HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

UNIT - I : PERCEPTIVE IN HRM
Evolution of HRM – The importance of the human factor – objectives of HRM – Inclusive growth and affirmative action – Role of human resource manager. Human resource polices – computer applications in human resource management – Human resource accounting & audit.

DEFINITION
According to Edwin.B.Flipps

“ HRM is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individuals, organizational and social objectives are accomplished ”.

. developing and maintaining competent human resource in the organization so that the goals of an organization are achieved in an effective and efficient manner.HRM can be defined as a process of procuring.

.HRM is an art of managing people at work is such a manner that they give their best to the organization for achieving its set goals.

OBJECTIVES .

 To help the organization to attain its goals effectively and efficiently by providing competent and motivated employees.  To utilize the available human resources effectively. .

.  To develop and maintains quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment in the organization a desirable personal and social situation. To increase to the fullest the employees job satisfaction and self actualization.

 To establish and maintain cordial relations between employees and management. .  To reconcile individual / group goals with organizational goals. To help in maintain ethical policies and behavior inside and outside the organization.

HRM Objective & Supporting Function Social Objective Legal Compliance Benefits Union_Mgt relations Individual / Personal Objectives. HR Planning Employee relation Selection Training & development Appraisal Placement Assessment . Training & development Compensation Assessment Organizational Objective Functional Objectives.

Nature and Scope Of HRM 1. HR manager involves himself in administering a social system. moulding & developing the human behaviour and attitude towards job & orgn requirement. Management tasks. 2. A close observation of employees reveals its complex nature dealing with economic physiological. HRM is a Complex Dynamics. psychological. social satisfaction of working together as members of a group & individual job satisfaction of a worker and attained . sociological & ethical beings. In this process the manager has to see that the economic satisfaction for a resonable livelyhood. HRM is a Social System. dealing with human relationship.

engineering & technology & laws. psychology. . sociology. HRM is a Challenging Task: The HR manager plays a crucial role in understanding the changing needs of the organization and society. commerce management. HR manager should equip himself with good knowledge of disciplines economics. organizational and social objective with the available resources. Further he faces some challenging tasks in attaining the employee.3.

HR Planning Recruitment Selection Placement HRM Maintenance Remuneration Motivation Health & Safety Social Security Industrial relation Performance approvals Development Training Career development Org. Development Internal Mobility .Scope Of HRM Control Acquisition Human resource audit HR Accounting HR Information System.

training and development. 1. Welfare Aspect : It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteen. incentives. education. remuneration. health and safety. production etc. recruitment. medical assistance. Accordingly. grievance and disciplinary actions. the scope of HRM consist of acquisition. selection. collective bargaining. Industrial Relations Aspects : This covers union – management relations joint consultation. crèches rest and lunch room. recreation facilities etc. It includes all activities staring from manpower planning till employees leaves the organization. 3. The National Institute of Personal Management – Calcutta has specified the Scope of HRM as follows. 2. transport. development. placement. transfer.The scope of HRM is indeed very vast & wide. housing. maintenance retention & control of human resources in the organization. promotion. lay-off and retrenchment. settlements of disputes etc . The Labour (or) Personnel Aspect : This is concerned with manpower planning.

FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MANAGERIAL FUNCTION PROCUREMENT DEVELOPMENT OPERATIVE FUNCTION COMPENSATION INTERGISTION MAINTANCE PLANING ORGANISING STAFFING DIRECTING CONTROLLING JOB ANALYSIS HR PLANNING RECUIRIMENT SELECTION PLACEMENT INDUCTION TRANSFER PROMOTION SEPERATION PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL TRANNING EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT CAREER PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT JOB EVALUVATION WAGES & SALARY ADMINISTRATION BONOUS & INCENTIVES PAYROLL MOTIVATION JOB SATISFACTION GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATION OF EMPLOYEES DISCIPLINE HEALTH SAFETY SOCIAL SECURITY WELFARE SCHEMES PERSONNEL RECORDS PERSONNEL RESEARCH PERSONNEL AUDIT .

