost effective organisational objectives. 3.To allow management personnel to monitor effectively the use of human resources. 2.

METHODS 1.MONETARY MEASUREMENT Historical cost opportunity cost Economic valuation Replacement cost Capitalization of salary 2.NON-MONETARY MEASUREMENT skills inventory performance evaluation attitude measurement assessment of potential .

5.Improvement in internal management decision. 2.Saving of time in meeting of the executive.Motivation of employees for production purposes.Assistance in planning. 3. 6.Decision about further requirement 7. .Impact on investors decisions.ADVANTAGES 1.Indicator of the health of the enterprise. 4.

Variety of methods .non-availability of standards 2.opposition of trade union 3.Disadvantages 1.Expenditure on HRA 4.

HR. E.HR Information. E-Recruitment.Selection. E. E.Job design & Job Analysis. E. E. COMPUTER APPLICATION IN HRM .Training & Development. E-Business / NEURAL NETWORKS. E.E-Human resource management.HR Records. E.Audit.Compensation Management. E. E-Human Resource Planning.Performance Management.

procedures and practices to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of HRM. Hr audit refers to an examination and evaluation of policies.HUMAN RESOURCE AUDIT Audit is an examination and verification of accounts and records. .

Programmes of HRM including the detailed practices & procedures. . 6. Role of HRM in TQM. 4. 3. Objectives. goals & strategies of HR management. 2. Accomplishment of HR management. 5. HRM Policies. Mission statement relating to HR management.AREAS OF HR AUDIT Include : 1.

To review the whole system of management programmes'. . 2.OBJECTIVES OF HR AUDITS 1. 4. 3. To evaluate the personnel staff & employees. To evaluate the implemented policies. To seek explanations & information's.

6. 2. Organisational Structure. 4. 5. 3. Administrative Style.NEED FOR HR AUDIT 1. The No: of Employees. Communication & Feedback. Location and Dispensing. Status of an Industrial Relation Manager. .

Types of audit • Internal audit • External audit .

HR Audit Process • • • • • Pre audit information Pre-audit self assessment On site review Record review Audit report .

Fostering strategic business plan 2.Organisational competency analysis 4.Clarity of role of HR function 3. .Benefits 1.Performance improvement mechanism.ROI analysis 7.Changes in the styles of top mgt 6.Hr system analysis 5.

HR policies constitute guides to action & guides the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives. Personnel policy of Indian railways relating to be above objectives is to fill 15% &7. Eg: HRM policy in Indian railways'.5% of vacancies from those candidates belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes respectively . According to Brewster & Richbell defined HRM policies as “ a set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealing with employees.HR POLICIES A Policy is a Plan Of Action. One of the personnel objectives of Indian Railways is to provide equal employment opportunities to the people of minority sections.

Easy to understand 3.CHARACTERISTICS OF HRP 1.Review .Related to objectives 2.Based on facts 5.Precise 4.

.Objectives of HR policies 1. Proper recognition of work force and protection of their prestige. 5.Personnel development 3.Safeguarding the interests of labour and management.maximum use of human resource 2.Sound Industrial Relation 4.

To delegate authority.To achieve the objectives of the organisation. 6. 2.Evaluate efficiency. 7. 3. 5.To motivate and create confidence among employees. .To guide the management. 4.To achieve uniformity in decision.Need of HR policies 1.To achieve better control.

. Industrial relations. 5. 4. 2.Manpower planning and development.Scope of HR policies 1.Recriutment /hiring of employees. 3.Communication with employees.Formulating terms and conditions of employment.

Imposed policies 4.Appealed policies 3.originated policies 2.General policies 5.Types of HR policies 1.Specific policies 6.written/implied policies .

Laws of the country/social values and customes 2.Type of workforce 6.Financial position of the organisation 4.Union objectives and practices 5.Factors affecting Hr Policies 1.Stages of development .Management philosophy 3.

capable of effectively and efficiently completing those task that will help the organisation achieve its over all objectives.” Decenzo and Robbins .UNIT:II-HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING “Human resource planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and the kind of people .at the right time.