Managerial function : Planning : .is the process of setting standards for performance. Directing & Heading : . train. checking to see how actual performance compares with these set standards. Organizing : . and taking corrective actions as needed .is a process by which mangers select.is a process by which the structure & allocation of jobs are determined. 1. It is a process of determining the organization goals and formulation of policies & programs for achieving them. Forecasting:. promote & retire their subordinates.is one of the elements of planning process.is a predetermined course of actions.The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into 1) Managerial functions and 2) Operative function. Staffing : . Controlling : .is a process of activating group efforts to achieve the desired goals.

.This function involves activities meant to improve the knowledge. aptitudes & values of employees so as to enable them to perform their jobs in a better manner in future. skills. Compensation : .It is concerned with protecting & promoting employees while at work. Operative function : .also called service functions are those which are relevant to specific department. Development:.2.It involves procuring the right kind of people in appropriate number to be placed in the organization. Procurement : .function involves determination of wages & salaries matching with contribution made by employees to organizational goals Maintenance: .

ROLE OF HRM ROLE :The behavioural paterns expected by a manager within an organisation or a unit. .

The Change Agent. . The Counselor. 5. 4. The Problem Solver. The Conscience role. 2. 6. The Spokesman. 3.THE ROLE OF THE PERSONNEL MANAGER MAIN ROLE 1. The Mediator.

HR ROLE WELFARE ROLE CLERICAL ROLE LEGAL ROLL  ADVISERY ADVISING MANAGEMENT OF EFFECTIVE USE OF HR RESOURCES. LEADERSHIP. SETTLEMENTS OF WAGES. RESEARCH IN PERSONNEL 1. TIME KEEPING. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING. HUMAN ENGINEERING – MAN-MACHINE RELATIONSHIP. MOTIVATION. HANDLING DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS. MAN COMMUNICATION etc. 5. 4. GRAIN SHOP. RERUITMENT CANTEENS. MANAGING SERVIES. 3. 1. GRIEVANCE HANDLING  MANPOWER PLANNING 2. MAINTANCE OF RECORD. DISPUTES ADMINISTARTION INCENTIVES. GROUP DYNAMICS DEVELPOMENT OF LINE GROUP COUNSELLING. 3. JOINT .   4. 1. TRANSPORT COOPERTIVES SELECTION ETC. SALARY & 2. & ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS. TRAINING & 3. MEASUREMENT OF ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL & GROUP BEHAVIOUR 2.

Maturity 7.Leadership 5.Intelligence 4.Human relations attitude 9.Self-confidence.Education 2. .Training 3.Foresight 6.Qualities of a Manager : In order to succeed in Managing .a Manager should possess the following qualities: 1.Technical knowledge 8.

Personal Attributes.  Intelligence.1.  Experience & Training.  Educational Skills.  Executing Skills. . QUALITIES OF A HR MANAGER  Discriminating Skills –b/w wrong / merit/ demerit.

3. MA CIIR& PM . Professional Attitudes. -distinct and scientific process.MHRM.Management of ideas .2. -Planning phase of management -creativity and innovation. Every manager is concerned with 1. PGDPM. .implies use of conceptual skills. Qualifications: .

maintenance and integration of human resources in the organisation. development. 3. allocation and conversion of physical resources to achieve certain goals.human resources): -Deals with the design of production system and acquisition. .Management of things( non.Management of people : -is concerned with the procurement .2.

• Conceptual skills. Conceptual skills are used for abstract thinking and concept development involved in planning and strategy formulation . Ability to see the organisation as a whole to recognise inter-relationships among different functions of the business and external force to guide.

understand and motivate other persons. . Technical skill: Ability to use the procedure .Human skill: Ability to work with . techniques and knowledge of specialised field.

Careers in HRM: Supervisors / Officer Level Junior Management Level Jobs. Senior Management Level. General Management Level / CEO /President Of The Company . Middle Management Level Jobs.

Trade Union Movement Era. Scientific Management Era. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT 2. 4. Behavioral Science Era. 5. 6. .1. Systems Approach Era. Social Responsibility Era. Human Relation Era. 3.

HRM MODELS The Fomburn. The Guest Model The Warwick Model .Tichy and Devanna Model The Harvard Model:Beer. Etal.

THE FOMBRUN MODEL OF HRM Human Resource Development Selection Appraisal Organisational Effectiveness Rewards .

THE HARVARD MODEL OF HRM Stakeholder Interests •Shareholders •Management •Employee groups •Government •Community •unions Situational factors •Workforce characteristics •Business strategy&philosophy •Labour market •Unions •Task technology •Laws and societal values HRM policy choices •Employee influence •Human resource flow •Reward system •Work systems Human resource outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long term consequenc e •Individual well being •Organisatio -nal effectivenes •Societal well being .

THE GUEST MODEL OF HRM Performanc e outcomes •Positive •Productivity •Innovation •Quality •Negative •Low Productivity •Absenteeis -m •turnover HRM Strategies HRM practices •Hiring •Training •Appraisal •Compensati -on •relation HR outcomes •Commitment •Quality •flexibility Behavioural outcomes •Motivatio -n •Cooperati -on •Organisational citizenship Financial outcomes •Profits •ROI .

THE WARWICK MODEL OF HRM Outer context Socio economic Technical Political-legal competitive Inner context Culture Structure Politics/leadership Task technology Business outputs HRM context Role Definition Organisation HR outputs HRM content HRflows Work system Reward systems Employee relations Business strategy content Objectives Product market Strategy&tactis .

Human Resource Accounting “Human resource accounting is the measurement of cost and value of the people for the organisation.training experience and commitment” Stephen Knauf .” Flamholtz “Human resource accounting is the measurement and quantification of human organisational inputs such as recruiting.

. Information generated about HR is communicated through financial statements to the parties. System of identification of HR 2. HRA is a part of MIS.Features of HR Accounting: 1. Investments made in HR are recorded. 3. 4. Measurement of cost and value of HR. Records the changes occurring in HR. 6. 5.

2. 4.OBJECTIVES: 1. 5.To allow management personnel to monitor effectively the use of human resources.To aid in the development of Mgt principles by classifying the financial consequences of various practices. 3. .To furnish cost value information for making management decision and maintaining human resources in order to attain cost effective organisational objectives.To test the valuation of HR varies in proportion with their contribution to the organisation.To develop methods of measuring HR cost and value.

NON-MONETARY MEASUREMENT skills inventory performance evaluation attitude measurement assessment of potential .METHODS 1.MONETARY MEASUREMENT Historical cost opportunity cost Economic valuation Replacement cost Capitalization of salary 2.

Indicator of the health of the enterprise.Saving of time in meeting of the executive.Impact on investors decisions.Assistance in planning.Improvement in internal management decision.Motivation of employees for production purposes. . 4.ADVANTAGES 1. 6. 2.Decision about further requirement 7. 3. 5.

non-availability of standards 2.Disadvantages 1.Variety of methods .opposition of trade union 3.Expenditure on HRA 4.

HR Information.Selection. COMPUTER APPLICATION IN HRM . E. E.E-Human resource management.Compensation Management. E.Job design & Job Analysis. E. E.HR Records.Audit. E. E. E-Business / NEURAL NETWORKS.Performance Management. E.HR. E-Human Resource Planning.Training & Development. E-Recruitment.

.HUMAN RESOURCE AUDIT Audit is an examination and verification of accounts and records. procedures and practices to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of HRM. Hr audit refers to an examination and evaluation of policies.

3. goals & strategies of HR management. HRM Policies. Accomplishment of HR management. 5. 2. 6.AREAS OF HR AUDIT Include : 1. . Mission statement relating to HR management. Programmes of HRM including the detailed practices & procedures. Role of HRM in TQM. Objectives. 4.

2. To review the whole system of management programmes'.OBJECTIVES OF HR AUDITS 1. To seek explanations & information's. To evaluate the implemented policies. 4. 3. . To evaluate the personnel staff & employees.

.NEED FOR HR AUDIT 1. 3. 5. Status of an Industrial Relation Manager. Communication & Feedback. 4. Location and Dispensing. Administrative Style. 6. The No: of Employees. Organisational Structure. 2.

Types of audit • Internal audit • External audit .

HR Audit Process • • • • • Pre audit information Pre-audit self assessment On site review Record review Audit report .

Clarity of role of HR function 3.Hr system analysis 5.Performance improvement mechanism.Organisational competency analysis 4.Benefits 1.Changes in the styles of top mgt 6.Fostering strategic business plan 2. .ROI analysis 7.