P.” .According to Bruce.Coleman“Man power planning is the process of determining manpower requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organisation.

5.Need/Reasons for increasing focus on human resource planning: 1.Demographic changes. 4. 3.Organisational changes. 2.Skill shortages 6.Employment –growing unemployment situation.Legislative controls .Technological changes.Governmental influences 7.

To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programmes of organissation.Rise in employee turnover. 10.8.To identify area of surplus personnel area in which there is a shortage of personnel. . 9.

Scope of HRP: 1. 2. Listing of current manpower/HR with the organisation. retirement of personnel etc.if any. . 4. Analysing the requirements of manpower in future in the lights of expansion plans . Phasing out the surplus manpower . 3. Assessing the extent to which the current manpower is utilised to the advantage of the organisation.

5. .Designing training programmes for different categories of manpower.Making manpower procurement plans. 6.

HRP activities: Forecasting Inventoring Anticipating man power problems Planning .

2.Importance of HRP 1. Forecasting HR requirements . ie. Checks the corporate plan of the organisation . and makes effective management of changes. .market conditions technology /product govt regulation allocation of skills to persons.

Effective utilization of Human resources. 4.Helps in filling the gaps.Facilitates economic development.Helps to improve overall business planning process. It serves as a tool to evaluate the effect of alternative manpower action and policies. 6. 5. 7.3. .

To assess surplus or shortage . To ensure proper use of existing human resources in the organisation. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and requirements for human resources. if any of hr available over a specified period of time. 3.Objectives 1. To ensure adequate supply of manpower as and when required . . 5. 2. 4. To forecast future requirements of human resources with different levels of skills.

9.6.To provide lead time available to select and train the required additional human resources over a specified time period.To maintain industrial relations.To estimate the cost of Human resources.To obtain a good business environment. . 7.To control the human resources already deployed in the organisation. 10. 8.

.At the national level: HRP by government at the national level covers • Population projections • Programme of economic development • Educational and health facilities • Occupational distribution and growth • Mobility of personnel across industries and geographical region.Levels of human resource management HRP is useful at different levels 1.

2.At the sector level: This would cover manpower requirements of the • agricultural sector • Industrial sector • Service sector .

At the level of industrial unit: It relates to the manpower needs of a particular enterprise. such as • Engineering • Heavy industires • Textile industries • Plantations industries 4. At the industry level: This would forecast man power need for specific industries . .3.

HR Policy of the company . .FACTORS AFFECTING HRP EXTERNAL • Government policies • Level of economic development including future supply of HRS • Business envt • Information technology • Level of technology • International factors INTERNAL . type and quality of information . formal and informal groups . companys production operations policy . strategies of the company . trade unions . job analysis . time horizons .

Process of HRP
Objectives of human resource planning Inventory of human resources skills(finding gaps) Demand and supply forecasting Determine net manpower requirements Redeployment and redundancy plan Employment program Training and development program Appraisal of human resource planning

Problems in HRP: 1.Lack of understanding of rationale of planning. 2.Insufficient top management’s support. 3.Insufficient initial efforts. 4.Lack of coordination with other functions. 5.Lack of integration with organisational plans. 6.non-cooperation of operating managers. 7.Expensive and time consuming. 8.Resistance by employers and employees. 9.uncertainties. 10.Inadequacies of information system.

How to make HRP effective? Following are some of the steps that may improve the effectiveness of HRP: 1. HR plans must be viewed as an integral part of corporate planning. HR plans should be tailored with the objectives, strategies and overall environment of the particular organisation. 2. The support and commitment of the top management be ensured before starting the process of hrp planning.