5% of vacancies from those candidates belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes respectively . Eg: HRM policy in Indian railways'.HR POLICIES A Policy is a Plan Of Action. Personnel policy of Indian railways relating to be above objectives is to fill 15% &7. According to Brewster & Richbell defined HRM policies as “ a set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealing with employees. One of the personnel objectives of Indian Railways is to provide equal employment opportunities to the people of minority sections. HR policies constitute guides to action & guides the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives.

Based on facts 5.CHARACTERISTICS OF HRP 1.Related to objectives 2.Precise 4.Easy to understand 3.Review .

.Sound Industrial Relation 4.Safeguarding the interests of labour and management. 5. Proper recognition of work force and protection of their prestige.Objectives of HR policies 1.Personnel development 3.maximum use of human resource 2.

To achieve uniformity in decision. 4.To guide the management.To delegate authority.To motivate and create confidence among employees. 6. 2.To achieve the objectives of the organisation.To achieve better control. 5.Evaluate efficiency. 7.Need of HR policies 1. . 3.

Recriutment /hiring of employees. Industrial relations.Scope of HR policies 1.Communication with employees. 3. 4. .Manpower planning and development.Formulating terms and conditions of employment. 5. 2.

Specific policies 6.Appealed policies 3.Types of HR policies 1.Imposed policies 4.originated policies 2.written/implied policies .General policies 5.

Financial position of the organisation 4.Laws of the country/social values and customes 2.Management philosophy 3.Type of workforce 6.Stages of development .Union objectives and practices 5.Factors affecting Hr Policies 1.

capable of effectively and efficiently completing those task that will help the organisation achieve its over all objectives.at the right time.UNIT:II-HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING “Human resource planning is the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number and the kind of people .” Decenzo and Robbins .

According to Bruce. P.” .Coleman“Man power planning is the process of determining manpower requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organisation.

Governmental influences 7.Need/Reasons for increasing focus on human resource planning: 1.Legislative controls . 2. 3. 4.Organisational changes.Technological changes.Demographic changes.Skill shortages 6. 5.Employment –growing unemployment situation.

.To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programmes of organissation. 10. 9.Rise in employee turnover.8.To identify area of surplus personnel area in which there is a shortage of personnel.

4. . 2. 3. Listing of current manpower/HR with the organisation. Phasing out the surplus manpower . Assessing the extent to which the current manpower is utilised to the advantage of the organisation.if any. Analysing the requirements of manpower in future in the lights of expansion plans .Scope of HRP: 1. retirement of personnel etc.

6.5.Designing training programmes for different categories of manpower. .Making manpower procurement plans.

HRP activities: Forecasting Inventoring Anticipating man power problems Planning .

Importance of HRP 1. ie. and makes effective management of changes. . Checks the corporate plan of the organisation . Forecasting HR requirements .market conditions technology /product govt regulation allocation of skills to persons. 2.

Helps to improve overall business planning process.Helps in filling the gaps. 7.3.Effective utilization of Human resources. It serves as a tool to evaluate the effect of alternative manpower action and policies. 5. 6. .Facilitates economic development. 4.

To assess surplus or shortage . To ensure adequate supply of manpower as and when required . if any of hr available over a specified period of time. . To ensure proper use of existing human resources in the organisation. 3. 2. To forecast future requirements of human resources with different levels of skills. 5. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and requirements for human resources. 4.Objectives 1.

To estimate the cost of Human resources.To control the human resources already deployed in the organisation. . 9. 8. 10.To obtain a good business environment. 7.To maintain industrial relations.6.To provide lead time available to select and train the required additional human resources over a specified time period.

Levels of human resource management HRP is useful at different levels 1.At the national level: HRP by government at the national level covers • Population projections • Programme of economic development • Educational and health facilities • Occupational distribution and growth • Mobility of personnel across industries and geographical region. .

2.At the sector level: This would cover manpower requirements of the • agricultural sector • Industrial sector • Service sector .

At the level of industrial unit: It relates to the manpower needs of a particular enterprise. . such as • Engineering • Heavy industires • Textile industries • Plantations industries 4. At the industry level: This would forecast man power need for specific industries .3.

HR Policy of the company . time horizons . companys production operations policy . formal and informal groups .FACTORS AFFECTING HRP EXTERNAL • Government policies • Level of economic development including future supply of HRS • Business envt • Information technology • Level of technology • International factors INTERNAL . . trade unions . type and quality of information . strategies of the company . job analysis .