Personnel records must be complete. 4. 5.The time horizon of the HRP should be appropriate to accommodate the changing needs and circumstances of the particular organisation. .Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of HR plans should be stressed in a balanced manner inorder to avoid conflicts between the two. up-todate and reality available to ensure an adequate and strong date base serves as backbone for HRP.3.

. The demand for HR in organisation is subject to vary from time to time. depending upon both external and internal factors.Forecasting for human resources requirement.

• Retirement 4.government • Termination • death Therefore while forecating future demand for human resources in the organisation. these factors need to be taken into consideration. .INTERNAL FACTORS: EXTERNAL • Growth and expansion 1.Competition • Design and structure changes 2.economic & • Management philosophy political climate • Change in leadership style 3.technological • Employees resignation changes.

. 3. To Ascertain a staff-mix needed at different points time in the future. 2.Purpose of forecasting HR needs: Forecasting demand for human resources is good for several reasons. because it can help: 1. To Ensure adequate availability of people with varying qualification and skills as and when required in the organisation. To Quantify the number of jobs required at given time for producing a given number of goods (or) offering a given amount of services.

study method Ratio – trend analysis Delphi technique Flow models Mathematical models Computerized forecast .The various techniques employed in HR forecasting are as follows : Management judgement Work.

1. It is suitable for small firms . . In case of top-down approach the top managers prepare the departmental forecasts which are reviewed with the departmental heads . In case of bottom.up approach. Under this technique either a “bottom-up” or a “topdown” approach is employed for forecasting future HR requirement of an organisation. the line managers prepare departmental requirements for HR and submit it to the top manager for their review and consideration.Management judgement: This technique is very simple and time saving.

the number of workers required to do standard work is worked out. time and motion study are used to ascertain standard time for doing a standard work. Based on this.W. Taylor in his scientific management.study method: This method can be used when it is possible to measure work and set standards and where job method do not change frequently. .2. In this method . Work. as used by F.

total sales volume /number of sales persons)and based on these forecasting is made for future ratios. allowances can be made for expected changes in the organisation. Under this method forecasting for future HR requirement is made on the basis of time series data. This technique involves studying past ratio(eg: total out-put/no:of workers . Ratio-trend analysis: This is one of the quickest forecasting technique.3. The demand for HR is calculated on the basis of established ratios between two variables. While calculating future ratios. . methods and job.

It is a more complex and time –consuming technique which does not allow group members to meet face-to-face . Therefore . Delphi technique: This is one of the judgemental methods of forecasting HR needs.4.it does not require the physical presence of the group members. .

4. 3.There should not be overlapping among the various categories.also called states.Determination of time period that will be covered under forecast. 2. Flow model: Is the simplest one and called as the Markov model.This model involves the following: 1. .Enumeration of annual flow among various categories or states for several time periods.Estimation of probability of flow or movements from one category to another based on past trends in this regards.5.Establishment of employee’s categories.

6. Mathematical model: Mathematical model express relationship between independent variable (production /sales) and dependent variable.(no: of workers required). .

volume production and personnel required to maintain this required volume of output. . Computerized forecast: Is the determination of future staff needs by projecting a firms sales.7. using computers and software packages.

Sources of supply Internal External *staffing tables /manning charts. *colleges/universities *Markov analysis *Skill inventories *replacement and succession planning .Supply Forecasting • Supply Forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organisation.

This movement of employee among different job classifcations can be forecasted based upon past movement patterns.Markov analysis It shows the percentage of employees who remains in each job from one year to the next .as also the proportion of those who are promoted or transferred or who exit the organisation . Past patterns of employee movement (transitions)are used to project future patterns. .

• The transitional probabilities indicate what will happen to the initial staffing levels in each job category or the probability that employees from one category will move into another job category.etc. . between oragnisational levels.• Markov analysis can be used to forecast employee movement pattern that may occur among organisational units. • The pattern of employee movements through various jobs is used to establish transitional probabilities and to develop a transition matrix.