Process of HRP
Objectives of human resource planning Inventory of human resources skills(finding gaps) Demand and supply forecasting Determine net manpower requirements Redeployment and redundancy plan Employment program Training and development program Appraisal of human resource planning

Problems in HRP: 1.Lack of understanding of rationale of planning. 2.Insufficient top management’s support. 3.Insufficient initial efforts. 4.Lack of coordination with other functions. 5.Lack of integration with organisational plans. 6.non-cooperation of operating managers. 7.Expensive and time consuming. 8.Resistance by employers and employees. 9.uncertainties. 10.Inadequacies of information system.

How to make HRP effective? Following are some of the steps that may improve the effectiveness of HRP: 1. HR plans must be viewed as an integral part of corporate planning. HR plans should be tailored with the objectives, strategies and overall environment of the particular organisation. 2. The support and commitment of the top management be ensured before starting the process of hrp planning.

Personnel records must be complete. up-todate and reality available to ensure an adequate and strong date base serves as backbone for HRP. 5.3.The time horizon of the HRP should be appropriate to accommodate the changing needs and circumstances of the particular organisation. 4. .Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of HR plans should be stressed in a balanced manner inorder to avoid conflicts between the two.

Forecasting for human resources requirement. . The demand for HR in organisation is subject to vary from time to time. depending upon both external and internal factors.

technological • Employees resignation changes. . these factors need to be taken into consideration.INTERNAL FACTORS: EXTERNAL • Growth and expansion 1.government • Termination • death Therefore while forecating future demand for human resources in the organisation.economic & • Management philosophy political climate • Change in leadership style 3. • Retirement 4.Competition • Design and structure changes 2.

To Quantify the number of jobs required at given time for producing a given number of goods (or) offering a given amount of services. 3. To Ensure adequate availability of people with varying qualification and skills as and when required in the organisation. . To Ascertain a staff-mix needed at different points time in the future.Purpose of forecasting HR needs: Forecasting demand for human resources is good for several reasons. because it can help: 1. 2.

The various techniques employed in HR forecasting are as follows : Management judgement Work.study method Ratio – trend analysis Delphi technique Flow models Mathematical models Computerized forecast .

.1. In case of top-down approach the top managers prepare the departmental forecasts which are reviewed with the departmental heads . It is suitable for small firms . Under this technique either a “bottom-up” or a “topdown” approach is employed for forecasting future HR requirement of an organisation. the line managers prepare departmental requirements for HR and submit it to the top manager for their review and consideration.up approach.Management judgement: This technique is very simple and time saving. In case of bottom.

2. Work. time and motion study are used to ascertain standard time for doing a standard work. In this method .the number of workers required to do standard work is worked out.W. . as used by F. Based on this.study method: This method can be used when it is possible to measure work and set standards and where job method do not change frequently. Taylor in his scientific management.

Ratio-trend analysis: This is one of the quickest forecasting technique. The demand for HR is calculated on the basis of established ratios between two variables.3. Under this method forecasting for future HR requirement is made on the basis of time series data. This technique involves studying past ratio(eg: total out-put/no:of workers . methods and job. While calculating future ratios. total sales volume /number of sales persons)and based on these forecasting is made for future ratios. allowances can be made for expected changes in the organisation. .

It is a more complex and time –consuming technique which does not allow group members to meet face-to-face .4.it does not require the physical presence of the group members. . Delphi technique: This is one of the judgemental methods of forecasting HR needs. Therefore .

Determination of time period that will be covered under forecast.Establishment of employee’s categories. 3. .This model involves the following: 1.also called states. Flow model: Is the simplest one and called as the Markov model. 4.There should not be overlapping among the various categories.5. 2.Enumeration of annual flow among various categories or states for several time periods.Estimation of probability of flow or movements from one category to another based on past trends in this regards.

6. . Mathematical model: Mathematical model express relationship between independent variable (production /sales) and dependent variable.(no: of workers required).

Computerized forecast: Is the determination of future staff needs by projecting a firms sales.7. . using computers and software packages. volume production and personnel required to maintain this required volume of output.

Supply Forecasting • Supply Forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organisation. Sources of supply Internal External *staffing tables /manning charts. *colleges/universities *Markov analysis *Skill inventories *replacement and succession planning .

. Past patterns of employee movement (transitions)are used to project future patterns. This movement of employee among different job classifcations can be forecasted based upon past movement patterns.as also the proportion of those who are promoted or transferred or who exit the organisation .Markov analysis It shows the percentage of employees who remains in each job from one year to the next .

.• Markov analysis can be used to forecast employee movement pattern that may occur among organisational units. • The pattern of employee movements through various jobs is used to establish transitional probabilities and to develop a transition matrix.etc. between oragnisational levels. • The transitional probabilities indicate what will happen to the initial staffing levels in each job category or the probability that employees from one category will move into another job category.

the nature of jobs should not have changed over time.This matrix can be used to forecast both demand and supply of labour. there should be enough employees in each job category .Transitional probabilities also determine the forecasted employee levels at the end of the year. Transition matrix is used to forecast employment changes in future . . and the situation should be stable. For a Markov analysis to succeed.

identifying and attracting capable applicants.RECRUITMENT • “A process of locating .” • A process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation.” .

Factors affecting recruitment Internal factors Size of the organisation Recruiting policy Image of organisation External factors Demographic factors labour market unemployment situation labourlaws legalconsiderations Image of job .

Sources of recruitment Internal sources Present employees External sources Employment exchange Advertisements Employment Agencies Professional association Campus recruitment Deputation Words-of-mouth Jobfair cyberspace recruiting Employee referrals FormerEmployees Previous Applicants .

Recruitment planning 2.Recruitment process 1.Evaluation and control .Searching 4.Stategy development 3.Screening 5.

Recruitment process Personnel planning Job analysis Employee requistion Job vacancies Recruitment Planning Numbers types Searching activation Applicant pool screening Potential hires Strategy Development -where -how -when Applicant population Evaluation and control .

Method of recruitment 1.Third party method .Direct method 2.Indirect method 3.

A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of suitable modifactions from time to time to improve the effectiveness of the programme. if selected.A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates. 6. 5. 2.A well-laid down procedure for locating potential job seekers.Effectiveness of recruitment programme: 1. . the firm to enable the candidate to judiciously decide whether or not to apply and join the firm .An ethically sound and fool-proof practice telling an applicant all about the job and its position.A proper organisational structure. 3. 4.A well –defined recruitment policy.

SELECTION
• “Selection is the process of choosing from among the candidates from within the organisation or from the outside,the most suitable person for the current position or for the future position”
knootz

Selection methods 1.Preliminary interview 2.Application blank 3.Selection tests 4.Selection interview 5.Reference checks 6.Medical examination /physical examination 7.Final selection.

Preliminary interview: The purpose of the Preliminary interview is to eliminate unsuitable or unqualified candidates form the selection process. It is also called courtesy interview. Application blank: is the commonest device for getting information from a prospective candidate. This serves as a personal record of the candidate bearing personal history profile, detailed personal activities, skills and accomplishments.

This is done through a process called selection test.Selection test : To select right person for the job. individual differences in terms of abilities and skills need to be measured for comparision. .

” Selection Tests Ability tests Personality tests Aptitude test Achievement test Intelligence test Judgment test Interest test Personality test Projective test Attitude test .Tests: “A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons.

ABILITY TESTS: Aptitude Test: It measure the ability and skills of the persons. They are usually used for admission to specific courses in an academic institution. It indicates how well a person would be able to perform after training. It is also used to predict the future ability and performance of a person Achievement Test: It is used to measure a person’s potential in a given area or job. It is also known as proficiency test or performance test or occupation or trade test. .

It is presumed that with physical age intelligence also grow.Intelligence Test: It measures general ability for intellectual performance and intelligence quotient of a candidate. The core concept underlying in intelligence test is mental age. Mental Age IQ= Actual Age *100 .

PERSONALITY TESTS: These are tests used for measuring the interest and motivation of the people.Judgment Test: This test are designed to know the ability to apply knowledge in solving a problem. . Interest Test: It is designed to identify person’s area of interest and kind of work that will satisfy him.

• California Personality Inventory Projective Test: Candidates are asked to project their own interpretation of certain standard stimulus situation basing on ambiguous pictures . . (RBT) Rorschach Blot Test.Personality test: These test are designed to measure the dimensions and traits of personality.figures etc. E. Some of the personality tests are • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).g. TAT) Thematic Appreciation Test.