This matrix can be used to forecast both demand and supply of labour. there should be enough employees in each job category . . For a Markov analysis to succeed. Transition matrix is used to forecast employment changes in future . the nature of jobs should not have changed over time.Transitional probabilities also determine the forecasted employee levels at the end of the year. and the situation should be stable.

identifying and attracting capable applicants.” .RECRUITMENT • “A process of locating .” • A process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation.

Factors affecting recruitment Internal factors Size of the organisation Recruiting policy Image of organisation External factors Demographic factors labour market unemployment situation labourlaws legalconsiderations Image of job .

Sources of recruitment Internal sources Present employees External sources Employment exchange Advertisements Employment Agencies Professional association Campus recruitment Deputation Words-of-mouth Jobfair cyberspace recruiting Employee referrals FormerEmployees Previous Applicants .

Recruitment process 1.Evaluation and control .Screening 5.Searching 4.Recruitment planning 2.Stategy development 3.

Recruitment process Personnel planning Job analysis Employee requistion Job vacancies Recruitment Planning Numbers types Searching activation Applicant pool screening Potential hires Strategy Development -where -how -when Applicant population Evaluation and control .

Indirect method 3.Method of recruitment 1.Direct method 2.Third party method .

6.A proper organisational structure. 2.A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates. 3. . the firm to enable the candidate to judiciously decide whether or not to apply and join the firm . if selected.A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of suitable modifactions from time to time to improve the effectiveness of the programme. 4.An ethically sound and fool-proof practice telling an applicant all about the job and its position.A well-laid down procedure for locating potential job seekers.Effectiveness of recruitment programme: 1.A well –defined recruitment policy. 5.

SELECTION
• “Selection is the process of choosing from among the candidates from within the organisation or from the outside,the most suitable person for the current position or for the future position”
knootz

Selection methods 1.Preliminary interview 2.Application blank 3.Selection tests 4.Selection interview 5.Reference checks 6.Medical examination /physical examination 7.Final selection.

Preliminary interview: The purpose of the Preliminary interview is to eliminate unsuitable or unqualified candidates form the selection process. It is also called courtesy interview. Application blank: is the commonest device for getting information from a prospective candidate. This serves as a personal record of the candidate bearing personal history profile, detailed personal activities, skills and accomplishments.

. individual differences in terms of abilities and skills need to be measured for comparision.Selection test : To select right person for the job. This is done through a process called selection test.

Tests: “A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons.” Selection Tests Ability tests Personality tests Aptitude test Achievement test Intelligence test Judgment test Interest test Personality test Projective test Attitude test .

It is also used to predict the future ability and performance of a person Achievement Test: It is used to measure a person’s potential in a given area or job. It is also known as proficiency test or performance test or occupation or trade test. It indicates how well a person would be able to perform after training. They are usually used for admission to specific courses in an academic institution.ABILITY TESTS: Aptitude Test: It measure the ability and skills of the persons. .

It is presumed that with physical age intelligence also grow. The core concept underlying in intelligence test is mental age. Mental Age IQ= Actual Age *100 .Intelligence Test: It measures general ability for intellectual performance and intelligence quotient of a candidate.

Interest Test: It is designed to identify person’s area of interest and kind of work that will satisfy him. PERSONALITY TESTS: These are tests used for measuring the interest and motivation of the people.Judgment Test: This test are designed to know the ability to apply knowledge in solving a problem. .

• California Personality Inventory Projective Test: Candidates are asked to project their own interpretation of certain standard stimulus situation basing on ambiguous pictures . (RBT) Rorschach Blot Test.figures etc.g. Some of the personality tests are • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). E. .Personality test: These test are designed to measure the dimensions and traits of personality. TAT) Thematic Appreciation Test.

Attitude Test: It measures the attitude . employee morale are well known examples of attitude test. situation and action of a person. Test of social desirability. . tendencies towards favoring. Other test: • Graphology. • Polygraph test. authoritarianism.