Other test: • Graphology. employee morale are well known examples of attitude test. situation and action of a person. tendencies towards favoring. authoritarianism.Attitude Test: It measures the attitude . • Polygraph test. Test of social desirability. .

3. Validation of test: Validity is the most important criteria for the quality of a test. Serves as a unbiased tool. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted. . Predict future performance.Advantages of testing: 1. Diagnosis the situation and behavior. 4. Quantify the test results. 2.

answering of questions and communication between two or more persons. Objectives: 1. Additional information . a powerful exchange of ideas. Judgment of applicant 2.Interview: Interview is a face to face interaction.

Patterned/ Structured/ Formal Interview: In this type of interview all the formalities. opening and closing. procedures like fixing the value. . time. intimating the candidates officially etc are strictly followed in arranging and conducting the interview. panel of interviewers.TYPES OF INTERVIEW: Preliminary interview: The interviews conducted to screen the applicants to decide whether further detailed will be required are called preliminary interview.

Depth Interview: In this interview the candidates would be extensively in core area of job skills and knowledge. . Stress Interview: This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behavior and level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain. Experts test the candidates knowledge in depth. Depth interviews are conducted for specialist jobs.

Reference checks: The process of verifying information and obtaining additional feedback on an application. .Other Interviews are: Group Discussion interview Panel interview Informal/ unstructured interview Decision making interview.

Final Selection: the candidates who have cleared all the above hurdles are finally selected and a letter of job offer is issued to them. .Medical Examination: It is have proper matching of job requirement with the physical abilities of the candidate.

and his assignment to that job.PLACEMENT Placement is understood as assigning jobs to the selected candidates. “the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned.” » Pigors and Myers .

The importance of placement lies in the fact that, *a proper placement of employees reduces employees turnover,absenteeism,accidents and dissatisfaction,on the other hand, and improves their morale,on the other.

Induction
Induction • “Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work” Michael Armstrong

Obiectives of induction
Obiectives of induction: 1.To reduce the initial anxiety all new entrants feel when they join a new job in a new organisation. 2. To familiarize the new employees with the job, people , work-place ,work environment and the organisation. 3.To facilitate outsider –insider transition in an intergrated manner. 4.To reduce exploitation by the unscrupulous co-workers. 5.To reduce the cultural shock faced in the new organisation.

absenteesim and employee turnover. . A well –designed induction programme reduces anxiety. nervousness. 2.Benefits of induction programme 1. 4. Induction also binds the newcomer and the present employees in a team. Induction helps minimize the reality or cultural shock new employees undergo on joining a new organisation. Effective induction also helps integrate the new employees into the organisation and fosters feeling of belongingness to new organisation. 3.

The induction programme may be formal and informal. Informal-unplanned induction programme. *buddy or sponsor systemThe immediate supervisor assigns the responsibility of induction of the new entrant to an old employee. Formal-planned programme –HR specialists . *supervisory systemThe immediate job supervisor conducts the induction programme for the new entrants.

Specific induction 3.Follow-up induction .General induction 2.PHASES OF INDUCTION A carefully designed induction programme consists of the following three phases: 1.

Socialisation is the process of adaptation. • Socialisation is the process of adaptation that takes place as individuals attempt to learn the values and norms of work roles.Socialisation Socialisation is the process of adaptation. .

” .Feldoman “acquisition of work skills and abilities . adoption of appropriate role behaviour and adjustment to the norms and values of the work group.

this is called metamorphosis stage. .Pre –arrival :Refers to all the learning that occurs before a new member joins the organisation.masters the Skills required to adjust with the organisation’s norms and values.hence .Encounter :The new member enters the organisation and role playing starts here. 3.The member starts comparing expectations the image of the organisation which he had formed during pre-arrival phase with reality. 2.Metamorphosis : The member.Phases of socialisation process 1. This is a stage going through changes.

*Personal Learning. . *Learning to function in the work group. *Learning about the organisation. *Learning how to perform the job.Contents of socialization: *Preliminary Learning.

4. Helps in adjustment Helps in employee engagement. Contributes to employee’s long-term success. Provides job satisfaction. 2. 3. 5. Benefits: Helps in understanding organisation culture. .1.

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