. Serves as a unbiased tool. 2. Quantify the test results. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted.Advantages of testing: 1. 3. Diagnosis the situation and behavior. Predict future performance. Validation of test: Validity is the most important criteria for the quality of a test. 4.

Interview: Interview is a face to face interaction. a powerful exchange of ideas. Judgment of applicant 2. Additional information . answering of questions and communication between two or more persons. Objectives: 1.

time. opening and closing. . Patterned/ Structured/ Formal Interview: In this type of interview all the formalities.TYPES OF INTERVIEW: Preliminary interview: The interviews conducted to screen the applicants to decide whether further detailed will be required are called preliminary interview. intimating the candidates officially etc are strictly followed in arranging and conducting the interview. procedures like fixing the value. panel of interviewers.

Stress Interview: This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behavior and level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain. Depth interviews are conducted for specialist jobs.Depth Interview: In this interview the candidates would be extensively in core area of job skills and knowledge. Experts test the candidates knowledge in depth. .

Reference checks: The process of verifying information and obtaining additional feedback on an application. .Other Interviews are: Group Discussion interview Panel interview Informal/ unstructured interview Decision making interview.

Medical Examination: It is have proper matching of job requirement with the physical abilities of the candidate. . Final Selection: the candidates who have cleared all the above hurdles are finally selected and a letter of job offer is issued to them.

PLACEMENT Placement is understood as assigning jobs to the selected candidates. “the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned.” » Pigors and Myers . and his assignment to that job.

The importance of placement lies in the fact that, *a proper placement of employees reduces employees turnover,absenteeism,accidents and dissatisfaction,on the other hand, and improves their morale,on the other.

Induction
Induction • “Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work” Michael Armstrong

Obiectives of induction
Obiectives of induction: 1.To reduce the initial anxiety all new entrants feel when they join a new job in a new organisation. 2. To familiarize the new employees with the job, people , work-place ,work environment and the organisation. 3.To facilitate outsider –insider transition in an intergrated manner. 4.To reduce exploitation by the unscrupulous co-workers. 5.To reduce the cultural shock faced in the new organisation.

. 2. A well –designed induction programme reduces anxiety. Induction also binds the newcomer and the present employees in a team. nervousness. Effective induction also helps integrate the new employees into the organisation and fosters feeling of belongingness to new organisation. 4. Induction helps minimize the reality or cultural shock new employees undergo on joining a new organisation.Benefits of induction programme 1.absenteesim and employee turnover. 3.

The induction programme may be formal and informal. *supervisory systemThe immediate job supervisor conducts the induction programme for the new entrants. Informal-unplanned induction programme. Formal-planned programme –HR specialists . *buddy or sponsor systemThe immediate supervisor assigns the responsibility of induction of the new entrant to an old employee.

General induction 2.PHASES OF INDUCTION A carefully designed induction programme consists of the following three phases: 1.Follow-up induction .Specific induction 3.

Socialisation is the process of adaptation. .Socialisation Socialisation is the process of adaptation. • Socialisation is the process of adaptation that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles.

” .Feldoman “acquisition of work skills and abilities . adoption of appropriate role behaviour and adjustment to the norms and values of the work group.

3.Pre –arrival :Refers to all the learning that occurs before a new member joins the organisation.masters the Skills required to adjust with the organisation’s norms and values.this is called metamorphosis stage. This is a stage going through changes.Metamorphosis : The member. .Phases of socialisation process 1.The member starts comparing expectations the image of the organisation which he had formed during pre-arrival phase with reality.hence .Encounter :The new member enters the organisation and role playing starts here. 2.

*Learning how to perform the job.Contents of socialization: *Preliminary Learning. *Learning to function in the work group. . *Personal Learning. *Learning about the organisation.

. Contributes to employee’s long-term success.1. Benefits: Helps in understanding organisation culture. 2. 5. 4. Helps in adjustment Helps in employee engagement. Provides job satisfaction. 3.